Table of Contents
One of important points of design of the country house – planning of construction of the base. Considering advantages of tape or pile type, you should not forget about block construction which also has the pluses. Whether it is difficult to build the base of blocks what abilities for this purpose need to be had what to pay special attention to — we will consider in more detail.
1-stage: preparation of the site for the base
Choosing the site for construction of the house, it is necessary to consider number of the moments which are at first sight seeming unimportant. For example, it is necessary to consider frost depth: from that, the buried or not buried soil, features of mounting of the base, way of carrying out communications, installation of purification plant of water depend. It is important to know type of soil and its property and also it is correct to define level of underground water.
Features of water disposal
In areas with snow winters and large amount of rains works on the device of withdrawal of melt and rain waters are modern. Traditional way is installation of well (trench).
- The choice of the place of its arrangement depends on two factors: on the one hand, the optimal variant – the lowest point on the site where all waters flow down in the natural way, on the other hand – this point can be in absolutely improper place, for example, in the center of the yard or near the playground. In this case it is better to move well aside, on less operated allotment.
- Digging of well (or trenches). The sizes of hole should not be big, usually get soil on depth of 50-100 cm. From above the well is covered with strong cover or at least metal sheet – for the purpose of protection against accidental falling.
- Eyeliner of pipes. The small bias guarantees natural movement of waters, forced pumping is usually not provided. For pipes dig out superficial trenches as they have to be underground, but in reach zone — on case of repair or blockage.
There are two most reasonable ways of elimination of blockages and traffic jams: cleaning by means of rigid sewer rope or dismantling of the pipeline on sections. The rope is useful if length of blockage does not exceed 50 cm, for removal of larger accumulation of garbage it is necessary to dig out the pipeline and to dismantle it. That it did not happen, in pipe on entrance install the wire filters capable to detain branches, leaves, big pieces of clay. Cleaning of well is made via the small hatch which is built in in cover.
What pipes will approach better? Many stop the choice on products PVC for the outside sewerage of orange color which have thick smooth walls and do not depend on extent of freezing of soil. The class of pipe is not of great importance, it is much more important that over the pipeline did not pass cars. Regular soil bearing pressure and vibration will not break integrity of the pipeline, but can provoke deflection, therefore, and blockage. If available there are pipes from other material – fibreglass, metal ceramics, cast iron – they can also be used, but with similar notes.
2-stage: design of the base
For selection of material, planning of structure gages it is necessary to make some calculations. Before it geological investigation which main goal – to study properties and behavior of the soil is carried out. Such indicators of soil as plasticity, compressibility, friability are important for determination of the pushing-out ability of soil.
Further it is necessary to calculate the allowable gross weight of the building to learn whether this view of the base will sustain the planned loading. For this purpose sum up the weight of all construction materials, including finishing and also the approximate weight of household appliances and furniture.
It is not less important to define burying of construction in soil as the size of the base will affect its final cost. Some views of the soil allow normal meter deepening, it is more difficult to construct design on clay soils as its fixing on soil will require additional expenses.
3-stage: mounting of the basis under the base
Earthwork operations carry out by traditional way – by means of shovel or the construction equipment. Anyway during digging of ditch additional forces, respectively, and the raised expenses will be useful.
If in the project arrangement of the cellar or first floor, the size of ditch is deeper and its arrangement takes more time. In addition establish monolithic or reinforced concrete slabs.
Installation of concrete slab under the base demands exact marking which is made by means of the water level, goniometer or range finder. The amount of material for concrete mix and pillow depends on basis dimensions. It is necessary to adhere to the principle of identical quantity: plate thickness for the basis is equal to pillow thickness (for example, 30 cm plate plus 30 cm pillow from sand-gravel mix).
Sequence of laying of the basis:
- Charge of sand-gravel mix. To condense base layer (thickness about 5 cm), it is watered and stamped by means of special purpose tool – vibrotamper (it is possible to use the self-made tamper made of improvised materials). Further, having waited for full drying, fill up the following layer and stamp in the same way – and so until the basis does not gain necessary thickness.
