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Large-scale construction of the last years where advanced technologies and architectural innovations are used, forces builders to choose materials thanks to which high quality and the accelerated terms of construction of buildings are provided. One of the most popular options of concrete goods are base blocks which are characterized by high technical performances, wide range of the sizes and available cost.
What the FBS base blocks are
Blocks of the base are provided by constructional construction reinforced concrete elements which are made of high-class heavy concrete. Products are issued in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped. Blocks at a production phase can be reinforced by metal rods. It promotes strengthening of elements thanks to what they can maintain considerable weight loads.
For simplification of works on loading, unloading and installation of products each element is equipped two metal eyes. For ensuring reliable and strong connection of products in the course of their installation in face parts of blocks small dredging which is filled with masonry solution are made.
Judging by the name, base concrete blocks are used mainly to construction of the reliable and strong bases of buildings of different function. However it does not limit the range of their use. FBS are demanded in installation and construction works of any complexity.
They are often applied to construction of multi-storey buildings, structures of technical appointment, non-residential and industrial facilities. Thanks to the fact that by means of products fast process of construction is performed base blocks are demanded at a construction of temporary and permanent protections, big construction objects.
Merits and demerits of reinforced concrete blocks for the base
Concrete blocks under the base enjoy recognized popularity among builders at construction of buildings of varying complexity. It is connected with characteristic benefits of products in comparison with a traditional method of filling of the concrete bases.
Material differs in high strength characteristics, has good bearing capacity. It has the increased resilience to influence of moisture, temperature fluctuations and fire. Thanks to the enhanced frost resistance and the lowered heat conductivity degree installation of base blocks can be performed when constructing facilities in any climatic region, and works can be performed at all seasons of the year.
Material is steady against the different natural phenomena, including degradation by ground waters the spring period of year. The increased firmness of material grants the right to perform laying of base blocks in adverse conditions, for example, in sour and ice soil. Exceptions make only rocky breeds.
Use of products at construction of the bases provides creation of the reliable and durable basis with life not less than 60 years. This results from the fact that products are made industrially where the production technology is strictly observed and tough laboratory quality control of both composition of working solution, and finished goods is carried out.
Base blocks have impressive dimensions and the correct geometrical form that promotes fast and convenient installation of products. It considerably reduces labor costs and time for performance of works. After the end of installation it is possible to start the following stage at once, without waiting for a solution grasp. Such feature provides an economic benefit that is especially important in large-scale construction.
It is possible to distinguish the high cost of blocks from shortcomings. The considerable weight of reinforced concrete blocks for the base will demand attraction of special equipment for their installation. On the building site there has to be enough place for the equipment and warehousing of uninvolved elements. Besides places of joining of elements will not differ in sufficient tightness that will demand accomplishment of additional insulating actions.
As base blocks are manufactured: features of technology
At production of high-quality concrete blocks under the base each producer is obliged to carry out strictly the sequence of actions and to adhere to a project ratio of the making ingredients. For preparation of working solution cement powder, water and fillers are used.
The batch prepares in the concrete mixer of compulsory type where mix should purchase uniform consistence. Ready solution moves in special metallic forms which internal walls are processed previously by industrial lubricant. At this stage laying of an armature can be performed that influences strength product characteristics and the price of blocks under the base. Each form is divided into several compartments and equipped with the removable boards providing fast and simple extraction of products from it by means of the crane.
The former evenly distributes mix then there is a concrete vibrating that is performed as a result of use of the figurative deep vibrator or directly at the vibrosite. At this stage process of careful consolidation of semi-fluid substance is carried out.
Important! Duration of process of vibrating is strictly regulated as the surplus of vibration will become the concrete stratification reason.
After vibrating the surface of products is smoothed down by a trowel. Products are taken from forms then film protective coating is applied on them. Further blocks water. Process happens in steaming cameras. Blocks leave for 7 days for final drying then products gain holiday durability. Complete durability of material comes 28 days later.
Dimensional characteristics of the FBS reinforced concrete blocks
Important parameter of concrete blocks are their sizes. Length, width and height of products are strictly regulated by the existing standard. The choice of dimensions of blocks is defined proceeding from the design load of an object of the basis which should sustain the weight of a construction and evenly distribute it on all perimeter.
