Table of Contents

The production of the reinforced steel, as well as release of goods of other industries unified. For determination of quality of products use the requirements to products which are specially developed by standard in different parameters. In this type of production standards for diameter, weight and section of rods are established. All these characteristics are integrated by one term – armature range. In more detail this article will tell about complex of requirements.

## Scope of application, features of armature: diameter, classes, marking

Armature – important component in the general list of construction materials. It is characterized by wide range of application at different stages of construction of buildings. Any reinforced concrete construction serving as strengthening and support both in the base of the small house and in construction of large-scale railway bridge or the overpass does not do without it. The armor technology is used even for hardening of designs from glass.

At the initial stage of development of the design and estimate documentation each engineer respecting himself and the architect has near at hand the special table of ratios of weight and metric area of armature and also sections of reinforcing rods according to the established state standards. Norms regulate requirements to specific type of the reinforced products. Their set corresponds to the term – armature range.

Armature represents round metal bars with smooth or seamy surface. Make them from several types of steel. Diameter of rods fluctuates from 4 to 80 mm. The range of products is subdivided into classes A1 – A6.

Diameter, that is the size of section of rod of armature or wire, is the main indicator which is the cornerstone of products range. From here and corresponding terms: armature of 8 mm or weight is 1 m of armature 12. These products classify also by other properties, including durability, wear resistance, specific weight and other characteristics which we will consider further.

## Armature classes: products range on durability and mechanical parameters

The word range (or assortment), in French sounds as assortir and designates “to choose”, i.e. to sort on grades according to typical characteristics.

**Belong to such parameters:**

- the material used for production of products;
- armature dimensions, such as size, diameter, surface type;
- profile.

Helpful advice! Packing of products is carried out according to its classification by diameter. Reinforcing metal rolling up to 10 mm is released in bays, and over this parameter packed up rods of certain length.

Armature is used in construction jobs in the form of rods, by grids, wire or framework. Proceeding from purpose, it is separated into constructive, anchor, mounting or working. At the same time availability or lack of tension and also need to strengthen design on certain site is considered. Strengthening can be longitudinal or cross.

Mark and classify armature and by other characteristic signs, but first of all take diameter of armature and also degree of durability, flexibility and mechanical characteristics in attention. As graphical symbol in marking of range serve capital letters of A (more rare B) with certain index which indicates compliance of armature to separate class. We will consider the main and most popular classes of armature in construction in this article.

## Table of range of armature: designations and characteristics of different classes

In construction terminology and marking even professionals are sometimes confused. Different types of materials including armature, have the classification which gives the chance as much as possible to simplify and unify many processes.

The special table of reinforcing classes will help to orient with classification and marking. It has quite simple and clear structure, consists of several columns where the first is the main marking, and further – the corresponding characteristics:

- weight;
- size of section or diameter;
- resilience to loadings;
- buildability in intense reinforced concrete constructions;
- the relative size of lengthening after gap;
- rod length;
- steel grade.

The table may contain also more expanded information, for example, allowing to calculate the weight of running meter of armature or, on the contrary, to calculate how many meters in ton of armature of 12 mm. The simplified option possessing minimum of reference information will be suitable for the beginning builders.

The class of armature includes several digital and alphabetic references determining its durability, the size and assignment. At the same time, according to the table of range of armature, regulates old and new marking. Carry the products belonging to classes from AI to AVI to old. Respectively, new designate thus: A240, A300, A400, A500, A600, 800 and A1000.

Armature of the class A240C has smooth external structure, and products with marking of A300C, A400C, A500C and also A600, A600K, A800, A800K and A1000 – seamy surface.

Helpful advice! There is certain encryption of armature having such appearance: armature of A-400-C Ø12. Where letter A designates material marking, number 400 — armature class, 12 – diameter of rod.

## Interpretation of the table of armature with characteristic of each class

Each class of armature has own characteristic, at the same time many data can match at different types or differ cardinally. Their key parameters are specified below.

AI or A240 – the armature representing smooth-bore rod with cross-section from 6 to 40 mm. It is applied in production of concrete products, to construction of monolithic and supporting structures. Armature of any diameter is made in rods, packed up in packagings. Production with a section up to 12 mm in bays is allowed.

AII or A300 is profile with seamy surface and with a diameter from 10 to 80 mm. Belongs to the materials keeping strong pressure. They serve as basis of load-carrying structure which experiences the main strain. Use in construction of low-rise, monolithic buildings and during repairs.