- Installation of timbering. Three mounting modes are most popular. The first – with use thick (20 mm) boards or boards; the second – using the fixed timbering equipped with heater; the third – with installation of reusable timbering with stakes or struts. Fastenings for fixing of timbering place 1 m with interval, at the same time it is better to use self-tapping screws. Too high timbering is not necessary, its height is equal in ideal option to the sum of thickness of pillow and plate.
- Underpouring — sufficient layer in 3-5 cm. Concrete is stamped at the expense of what the plate has to become equal. Approximately in 20 days concrete will finally dry, it will be possible to dismantle timbering if it removable, and to be engaged in plate waterproofing.
There is question what thickness there has to be base slab? Usually its parameters directly depend on number of storeys and the weight of construction materials. Let’s assume, you want to build the two-storeyed house. The easiest walls – from tree, therefore, 20 cm there are enough. Foam concrete – heavier material, thickness of plate increases to 30 cm. The brickwork demands the 40-centimeter basis.
4-stage: laying of walls
Process of wall construction of concrete blocks very much reminds normal brickwork. It is necessary to begin with corner, and then to move from it in both direction. If at the end of row there is small site and the whole block is not located, it is possible to get vague products which length of 194 mm. The base of the high building needs to be strengthened in addition by means of armored lattice from strong metal. At construction distortions therefore as often as possible it is necessary to use level are possible – the laying of concrete blocks has to be ideally horizontal.
Durability of the base depends also on correctly prepared solution. Take structure like “M” which is more preferable than the others to construction of the base and constructions of underground type as basis. It consists of the following elements:
- masonry cement (type 2) – 1 part;
- portlandtsement – 1 part;
- sand – 6 parts.
There is the second option of base solution in which masonry cement is replaced with ¼ part of lime, and sand take not 6, but 4 parts.
Sometimes builders beginners apply other, easiest way of laying of concrete blocks which is conditionally called “dry”. A little the operations procedure changes: at first in traditional order spread blocks, then emptiness between them fill with concrete solution. Specialists consider this way quite acceptable for construction of the strong base.
5-stage: facing of the base
At this stage of construction decorative facing is not used as it will suffer in the course of wall construction and roof. The most optimum way – plastering of walls of the base, at the same time plaster performs two main functions – strengthening and heat-insulating. Further, after arrangement of roof and covering of walls, the base is revetted with decorative materials – stone, tile, textured plaster.
Base minuses from concrete blocks
Considering advantages of the block base before other types, it is necessary to remember also its weak parties. One of shortcomings (though many will consider it great advantage) is the inexpediency of application of excessively powerful design for construction of low-rise building. As a rule, blocks from steel concrete use for construction of multi-storey skyscrapers when loading really big. It turns out that the base from concrete blocks at construction, say, of the wooden two-storeyed building, will be operated only for 10-15%.
The first shortcoming pulls for itself the second – excess expense of appliances. For the country house of rather simpler and base of a cheap type (for example, monolithic concrete). Calculations say that the tape monolithic construction will cost approximately twice cheaper, than block.
Additional expenses go also for attraction of special equipment and additional working hands. Work of team of workers is paid for result, and rent of the construction equipment – on hours, as a result turns out the impressive sum. The device of the monolithic base is less labor-consuming, occasionally there are enough two pairs of hands, respectively, financial expenditure much less.
If to take such characteristic as durability, monolithic construction wins again. The reason in its homogeneous filling whereas on block construction loading lays down unevenly. Once one block sinks or to crack, the base is deformed, and after it and the building. For this reason many builders have refused use of concrete blocks and were inclined to application of monolithic construction, besides cheaper.
Selection of material for mounting of the base – for the owner of the house under construction. If ready block constructions are available, then why not to use them? Otherwise there is sense to consider also other options – monolithic concrete and pile views of the base.