Important! The wrong selection of the sizes of the block will lead to the subsequent destruction of the building.
Durability of future building, technology process of installation works of elements, the implementation period of “a zero cycle”, cost of products directly depend on dimensions of blocks. The sizes of blocks are also selected proceeding from type of soil and its bearing capacity. The stability of soil is less, the blocks should be larger. For construction on the clay bases it is necessary to give preference to the biggest elements. Products of the small size will be suitable for macrofragmental soil. The most popular option for the small building the base from blocks of 20х20х40 cm is considered.
Helpful advice! For creation of the reliable and strong basis it is necessary to provide the maximum density of laying that is performed by means of odd shaped base blocks.
Important aspects are thickness of walls and overlappings, number of storeys of a construction and its weight that is defined by the sizes of the building and type of construction materials. Also dimensions of blocks are selected proceeding from a type of a laying. It is necessary to remember that optimum quantity five blocks at wall length are considered.
FBS blocks are provided in 15 standard sizes. Length of a product can be 880, 1180 and 2380 mm. Blocks release width 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm. Height of a product can be 280 and 580 mm. The smallest element has dimensions of 880х300х580 mm, and the biggest – 2380х600х580 mm. Many producers release base blocks of 200х200х400 mm which can be stacked without use of the special equipment.
As it is correct to choose the size of the FBS base block
At construction of the bases base blocks are used various sizes, and the price per unit of a product directly is defined by element dimensions. For the correct selection of quantity and the FBS sizes development of the basis is carried out. On the special drawing all elements of the basis on length and height are put. Here bandaging between elements which reaches 25 mm is considered.
Width of blocks is selected on the basis of thickness of walls of future construction. Here insignificant overhang of elevated elements are allowed. If brick walls are put up, the value of size of a space should be about 40 mm from each party. For bearing structures 640 mm thick it is possible to use blocks 600 mm wide, for walls of 510 mm – products of 500 mm.
Length of the base is determined by development where it is necessary to have schematically elements of different dimensions so that their equal laying without availability of essential ledges was provided.
It is important! If it is not possible should spread out in the way on length of the basis of a product of standard size, they can be split on length subsequently.
At construction of the bases and walls blocks 580 mm high are used. Products with value of 280 mm are applied as components in case of accomplishment of inputs and outputs of communications, openings in reason for pro-spirits.
When choosing dimensions of products important criterion is the weight of the base block that influences transport logistics. The mass of a product consists within 380-1960 kg. It is necessary to choose the vehicle which will transport materials to the site. Proceeding from loading capacity, special equipment which will directly carry out laying of products is selected.
Small-sized blocks of the base for small buildings
According to the industry standard small-sized base blocks are issued 400 and 600 mm long. Such products are characterized by the high durability and small weight. Base blocks are manufactured mainly of the heavy grades of concrete differing in good bearing capacity that gives the chance to use products for creation of the bases of a design from a tree or foam concrete.
It is not required to involve the load-lifting equipment to their installation that reduces article of financial expenses on construction. However use of base concrete blocks of 20х20х40 cm increases labor costs and a period of time of performance of works.
Products are often used for construction of the bases on sandy soil, walls of cellars and cellars. The good and not expensive decision is creation of the column base from blocks of 20х20х40 cm for small cottages or country houses. It is expedient to apply such elements in a combination with the cast tape bases. As elements specialists often use base concrete blocks of 20х20х20 cm by means of which it is possible to create air vents in reason for pro-spirits or laying of utilities.
Small-sized base blocks will approach not only at construction of bearing walls, columns and protections – it is expedient to use them as basic elements in first floors, semibasement and basements.
Kinds of concrete blocks under the base on a material type
Base blocks can be manufactured with use of different type of concrete mix. Depending on it there are different types of products. Cement, concrete and concrete goods are carried out mainly from heavy grades of concrete that promotes creation of blocks with the maximum density which are characterized by high bearing capacity. The bases and designs created from this type of base blocks differ in reliability and durability.
