Table of Contents
The artificial decorative stone is widespread construction material which differs in high utilization properties and universality. It is used for facing of internal and outer working surfaces. Such material can be made independently in house conditions. This article will tell about advantages of artificial stone, features of its receiving and laying.
What is artificial stone for decor?
Today the range of stone for finishing of walls is very wide. It can be got without effort in hardware stores and in the markets. In case of need this finishing material can be made the hands. Industrial production of such brick is very similar to manual as both cases assume use of special molding forms.
Different materials are applied to its production. The most widespread of them are concrete, plaster and acrylic. Different technologies can be applied to further processing of stone: roasting, glass glazing, etc. The liquid decorative brick having appearance of not stiffened structure enjoys wide popularity. It is also possible to get or execute independently flexible kind of artificial stone.
For finishing of outer surfaces it is accepted to use special plates which differ in low porosity and resistance to low temperatures. In turn, the stone for interior finish of walls differs in smaller weight that promotes its laying.
Ecological properties of this facing material depend on what components have been used by its production. For example, cement and plaster differ in natural properties, and their structure promotes penetration of air and moisture.
Useful information! If acrylic is part of decorative stone, then it is not recommended to revet the surfaces located in close proximity to heating devices. It is connected with the fact that this material when heating allocates harmful chemical compounds which can do harm to human health.
Merits and demerits of artificial stone for interior finish of walls
The cost of finished products from the producer depends on many factors, namely: structure, invoice, color, etc.
Use of the artificial decorative stone for walls received independently allows to save finance and also to execute necessary pattern or continuous laying without any difficulties. Such material has also other merits to which it is recommended to pay attention.
First of all the artificial stone can be made independently in the same place where there will be its laying. It allows to exclude expenses on transportation. Such facing material differs in the small thickness and small weight as most often has appearance of thin plates. Thanks to it, the total weight of design is considerably lost.
The decorative stone of artificial origin is allocated with good strength characteristics (especially if has passed additional treatment). In case of need it is possible to make artificial stone of any color. For this purpose add the corresponding pigments to mix.
The form of interior stone can be different. It is independently possible to make both direct plates, and the plates having any dimensions. This property is very important as allows to execute the facing elements which are ideal under the place of mounting.
The form for such decorative brick can be got or made independently. In the construction market without effort it is possible to buy the products having the most different invoice (smooth, relief). It should be noted that for receiving such facing material it is possible to add special polymeric additives to mixing ratio. They allow to make flexible stone that will allow to change its form even after laying.
In terms of decorative properties, artificial material is more acceptable. By means of it it is possible to execute facing not only walls, but also such elements of interior as fireplaces, furnaces, etc. However in the latter case it is necessary to pick up the material having fire-resistant qualities. For transformation of exterior of arches finishing can be used by decorative stone. The photo of such arc-shaped constructions without effort can be found on the Internet.
Useful information! Thanks to the resistance to moisture, it can be used for the organization of ornament or solid-web structure in bathrooms. But in this case it is recommended to pay attention to structure of artificial stone.
The material executed by the hands does not need special leaving and is capable to become decoration of any interior. However, as well as any other product, artificial brick has also some negative sides. For example, the wild stone differs in quite big weight. The surface for its laying has to have high strength and endurance. Besides, products can have quite irregular, heterogeneous shape complicating selection of separate blocks during laying.
However walls from wild stone are capable to become decoration of interior of any room. It equally well is suitable both for classical, and for modern style. To decide on material selection, it is necessary to pay attention to photo of wild stone as there is set of its versions.
The overview of types of artificial stone for wall decoration
Such construction material is classified by two key parameters, namely: to method of receiving and structure.
Depending on these criteria the decorative artificial brick is subdivided on:
Ceramic. The stone from this material is made in several stages and also undergoes special heat treatment (roasting). Independent production of such facing – quite difficult procedure therefore it is rarity. For production quite significant area and big expense of electrical energy commercially are required.
Plaster. One of types of decorative stone which is very popular in the modern construction market. It is carried out by means of use of special forms and casting practice. For production in house conditions, as a rule, use this kind of decorative brick. However the facing material made of plaster is not steady against low temperature impact. Therefore it can be used only for finishing of internal surfaces in rooms which temperature is not below +18 °C.
Concrete. Such kind of decorative artificial stone, depending on components, is subdivided into two types. The first of them includes such ingredients as cement and sand. It differs in a little bigger cost, than plaster, but also is suitable for forming in house conditions. Cement and sand facing material is resistant to low temperatures.
The second type of cast stone is called monumental. The way of receiving such products has received the name – free molding. Thanks to this method, artificial boulders are made for garden decor and also the whole concrete slabs.
Polyester. Such kind of finishing stone for walls includes special mineral fillers. They differ in the fact that are capable to pass into firm state under the influence of high temperatures.
