Table of Contents
The drainage represents the pipelines, channels used to removal of excess moisture (thawed, rain, soil) from ground. The liquid which is taken away with its help is removed abroad the site to aeration fields or accumulates in stores. Drains use for watering or after cleaning send to the central sewerage.
For what the drainage is necessary
Site drainage – the waterway in the soil created in the artificial way and necessary in order that in the territory of your site the swamp was not formed. The drainage prevents destruction of the base of country house, other constructions on the site, creates ideal conditions for growth of crops and other plants on the open ground.
- catchment basins;
- drainage wells;
- sand traps;
- perforated pipes.
Types of drainage
The look is selected depending on the level of ground water on the site, structure of the soil, volume of rainfall and features of landscape.
The drainage shares on:
- superficial (opened and closed);
Superficial (closed) merges, previously having collected, excess moisture from the site paved with the sidewalk or asphalt for the territory of garden or kitchen garden. The open type is covered from above not with the sidewalk, but lattices.
Deep takes away rain, ground, thowing waters through the pipes laid at certain depth in:
- on fields of aeration;
- tanks (for the subsequent use, for example, for watering).
But any of drainage systems is established so that moisture was taken away itself – by gravity. For this purpose it is necessary to create bias at installation of trays and when digging channels.
Recommendations about the choice of components of drainage and nuances of its installation
It is better to choose the making drainage elements (trays, wells, etc.) plastic, this material has the following advantages:
- it is long-lasting;
- it is strong;
- does not give in to corrosion;
- it is not subject to influence of reagents;
- easily keeps within;
- when it is necessary, details are easily replaced;
- only plastic and similar fastenings give the chance to create tight drainage system.
Thanks to smooth walls of plastic, on pipes and wells there are no deposits and outgrowths, and it increases ability of pipes and trays to pass large amount of liquid.
The plastic drainage system can serve before half a century – such term is guaranteed by manufacturing firm.
Specialists recommend to lay on the site at the same time both deep and surfase drainage.
Superficial (opened), representing, the trenches dug on perimeter of the site depth of which not less than 50 cm with slanted walls, is covered from above with the lattices maintaining the body weight of the adult.
The bottom of trenches of superficial, open drainage circuit is strewed with crushed stone, walls lay the turf that the soil was not showered. Channels dig so that they had bias to the water intake – natural reservoir, capacity or ravine.
The deep drainage is trenches, up to 1.5 meters in depth, dug around all building, construction so that they bent to the store. From the building to trench the distance has to be about 100 cm. The trench is strewed with mix of sand and crushed stone on which (perforated) stack polypropylene pipes. Wells put in those places where pipes are bent or cross. Wells control the level of liquid and purify it from solid waste and sand. It is desirable to place wells or tanks through each 10 m.
Pipes from above cover that exit from pipes was not silted and was not hammered with garbage. The following step – to fill layer of crushed stone and to cover all this with earth which to ram there is no need not to break integrity of pipes and their connections.
How to look after the drainage system of superficial and deep types
That the drainage worked at the site trouble-free, it is necessary to look after him, regularly cleaning the intensive water flow directed through wells. The stream has to flow against the movement of waste waters. Traditional leaving consists of cleaning of wells at least once in half a year. Time in 10 years is carried out washing of drainage to exclude formation of silting and deposits. For this purpose it is necessary that the ends of culverts were open and available.
Since one of the ends of system is a priori open, being exit in well, with it when cleaning problems will not be. And here on other end of pipe it is necessary to equip, at its installation, release, i.e. just to bring shaped part of pipe to the surface of the soil. The release is without fail closed, in order to avoid hit in garbage pipe.
In the spring that will get rid of frost, inevitable at subzero temperature, in places of entrance to pipes which disturbs water current, it is recommended to establish pointed heating of drainage by means of the heating cables.