Important! For giving to blocks of additional durability the crumb from basalt or granite is added to ready solution.
Production of silicate base blocks reminds brick manufacturing techniques. As working solution concrete on the basis of silicate is used, and the amount of cement of high brands should not exceed 14% of total amount. For a set of sufficient durability the batch heats up to a certain temperature then is exposed to slow cooling. For increase in waterproofing qualities by production of silicate products ground domain slag is added.
Claydite base blocks contain expanded clay which expands a set of durability to 70% in the structure. Such type of a product belongs to the class of light materials. These are base blocks for a manual laying.
Important! Claydite and silicate base blocks often use at construction of designs of irregular shapes.
Version of base blocks, widely known from Soviet period, is slag stone. Domain slag was applied to its production. Today gravel, sand, a beaten brick, crushed stone, sawdust, perlite and construction waste of concrete are added to ready mix. Technical parameters of a product depend on option of filler. Slag stones differ in an uneven unattractive surface, but low cost that does material demanded at construction of garages and small household constructions.
Classification of base blocks proceeding from technical parameters
According to the production technology base blocks mainly are issued continuous or corpulent. In turn, products are divided into reinforced and options without an armature that influences the price of FBS blocks. The sizes of products are strictly regulated by the existing standard.
The most demanded option which is widely used in construction are the corpulent reinforced blocks. They are characterized by high bearing capacity that allows to use blocks at construction of the bases for different constructions.
For a construction of the facilitated bases or at arrangement of internal walls of basements hollow base blocks are often used. Products contain the openings of square section located in the lower part of elements. They are made of M150 brand concrete. The sizes of concrete blocks for the base are in wide range. However length of products is provided in a unique value ‒ 2380 mm.
There is a type of blocks with a longitudinal cut in a design cavity. This opening is applied to laying of utilities. For production of elements M100 brand concrete is used. The standard value of length of products is 880 mm, width – 400-600 mm, height – 580 mm.
Important! This type of blocks is manufactured to order.
Other versions of reinforced concrete base blocks
Special type of base blocks are products of a trapezoid form which are used as the basis for the tape or column base. They promote uniform shrinkage of all design. Such products are issued in the form of a plate. They are characterized with a big area of one of surfaces thanks to what stability of a design increases.
Standard sizes of base pillows:
- length – from 780 to 2980 mm;
- width – from 600 to 3200 mm;
- height – 300 or 500 mm.
Important! Some base blocks can be intended for decorative facing that is important when using products for construction of walls.
All types of the FBS base concrete blocks have identical manufacturing techniques. However durabilities of products it can be recruited by means of drying or steaming. The first option will be traditional, it consists in natural drying and hardening of elements after molding. For this product are maintained in well aired room for several weeks.
Process of steaming takes less time. It happens in the conditions of the increased humidity of air under the influence of the high pressure therefore products gain strength to 70%.
Producers of concrete blocks for the base: prices of products
For a guarantee of construction of the strong and durable basis it is necessary to choose base blocks of reliable producers which specialize in production of the quality certified products.
It is possible to distinguish several popular plants from domestic manufacturers. One of the largest enterprises for production of construction materials of concrete is JSC Plant of Industrial Construction Details. The products are characterized by high quality of execution, durability and good technical performances. All lot of products undergoes strict control of quality in the special accredited laboratory.
Not less popular producer is the Vira company which releases about 400 positions designed to provide reliability of any construction where the special value is allocated for base blocks. For production of products concrete of the high brand is used. The products have technical data sheets and quality certificates.
The known domestic manufacturer who offers all kinds of base blocks is the Master company. The products differ in high quality and available cost.
The Alexandria expanded clay plant turns out a wide range of products from concrete. Special attention is deserved by small-sized concrete blocks for the base 20х20х40.
Base blocks are characterized by high rates of durability, resistance to various external factors, high bearing capacity and durability. Use of this type of products in construction allows to accelerate its process. Pledge of the qualitative basis or the building is the right choice of dimensions of blocks. It is necessary to pay attention to that, how much are base blocks. High price testifies to product quality and to reliable manufacturing plant.