The stone containing polyester resin is similar in the structure on acrylic analogs. Has good mechanical properties and on this indicator exceeds even facing elements from natural, natural materials.
Pay attention! Polyester resin – quite cheap product therefore also the cost of finished product is small.
Among shortcomings of such building material it should be noted its specific smell. Over time it disappears, however still long time after mounting is felt.
The hands the polyester stone is not suitable for production as technology of its production too difficult. Process of forming of products happens in vacuum under the influence of very high temperatures.
Acrylic. It is made by means of casting. Passes into firm state without use of high temperatures therefore treats decorative facing materials of cold curing. Has presentable exterior. It is for descriptive reasons recommended to study photo of the artificial stone for interior finish of walls executed on acrylic basis.
Process of forming of acrylic stone means availability of the same conditions, as well as for plaster type. Differs in temperature plasticity therefore there is possibility of change in shape of already ready material. And it does not affect its qualitative characteristics.
Liquid. Special kind of the decorative artificial stone which is made with use of gel covering. Features of manufacturing techniques of liquid stone affect mechanical properties of finished products. Also It should be noted that cast decorative tiles are steadier against temperature differences and influence of moisture, than liquid.
How to make form for artificial stone with own hands
The matrix for casting of this decorative finishing material cannot be got in specialized shop. For economy of finance it is possible to make such template independently. One more common cause of production of form for decorative stone the hands – lack of necessary kind of facing material on sale.
As basis for matrix normal samples of decorative tile are, as a rule, applied. Sometimes the invoice of template is created by means of natural materials to which it is possible to carry not only natural stones. For example, the templates made as imitation of wood patterns enjoy wide popularity.
There are two types of forms:
In the first case procedure of production less difficult. It is connected with the fact that homogeneous matrixes differ in smaller dimensions and do not demand considerable expenses of silicone material. In turn, complex forms allow to make several ready tiles at once that considerably accelerates process. Such matrixes are also recommended to be used for production of artificial stone on wall.
Anyway, the timbering will require wooden box which it is possible to make with own hands. Sometimes for these purposes cardboard boxes are used. At selection or production of timbering it is necessary to remember one important rule: template it is necessary to design a little more initial sample of stone as on width (10-15 mm), and on height (25-30 mm). It will allow to achieve necessary gleam between products.
Performance of the form will require suitable material. For this purpose it is possible to use the silicone pressurizing structure or polyurethane. And also there are special sealants which consist of two ingredients and are on sale in finished form.
How to make artificial stone: form from silicone
Silicone structures for sealing can be bought without effort in the construction market or in specialized shop. As a rule, this mix is sold in tubas or buckets. After production of timbering, it is necessary to take care of lubricant of its walls. For this purpose it is possible to use normal solid oil.
Further it is necessary to take initial sample on which the template will be carried out and to arrange it at the bottom of timbering. As it was already told above, as it it is possible to use normal tile, stone or wood. Then solid oil is applied on this sample too. Greasy substance will allow to separate easily matrix from product and will not allow to spoil form pattern.
Pay attention! If as an example the plaster element then normal lubricant is not enough is applied to cliche. Before putting in timbering, it is recommended to cover it not less than two varnish coats. It is recommended to start performance of matrix only after full hardening of varnish.
At the following stage soap solution is made. It is necessary for lubricant of tools (brush and the palette) which will be used at silicone distribution.
Silicone sealant has to be distributed evenly on all surface of facing sample. During forming of matrix from this material it is necessary to watch that air bosoms were not formed.
After filling of timbering with silicone it is possible to start alignment of its surface. For this purpose the second tool – the palette is used. Then the form for production of decorative stone is left for some time. It will allow to stiffen to sealant in timbering and to get the necessary outlines of sample.
It should be noted that what the matrix will longer form, especially qualitative it will turn out. Its operational term will also depend on it. Approximate speed of hardening of silicone is 2 mm a day. Thus, considering form thickness, it is possible to calculate without effort time on which it is necessary to leave cliche. After the matrix is ready, it is necessary to separate it from timbering and sample of artificial stone.
Even previously greased form quite difficult is disconnected from other elements therefore it is recommended to cut places of contact slightly. If after extraction of matrix on its surface there were sinks, then this problem is solved with the help of additional silicone structure. The template for performance of artificial stone is so made. Photos of ready cliches will help you with their production.
How to make artificial decorative stone of plaster
For receiving finished decorative products first of all it is necessary to deal with how to make plaster in house conditions. Before mixing of such material it is desirable to determine its volume at once. It is connected with the fact that plaster dough differs in the high speed of hardening. Therefore its quantity has to correspond to number of forms.
Let’s consider what components are used for receiving plaster blend:
Toner is used not in all cases but only when it is necessary to receive decorative stones on wall of certain color. Process of mixing of structure does not differ in complexity.
