Table of Contents
When choosing the project before construction of the house, each person should think of what will be represented by socle part of the dwelling inevitably.
The clay soil of the site will lead to obligatory burying of the base to the freezing level (in our region such depth is not less than 130 centimeters). The socle is added to this distance, and it is one more meter from the earth to the level of floors of the first floor. As a result already almost full-fledged floor turns out. If the soil sandy and underground waters lie deeply, then it is absolutely quietly possible to increase this distance practically without expenses. Continuous footing which is demanded by any capital construction is put almost on the same depth.
Arrangement of the received first floor (rising approximately by half of height over ground level) or the cellar is favorable to hosts in many respects. In such room the garage, the restroom, workshop, bath sauna, storerooms, gym, the billiard room broiler from the boiler house can be easily placed, the plumbing system is installed. Rooms of economic assignment can be grouped together, the areas of the first floor as a result will be released, need for construction of extensions or separate constructions will disappear. And if in socle part to equip window openings, then instead of the normal cellar there will be light full-fledged rooms which, except additional living spaces, will improve the general thermal regime of the building. Not for nothing architects use underground space in any large buildings – the construction of such additional used areas demands less expenses, than increase in number of storeys of the house. Among owners of own houses there was even mode on arrangement of the wine cellars located in cellars – for many countries it is classical way of their use. But it is necessary to consider that construction of such rooms demands certain conditions therefore independently it is better not to try to construct storage for wine, to address specialists better. Also it is worth remembering that the estimated cost of wine cellar will be not less than 5 thousand dollars that not to everyone on pocket.
Decisions in which rooms of the house will be located not different levels can look very interesting – it, at the same time, will help to cope with difficult relief of the site. There are options when underground there are also very most parts of cottage. So, in one of architectural projects the big living room was located under lawn at the house, and in the living room the fireplace has been established, and its glass wall became part of slope of the hill. Naturally, we do not suggest to build something similar, but will be able to use possibilities of the buried part of the house with arrangement of the operated rooms everyone.
One of the biggest difficulties of arrangement of basements – fight against the increased humidity. The soil is its constant source, especially during snow thawing when the water plane rises almost to earth surface. Therefore construction of socle and base part of the house provides obligatory waterproofing on all their square and at their full height. When the cellar is supposed to be turned into premises, it is necessary to treat such works especially carefully.
In difficult cases it is better to address the help of specialists, but if the house is not too big, and underground waters do not come to the surface of the soil, it is possible to solve problem independently.
1) First of all providing good drainage is necessary. Around the house on depth of the base the trench which the special pipe intended for withdrawal of underground waters in the lowered site keeps within escapes. It is more preferable to establish the pipe covered with geotextile cloth, it will be filled in less. Similar pipes can quietly be bought in any hardware store. However the drainage will not become panacea, it will save only from large amount of water, but will not reduce soil moisture.
2) Construction of blind area from asphalt or concrete becomes the following obligatory event. The blind area represents strong waterproof belt width in meter-half-meter around all house. Such belt takes away rain and melt waters far away from building walls. The main attention is deserved by the places adjoining wall or socle of the house. Exactly here during sedimentary deformations of soil or shrinkage of asphalt concrete cracks are formed. Such places have to be in addition covered with sealant as which uretanovy or mastics can be used.
3) The device of the classical “clay lock” will become very reliable, but at the same time rather troublesome, decision. The space surrounding the cellar is put by well mixed clay not having strangers of inclusions. When laying clay is carefully rammed by the layers stacked at each other in 15-20 centimeters. Our ancestors used such method. In particular so isolated old St. Petersburg buildings. During the sewerage and water supply system clay locks have been destroyed and has at once flooded cellars.
4) Can become some of modern, and at the same time very simple, decisions pastings of external walls rolled materials like roofing material. When site soil dry or low-wet, enough two times to cover walls with hot mastic or bitumen. The plastering and pasting are carried out only outside if to make this operation from within, then material will quickly break even with absolutely small water pressure outside.