AIII or A400, A500 – the reinforcing rods having periodic profile with the section from 6 to 40 mm. The most popular class of armature of broad application both in house construction, and in industrial or commercial. Also use in production of concrete goods, at construction of highways and sidewalks. Products with diameter up to 10 mm release in hanks, over this size – in rods.

AIV or A600 – rods with a diameter of 10-32 mm. They are applied in construction of intense elements. Products are similar to class A products ІІІ, but have the smaller frequency of edges.

AV or A800 – seldom found armature range possessing durability large-scale. Use in construction of especially large and superheavy objects, such as bridges, moorings, subway, hydroelectric power station.

A6 (A1000) – is made from heat-resistant steel. Has the increased resilience level to different types of deformation. It is applied in multistorey housing.

## A500C armature: key parameters and characteristics

As the third category is the most widespread, what to choose class of armature (A400 or A500) – to solve to designers who consider all nuances of construction jobs. Speaking about structural features of this look, it is necessary to pay attention to the document of armature A500. It regulates production of the round profile having two edges along rod and parallel ranks of ledges of crescent form across. At the same time they are not crossed with pair edges along rod body.

The profile has high plastic and strength characteristics in the course of rolling. Rods A500 of armature have the minimum length of 6 m, and maximum – 25 m. Optimum extent of rods – 12 m. According to the table of range armature of A500C is made from the high-quality marked steel. Material has excellent bondability, but it not its only advantage.

Helpful advice! It is possible to connect A500C armature elements to use of arc welding machines. On such advantage letter C also specifies in marking of profile. The quality of welding reduces the minimum availability of the alloying elements.

**Positive properties of such armature consist in the following:**

- the raised degree of durability and flexibility, lack of weak points which can entail destruction of armature;
- rather small cost of production and, as a result, the available cost of armature for ton;
- specific weight of armature of A500 means considerable economy of volumes of steel in the course of production.

## Requirements: armature of B500, feature of its production

A500C armature with success is used in compressed elements. At the same time the quality of concreting increases thanks to reduction of quantity of metalwork in columns. Profiles can be used in projects where sections of classes A_ and And ІІІ are specified. B500 armature can act as analog of universal armature of A500C.

B500C armature on chemical and technical characteristics on raw materials and the building conforms to the European standards. The main advantage – flexibility. The large-scale of plasticity of reinforcing designs interferes with destructions of constructions. It is intended for construction of buildings from the facilitated and weighted concrete.

Such buildings operate in hostile environment. Armature is used both in the form of independent rods, and in frameworks and welded products. B500C on characteristics is effective substitute of fittings with marking of A400, A400C, A240.

**Armature of B500C has such key parameters:**

- is issued according to standards of the European Union that gives the chance of use on the European equipment;
- it is not twisted thanks to lack of stripes;
- it is extended for 1.4%, maintaining loading over 3%;
- it is characterized by excellent bondability.

As for the price policy, it different also depends on characteristics of armature and volume of required products.

## Armature range: additional options of marking

For definition of more specific characteristics of armature the special additional marking system is created. For example, the abbreviation of A5K designates that it is class A5 profiles, and letter K demonstrates availability of additional corrosion protection. For this purpose material is processed specifics which provide its durability.

Availability of letter C in marking says that armature can be welded. It is necessary to consider that not all products belonging to the different classes can be welded among themselves, especially in the absence of tag With in designation.

Speaking about armature range, it is necessary to mention such term as locking (or pipeline) armature. Such types of profiles apply in sanitary works. Respectively, as separate subspecies of material, this armature has the classes and marking. At the same time the main parameter of the choice – tightness. This criterion indicates quality of working off of node in the pipeline without what it is impossible to bring together him. The indicator of tightness is specified in characteristics on material packaging.

Helpful advice! It is better to connect among themselves reinforcing rods to different marking and at absence in designation of letter C with use of special couplings and wire.

## How to determine the area of armature: table of calculations

The area of cut of armature – one of the major parameters causing durability. Than expected loading is higher, more than the area has to be that. To learn these data, it is necessary to address the selling assistant or to read the passport of product. If the product is got from the second hands, then it is necessary to make calculation independently.

**For this purpose it is necessary to follow such instructions:**

- To measure diameter. The caliper will help. It is necessary to consider that the result can be not round unit therefore it is rounded, being guided by mathematical rules.
- To determine the area of cut of armature by its diameter, using the special table. With its help it is possible to calculate how many 1 meter of armature and how many meters in armature ton weighs.

