Table of Contents
The device of drainage system around own house – one of priority actions for each owner of the real estate. Competent protection against flooding is very important for buildings. If it is not, the base will begin to absorb gradually moisture and to collapse, window frames and door openings can warp, and on walls cracks will appear. Despite the seeming complexity of mounting works of drainage system, they can quite be executed independently.
What is drainage
The drainage is the system which is taking away excess water from buildings. The most widespread option – construction from the pipes laid according to certain scheme on which moisture leaves the site. There are three ways of drainage:
- Open. For water drainage open trenches of 0.5 m in depth and the same width are used. It is the simplest performed by option which is easily carried out independently. However drainage ditches spoil view of the site and are quickly enough showered therefore on sale it is possible to find special trays for strengthening of their walls and grid which cover trenches.
- Filling. In the dug-out trenches the beaten brick, large crushed stone or quarrystone is filled up, atop the construction is covered with the turf. The durability is considered the main advantage of system, refer lack of opportunity to service design during operation and its rather small flow capacity to shortcomings.
- Closed. Represents construction which basis – the perforated pipes laid in soil. The design is considered the most effective, without shortcomings of the previous options, but at the same time is rather labor-consuming and difficult in arrangement.
Drainage systems of the base which are laid around the building can be two types.
Constructions of this kind are equipped around the base of buildings in which is socle or basements. It is the best of all to begin installation in the course of construction of the base when the main ditch is not filled up. Otherwise the builder should carry out earthwork operations again, and these are excess expenses of time and means.
Drains stack on building perimeter, kind of surrounding it. On corners where they connect, equipped inspection chambers. In the lowest point of design the accumulative well in which water gathers is established. From here it is pumped out or taken away out of borders of the site. In addition to protect the base, specialists advise at distance about a meter from the building to put the so-called clay lock.
For arrangement of wall system the following types of drainage can be used:
- Bedded. Is established under base slab approximately flush with pillow from sand. On perforated pipes excess water will go to accumulative well.
- Linear. It is equipped on blind area perimeter. Represents the plastic trays laid in drainage ditches with the protective screens closing them. Moisture on pipes goes to accumulative well.
It is possible to execute the competent project of effective drainage system only taking into account important components:
- Depth of installation of the base. Drains have to be laid more deeply than basis pillow on 0.3-0.5 meters.
- Design bias. The construction has to be mounted with uniform lowering towards accumulative well. Average value – 2 cm on meter that will provide free outflow of excessive moisture.
Professionals advise to define drainage points: lower and upper point of system. Depth on which the construction will be put depends on their arrangement. Most often the well in which water will collect, and for upper – building corner is accepted to the lower point of system.
It is rather simple to calculate system. Length of each site of drainage trench to the main drainage system will be equal to the sum of lengths of two sides of the building. To find the general distance to accumulative well to the received size the distance from the house to well increases. Now it is possible to calculate admissible bias of system which makes 2 cm on each running meter of trench. If it turns out that the lower point of drainage is located quite highly, install the pump for water pumping out.
Ring or trench design
The main difference of this drainage system from wall is that drains keep within at distance from walls. It makes about 1.5-3 meters. The construction is used in absence in the house of technical undergrounds, cellars and the first floor, and also for loamy and clayey grounds. It can also be applied when arrangement of the wall base is seriously complicated: the blind area of the building is executed or the ditch is dug. For additional protection of the base between it and drains the clay lock is also mounted. For the most effective functioning of system it has to be laid on about 0.5 m more deeply than the most low-lying base point.
Basic principles of arrangement of system
The drainage design is projected and established with observance of the following conditions:
- Drains keep within on depth which has to exceed border of freezing of soil in this region. If to arrive differently, then the construction will not manage to thaw before spring flood and, respectively, will normally not function when it is most of all necessary.
- Correctly the place for dumping of water from the site is chosen. If this lake or ravine, then the site of outlet pipe bringing to them drain there has to be higher than the level of water lifting in the period of flood. Otherwise emergence of reverse motion of water is possible.
- Drainage pipes have to provide the water flow moving with speed about 1 m a second. It is the best of all to check it on the mounted, but not filled up design. Insufficient, excessive or return bias seriously will prevent system to function normally.
- If the drainage construction does not cope with work, it is necessary “to help” it, having installed the pump.
- Fillers for drainage trench (sand, gravel, etc.) are fallen asleep for depth where their buckling will not result from freezing of underground waters.