At first it is necessary to pour water in in advance prepared reservoir. Further it is possible to start addition of plaster powder. Proportions can be different, however it is recommended that the amount of water made about 0.6 from the volume of the main component. Sand allows to increase durability of future finishing material therefore it is advised to use anyway. It there have to be no more than 10% of mix lump.
Useful information! As facing stone for interior finish it is recommended to use plaster and acrylic products. In turn, for outside works it is the best of all to make concrete elements.
The quantity of pigment can be miscellaneous (from 2 to 6%). It is selected depending on what coloring it is necessary to receive decorative tile. It is recommended to carry out trial batches of small amount of plaster for definition of shade in advance.
As a rule, apply substance which is made of turpentine and wax to form lubricant. The first component has to occupy not less than 70% of volume, and the second – the remained 30%.
After addition of the last component in mix it is distributed in forms and leveled by means of the palette. Production technique of artificial stone can include one more stage – vibroprocessing. Thanks to it, utilization properties of future tile considerably increase. It is desirable to carry out such processing at once after laying of mix to matrix.
Then it is necessary to wait 15 minutes and to pull out the created brick from cliche. Its drying will be final stage in the open air. It is not recommended to subject to heat treatment such products categorically as plaster is not steady against high temperatures.
How to make decorative stone with own hands from concrete
For production of concrete finishing articles most often use forms from polyurethane or plastic.
Let’s consider what do artificial stone of this kind of:
- polymeric pitch;
Proportions for production of artificial stone in house conditions from concrete can be different. In the beginning it is necessary to mix the above-stated components. Proportions of cement and sand in this case make 1:3. At the following stage it is necessary to add water in such quantity that the consistence of mix has reached condition of dense sour cream. To give to cement slurry necessary coloring, small amount of pigment (2.5% of structure lump) is used.
Now the received structure is distributed on cliches. At this stage it is very important not to be mistaken. Solution has to fill form no more than half that there was enough place for the reinforcing component. Quite often, for strengthening of strength qualities of decorative tiles, over cement place metal network. Then it needs to be filled in with the remained amount of solution.
Then it is necessary to press structure in forms by means of vibration. After vibrocompaction it is necessary to wait not less than 24 hours that solution in cliches has hardened to necessary state.
How to make artificial stone with own hands from acrylic
Production of acrylic decorative products will require the corresponding pitch and special hardener. Let’s consider what else tools and materials will be necessary at production of artificial stone from these materials:
- power drill (for mixing of components in homogenous mixture);
- powder of copolymers;
- ready or self-made lubricant.
Pay attention! Use of acrylic basis also allows to make the hands artificial marble. Thanks to combination of polyester resin to mineral crumb and the painting structures it is possible to receive very beautiful elements for finishing of walls.
First of all for production of decorative acrylic stone it will be required to mix polymeric pitch with hardener. The proportion of these components in this case makes 5:1. It is important to remember that after receiving mix from these ingredients its quantity has to correspond to 25% of the total amount of compound.
Further it is necessary to add filler and coloring pigment which will occupy the remained 75% of weight to acrylic mix. As the first any mineral crumb can be applied (for example, granite). The invoice of future facing material depends on its size. Color will give to binding acrylic weight in advance picked up pigment. The amount of dye in this case is 2-6% of the total amount of mix.
For receiving decorative brick the hands will require to fill matrixes with acrylic solution and to wait about 24 hours. After this time it is possible to take out ready tiles quietly.
Liquid stone the hands: manufacturing techniques on gelcoat
Of course, cast artificial stones have the best physical properties, but liquid have one advantage. Thanks to gelcoat, the possibility of production difficult, in terms of form, products appears. Such material can be executed independently in house conditions.
The components necessary for performance of such facing material differ in quite high cost.
Today there are two simple manufacturing techniques of artificial stone of this kind:
- creation of front structure;
- mixing of priming solution.
These ways differ from each other not only in structure, but also filler percentage. For priming mix it will be required to take 20% of the gelcoat (from solution lump). It is necessary to add one more ingredient – microcalcite which share makes 73%. Then to the above-stated components mix 7% of the accelerator and 1% of substance for hardening.
In turn, it is necessary to spend for front structure exactly twice more gelcoat, namely 40%. The proportion of the accelerator and hardener in this case makes 7 and 1% too. The mineral filler and dye occupy the remained mass of solution. Hardening of liquid decorative stone happens in 1 day.
Features of painting of decorative stone
Today there are two widespread ways which allow to change color of the executed by the hands, decorative stone. Addition of special dyes is the most widespread method. One more option – to apply paint on ready finishing material. Some people perform this procedure after laying of facing products.
If with the first way everything is clear, then it is recommended to pay attention to the second. For painting of ready stones under finishing of walls special iron oxide structures are used. Their cost completely corresponds to quality which is quite acceptable.