Thanks to the table it is possible to define with ease and other data, for example, how many meters in ton of armature of 12 mm. We look for in the graph of diameter indicator 12 and we find the corresponding size in the graph of length. This parameter is equal to 1126 m.

## Independent calculation of the area of armature, online calculator

In the absence of the table it is necessary to measure diameter independently. Let’s say it is equal to 6 mm, this indicator is divisible on 2 to learn radius. We receive result – 3 mm, we square it – 9 mm. The received number needs to be increased by the constant of area of circle of Pi equal 3.14. Calculation result – 28.26 mm ² or 0.2826 cm ². This indicator of independent calculation corresponds to the data which are contained in the table.

Such way of determination of area of cut is ideally exact if armature rods smooth. For rods with seamy surface calculations look slightly more difficult. Such products have the area of the bigger size and possess the highest extent of coupling with concrete solution that does them irreplaceable in construction of concrete formworks.

**Process of calculation includes the following stages:**

- Calculation of the general indicator of diameter. For this purpose two measurements – on ridge surface and in narrow profound part become. That the result was more exact, it is better to take measurements in addition in several different places.
- Definition of arithmetic average by addition of indicators and division of the received sum on 2.
- After calculation of diameter the area of cut of armature is determined by the way described above, by formula.

**S=π*r ², where:**

- S – the area;
- π – constant 3.14;
- r – radius.

Helpful advice! If the table is unavailable, then weight is determined, applying special calculations.

Computer programs and Internet technologies considerably simplify process of calculation of area of cut of armature. The calculator online allows to make it in only a few minutes. It is enough to enter indicators into the necessary cells instantly to receive ready result.

## How many the meter of armature and how many meters of armature in ton weighs: examples of calculations

Skills in calculation of diameter of rods will be necessary also when calculating weight of armature. Such knowledge is necessary when designing and construction estimates. Exact determination of mass of armature will help to save on purchase of materials. It is important to note the fact that large producers implement armature at the cost over 1 ton, but not for meter. However products cost in that case will cost several times cheaper.

As example it is possible to consider how to calculate the mass of necessary material for construction of the reinforced concrete foundation with a total length of 100 m. Diameter of armature – 10 mm. We look for necessary data in the table, they correspond to 617 g. We multiply this number by 100 and we receive 61 kg 700 g.

**The weight of 1 meter of armature can be calculated also in other ways (all their three):**

- according to the normative table;
- with use of data on the specific weight of armature;
- by means of the armature weight calculator.

Necessary quantity of rods on normative weight calculate with use of the stated above table of weight in the ratio with running meter. It is the simplest option of calculation (except for the online calculator).

For example, for building it is supposed to use 2300 m of armature 14. The weight of 1 meter of rods is 1.21 kg. We make calculations: 2300*1.21=2783 kg. Thus, performance of this amount of works will require 2 t 783 kg of steel rods. The quantity of rods in one ton of the corresponding diameter is similarly calculated. Data come from the table.

## The armature price for ton and for meter: the being costs

Pricing of any product is influenced by several factors. It concerns also armature. Smooth and corrugated rods have different cost, production of the last assumes more labor-intensive and long process. The technology, the higher and the price of finished product is more difficult.

Durability and plasticity of material also have impact on forming of cost. For increase in these indicators add silicon or chrome to alloy, and for flexibility – manganese. Steel flowability matters too.

In addition, pricing depends on the qualities specified in marking. For example, in addition it is necessary to pay for armature with tag of the T designating thermal strength or K that testifies to resistance to corrosion.

Helpful advice! Important cost index – products volume. The armature acquired in large number (tons) costs much cheaper.

Producers act by such principle: the sales, the better are higher. For this reason the volume of the acquired products significantly influences its cost. Respectively, the armature price for 1 meter will be much higher, than the goods acquired in tons.

On that fact, how much is armature meter, also the seasonality of work as any building depends on weather patterns influences. Therefore during the autumn and winter period the price of armature, as well as of other types of construction materials, considerably falls. This period is considered the most optimum for purchase of goods, but at the same time it is necessary to see to it about its corresponding storage.

Armature is important material in modern capital construction. It has appearance of metal rolling number of serious qualitative characteristics and operational requirements. They are displayed in the special tables and standards called armature range. Knowledge of its key indicators and ability to carry out the correct calculations will help not only to buy quality goods, but also to considerably reduce costs of its purchase.