5) Also the waterproofing of half of the cellar is necessary. It is carried out at the tie device (concrete layer which will form basis for floor covering). It is possible to apply the following scheme: floor is leveled by sand, powdered with crushed stone and carefully stamped. Over this layer armature or plaster grid keeps within, on beacons the concrete layer not less than 50 millimeters in thickness is filled in, thick polyethylene film (seams keep within with overlap and stick together among themselves), over film heater on which one more layer of the reinforced tie is filled in keeps within. On perimeter of the room there is seam with sealing strip. If extrusion polyfoam acts as heater, then it is possible to be limited to one layer tie laid over waterproofing and polyfoam. Instead of metal for reinforcing the plastic grid can be used or special additives – elastifikator, etc. are entered into concrete. At level of underground water, exceeding floor in the cellar, under the first tie from clay layer in 250 millimeters “the clay lock” is arranged. Works demand certain qualification, the applied usually cement and sand solution laid on the floor will lead to fast cracking of tie which repair will bring set of trouble.
6) Before starting waterproofing works in the cellar, it is necessary to look for places of leak. They can be found thanks to wall saltpetres — the whitish marks left in places in which moisture from concrete washes away salts and cementing agents. If they appear not so much and wall saltpetres on joints of blocks will meet, the problem will be solved rather simply. Special dry mixes intend for disposal of leaks. The solution prepared on their basis when ensuring good adhesion and in the conditions of the increased humidity very quickly grabs.
7) Among professional serious methods of the device of waterproofing it is possible to list plastering elastic structures at the heart of which concrete, the getting waterproofing and also gate-type waterproofing with injection of water-repellent structures contains. The first and second ways quite can be applied independently. At “coating” way the “rubber concrete” elastic layer in several millimeters is created by thickness. Two-component ready mix at first is smeared by rigid brush, and then leveled by the roller. The getting waterproofing is called use of structures “Penetron”, Kalmatron and others, it similar. Processing of concrete base structures leads to the fact that their concrete time and capillaries are corked with insoluble crystals. For obtaining good result it is necessary to adhere to instructions of manufacturers strictly.
The lower from ground level, the more cold. In order that it is the nobility, it is not obligatory to go down in caves. At the same time in the earth heat always remains. On soil, thickness in meter, temperature practically always keeps on mark above zero degrees. In other words, temperature of the rooms located below the horizon of soil will be stable, but not comfortable. Therefore if you wish to equip the room in the cellar, it will demand obligatory warming.
Except that it will provide comfort of use of the room, underground heat insulation will bring other advantages: the general expenditure for heating will be reduced, the safety of load-carrying structures as they will be exploited in the sparing mode will increase. In cases when heat insulation is arranged before waterproofings, and she, and elements of construction get in addition protection against influences, both thermal, and mechanical influences. If to equip heat-insulation layer in the cellar, the water time getting through it will turn on knocks with wall into moisture and will spoil their covering. However the material laid before waterproofings appears in extreme conditions as socle and basement part of the house reside in direct contact with the earth, are humidified with melt waters, rain, the moisture which is flowing down from roof. Therefore heat insulation should not absorb moisture. The third factor – permanent loads. Under their weight the thermal insulation material should not be rumpled and collapse. It is impossible to forget also about durability, heat insulation has to keep the qualities for many years and not demand replacement, overhaul time will not come yet.
As a result several contradictory requirements are imposed to heat insulation at the same time: durability, lightness, water tightness and durability.
Not accidentally only the last decades are celebrated that there were construction materials which can correspond to all conditions. First of all, extrusion polyfoam. Its main difference from any other polyfoam that its time is hermetically closed that does them completely waterproof and not absorbing moisture at all. Among advantages it should be noted the sufficient durability which allows to use it when laying under floor. Additives stabilizers lead to the fact that extrusion polyfoam can serve decades.
It is used as follows. After in socle the horizontal waterproofing interfering capillary raising of moisture is made, outside the room is revetted with polyfoam and closed by socle decorative panels or plastered on grid. Plaster should not have contacts with wet soil therefore it below ground level becomes covered with bituminous mastic. The space, adjacent to the building, is filled up with gravel.
Cellar walls after the external waterproofing is executed, are pasted over with polyfoam plates. From soil they are closed by the special drainage plates covered with earth. At very high raising of underground waters polyfoam actually becomes one more, additional layer of waterproofing.
There are one more, quite paradoxical, method of use of extrusion polyfoam thanks to which on perimeter of the house the base is warmed. The difference from previous is that plates need to be placed underground horizontally, but not vertically. The soil as a result does not freeze through during winter cold weather, its deformation decreases, and the cellar does not lose heat.