Useful information! Specialists recommend to apply iron oxide paints by means of special compressor air spray pistol. In case of its absence it is possible to use normal brush, however it will complicate work.
There are several rules by which it is necessary to be guided at implementation of this procedure. For example, color of artificial decorative stone has to be lighter, than seams. For painting categorically it is not recommended to use more than 3 shades.
Finishing of walls decorative brick: preparatory stage
Before starting laying of decorative stone, it is necessary to prepare wall surface at first. It has to be not only strong, but also equal that there were no problems with gluing of facing products. Permissible deviation in this case makes 1 mm by 1 m of wall. Masters advise to follow this rule irrespective of kind of finishing material.
Before starting finishing by decorative brick of walls, it is necessary to remove from them all old facing materials. It is possible to carry the following to them: wall-paper, paint and plaster. For their elimination it is possible to use the normal palette. Especially this tool helps during removal of old wall-paper and paints.
Let’s consider what tools and materials will be required for laying of decorative brick:
- the reservoir in which there will be glue solution;
- the palette for putting glue on wall;
- crosses for seams;
- construction level;
- mix for finish of seams;
- hydrophobic structure and the tool for its drawing (for example, the roller).
After acquisition of all necessary tools and materials it is necessary to carry out plaster of walls. It is important to remember that in this case mounting of armoring lattice which will strengthen basis under decorative tile can be required. However such measure is necessary only when the weight of artificial stone too big. For laying of thin decorative tiles under stone there is no need for the organization of reinforcing. But it is necessary to eliminate defects of walls anyway.
It will be required to apply priming structure on wall surface. It will allow to strengthen surface and to enhance effect of coupling with it of facing tile. Specialists advise to select special primer under plaster.
Preparation of glue and drawing the sketch on wall
The stone of this kind demands use of special glue structure. For preparation of such construction mix it will be required to use ready powder and to involve him in certain amount of water. As a rule, together with glue there is detailed instruction containing not only proportions of components, but also time which is required for its production. In turn, it is the best of all to make laying of decorative stone for exterior finish on cement slurry.
For mounting of decorative artificial stone it is possible to use liquid nails also. This mix is capable to provide required cohesion with wall. Some masters use cement slurry for works indoors at all. However before drawing on wall previously add glue to it.
Before starting laying of decorative tile the hands, it is necessary to write down on paper the sketch. It has to consider the area of part of the wall which is taken away under brick and also the following nuances: availability or lack of seam and quantity of artificial stones. The best option is transfer of the sketch directly on wall. Thus, the possibility of mistake when laying this facing material is practically excluded.
How to glue decorative stone: instruction
Laying of such facing material does not differ in special complexity, however demands the corresponding attentiveness and accuracy. First of all putting dense glue on wall is carried out. Its quantity has to correspond to width of the first row. After causing glue structure it is necessary to start laying of stone. For this purpose each element at first is put to wall, and then – is pressed down. The excess solution which is emitted after pressing brick simply is removed from wall.
Useful information! If laying of stone for the house is carried out end-to-end then it is necessary to lean densely each following element against previous. For the organization of necessary seam there are special limitor elements – crosses. If it is necessary to organize big distance between facing products, then it is possible to use gypsum cardboard.
The room corner is considered the best initial point. From it it is necessary to lay tile gradually, on one row. It is important to remember that it is better to paste tile from above, moving down. It will allow to avoid hit of the linking mix on already laid elements. As a rule, apply the normal Bulgarian to cutting of the whole stones.
It is the best of all to paste some kinds of this decorative material to wall with shift. This simple action will allow to achieve more realistic result when finishing by artificial stone. Photos of different stylistic decisions will help you to decide on the choice of coloring and the invoice.
After laying of this finishing material it is necessary to wait several days. During this time solution completely will harden and the possibility of elimination of auxiliary elements will appear. It is also desirable to prepare solution for finish of seams in advance. It is made of mastic glue cement and pigmental substance. It is applied in two ways: by means of special gun or by means of sponge.
At the last stage it is necessary to wipe tiles to eliminate parts of the solution which has got on them during mounting. It is possible to apply hydrophobic structure on such stone. Its use is recommended when artificial material keeps within in rooms with the increased humidity. After drawing it forms strong film on the surface of facing.
The technology is very similar to process of laying of natural stone for interior finish. However there are also differences as the structure and weight of artificial material nevertheless differ from similar indicators of natural products.
Care of decorative elements of this kind is not difficult. Everything that it is necessary for elimination of dust and other pollution – to wipe tile with wet sponge.
Thus, the artificial decorative stone can be got in the construction market or to make independently. Process of its forming does not differ in complexity. But if you are not sure of own forces, then it is better to buy ready material.