- For free service and cleaning of system in all nodal points (places of crossings of pipes, bends and on turns), and also on all direct sites through each 9-12 m establish inspection chambers.
- In case the design is laid under the road on which transport regularly moves, the pipeline section is mounted from metal elements. They are connected to other construction skintight couplings.
We choose pipes
Not so long ago as drainage pipes were used asbestos-cement or ceramic which had set of shortcomings. If desired they can be used and today, however the plastic parts which have succeeded them have set of advantages:
- Long term of operation.
- High strength.
- Thanks to stiffening fins load of pipes is distributed evenly.
- Ease in transportation and mounting.
- Resistance to corrosion and hostile environment.
- High flexibility and small weight that gives the chance to stack parts without the additional compensating elements.
- Excellent ratio “quality cost” thanks to what the construction quickly pays off.
- Thanks to internal smooth walls the design possesses high self-cleaning.
Perforated drainage pipes if necessary it is possible will make the hands. For this purpose normal plastic pipes and drill with drill of the necessary diameter will be necessary. Before drilling openings, it is necessary to be convinced that diameter of perforation will be less than the particle size of gravel which will fill up design.
Mounting of dren
Both systems, both ring and wall, keep within almost equally. Works begin with preparation of house footing. The following operations are for this purpose carried out:
1) The outer side of the basis is processed by special bituminous and kerosene primer.
2) Over primer bituminous mastic is applied.
3) Until mastic has managed to dry out, on the basis the reinforced or plaster and painting grid which size of cells – 2х2 mm is imposed.
4) After drying of mastic with the grid pasted to it, approximately in a day, one more layer of bituminous plastering is put.
Arrangement of system assumes availability at least of the simplest plan on which the scheme of drainage is applied. It is so simpler to define optimum arrangement of dren and to count necessary amount of materials. Placement operations of construction is carried out step by step:
- The site is marked according to the made plan.
- We dig out ditches of the necessary depth. Width of trenches for dren has to be sufficient that in it the drainage course and pipe was located.
- Let’s organize necessary bias of bottom of ditches. For this purpose we measure differences of height, noting the necessary points landmarks. Accurately we pour sand bottom before receiving the necessary bias.
- Geotextiles are stacked in trench and we fill up from above binding gravel, about 0.3 cm wide. It is important to observe at the same time the chosen bias. In gravel we prepare small deepening for pipes.
- We stack parts on the prepared place and strong we connect them to the help of fitting. We double-check correctness of bias of the pipeline, using for this purpose the cord tense along trench or rope.
- We mount inspection chambers.
- If the laid drains without the filtering material, we wrap them in geotextiles in order to avoid blockages. We fix fabric by strong cord or polypropylene strip.
- Construction we fill up with gravel layer about 20 cm.
- We straighten the cloth of geotextiles which is earlier laid in trench and with big overlap we wrap in it drainage course.
- We fill up drainage system with coarse bank sand.
- The construction is ready to work.
Combined and viewing wells
The overall performance of construction in many respects depends on availability and competently arrangement of inspection chambers. They are intended for service and periodic cleaning of design without which it quickly gets littered and loses opportunity to perform the functions. The device can be bought in specialized hardware stores or to make independently.
Work requires piece of plastic pipe of suitable diameter. It that the person could lower in well hand for carrying out any actions. Pipe length corresponds to depth of laying of drainage system taking into account that the edge of well has to be a little raised over earth surface. In the lower part of design openings for connection of drainage pipes are carried out. Upper it is covered densely adjusted that in system the garbage has not got.
The well for collecting water is established in the lowest point of system so that moisture flew down in it by gravity. The design can also be got or made independently. The simplest option – welded metal capacity with grid from above. In the lower part of construction openings for supply of drainage pipes are carried out. The volume of well has to be sufficient in order that the earth and sand brought by water sinking on its bottom did not interfere it with free current. From time to time the deposit has to be removed.
Also reinforced concrete constructions are also widespread. It can be the wells which are laid out from concrete rings, or independently filled in. In the second case in the dug-out hole of the necessary size the armoring lattice is established and filling is made. Openings for leading of dren are carried out. The ready design is densely closed by cover.
Correctly designed and mounted system of drainage around the building reliably will protect it from the excess moisture threatening with emergence of set of problems. Certainly, professionals will cope with such work without effort, but if desired it can be executed with success independently. The comfortable housing protected from adverse effect of atmospheric precipitation and underground waters will become result of the spent efforts.