It should be noted that extruded polystyrene foam has by 10 times big durability, than normal polyfoam. Material is very convenient for mounting – rabbeted edges allow to make easily elements, and the surface has roughnesses which allow to grapple easily with plaster structures on time of finishing of socle and with concrete if to apply it as fixed timbering. Besides material can be easily cut at any angle, and it allows to attach it not only to flat simple surfaces, but also to the forms having the irregular architectural shape.
Placement of engineering systems
The equipped room of the cellar opens great opportunities for placement of the equipment and the organization of economic rooms.
- Garage — the most popular application of underground rooms. It will demand only high-quality ventilation which will not allow smells of gasoline to get into premises, drainage grids at gate and sound insulation muffling motor sounds.
- The boiler house boiler room – as this room in which there will be boiler, controlling instruments, shutoff and control valves becomes clear from the name. Such scheme of placement of the boiler allows to use the developed heat with maximum efficiency. Long pipelines, construction of the certain building or allocation of the area at the expense of premises will not be required. As a result owners receive considerable economy of means.
- Ventilating block. Big modern cottages cannot expect normal airing. The vent system of such dwellings works from the block of preparation of air which gathers from separate modules and is installed out of housing area. Usually for such purposes either the attic, or the cellar is also used. In the latter case load of the systems of overlapping decreases, room which can be converted to premises is made, and the block becomes available to service and repair work.
- Electric equipment. Usually the cellar occupies the considerable space and is very convenient for installation of electric equipment. First of all, introduction board and system of back power supply. Control panels of security system can be right there installed. At the same time basements in which power supply or heating will be established shall be equipped with fire detectors.
- Water supply. Rather difficult, but at the same time comfortable option – the device in the cellar of the well of water supply. Such well is drilled after the zero stage of construction, after construction of basement walls is finished, but before overlappings are built. The well has to be carefully insulated from release of the sewerage. Over the well (for example, on the attic) the reservoir for water is constructed. The room in which it will be placed has to be heated in cold time. The electric pump can directly be installed near the well, and management comes from any room. In the cellar also internal water distributing can be laid. Most often pipes remain open, but can be established in indents. In that case the locations of threaded connections and pieces with the installed fittings have to be supplied with hatches for repair work and routine inspection. If around cottage garden or kitchen garden is laid out, then in the cellar tanks for watering can be established. Usually in such cases water in them is gathered at night, in day gets warm and used at evening watering.
- Sauna – rather widespread decision for the cellar, especially if are placed the boiler with the pump for heating and water supply here. And here it is inexpedient to place in the cellar the pool – it can quite cause certain problems. First of all, it is undesirable in terms of structure of all house – the bowl of the pool has to be buried concerning base of foundation, and it is already inadmissible. Besides such pool loses on comfort before the pools opened to the sun. Such stationary constructions have to be projected and be built by the special crews having the license. Violation of construction method can lead to sedimentation of the base, flooding of the cellar of the house, death of trees of garden and other unpleasant effects.
- Placement of pumps. There are several reasons to arrange in the cellar these devices – possibility of emergencies and elimination of effects of natural cataclysms (floods, spring floods, strong rainfall and other surprises). In the hitch located below floor height the small and simple drainage pump is put. If necessary also fecal pumps which provide transfer of waste waters to sewage treatment plants, the existing sewerage or in normal septic tank can be used. Power of such pumps allows to take away drains on 100 meters across or to 5-7 meters up.
Basements differ in features of “climate” — lack of light and the increased humidity. Therefore for their finishing it is worth selecting the materials executed in light color gamma very carefully to develop the systems of artificial ventilation and lighting, to widely use moisture resistant finishing materials like stone or ceramic tile and the “breathing” finish coats. Wall-paper, fabrics and plastic will not be suitable for such rooms. Lining or panel boards can be applied, but on condition of quite good ventilation. If gypsum cardboard is used, then it has to be moisture resistant brands. False windows – the glass stained-glass windows illuminated from within become the quite good decision. Light furniture the same facing tile, separate color spots will help to make visually the room cozier and is lighter.
It is quite possible to make heat-insulated floors in the cellar. At the same time it is necessary to conform to the rule – the closer there is soil, the waterproofing has to be executed more carefully and the heat insulation layer is thicker. To prevent the floor pressure upon walls at expansion, between concrete tie and walls the gap filled with the waterproofing film and the special isolating tape has to be provided.
But it is only the most general councils on finishings of the cellar turned into premises, in fact this subject deserves separate article and special attention.