Table of Contents
The external or internal staircase and also porch of the house are exposed to constant mechanical load, temperature differences, influence of weather patterns. It adversely affects condition of facing material. The brick tile for steps is the most suitable product capable to sustain all above-mentioned influences and to serve many years. In article types, features, characteristics of brick tile and also councils for laying and material cost will be considered.
Characteristics of brick tile for steps on the street
Today of ladders, steps, platforms porcelain tile and brick tile are considered as the most popular finishing materials which can be used for wall decoration of the building. However, the last option is much cheaper, is simpler in mounting, and has number of indisputable advantages, without conceding to natural material.
For production of brick tile ecologically safe materials from which refractory clay is considered the main thing are used. As additional additives silicate materials, loamy concretions, field spars are applied.
Special manufacturing techniques of facing material, namely single roasting in furnaces at temperature from above 1300ºС, allow to receive product with high utilization and technical characteristics which is ideal for finishing of steps.
The brick facing tile is made in two ways:
- the extruded method assumes material pressing, roasting in furnaces at high temperature and drying of product;
- the method of moist pressing excludes stage of drying of product.
According to the first way of production the product turns out resistant to mechanical influences and corrosive medium. Such tile is intended for sidewalks, street platforms, ladders and paths on the street.
The material made on the second way will have low indicator of heat conductivity. Such brick tile is suitable for facing of facade of the building as the abrasion strength and mechanical loading are not so important for walls, as for floor covering of porch and ladder.
Distinctive features of product
The brick tile has characteristics that this product on the first place in the rating of materials for street facing puts.
The main feature of brick tile for steps on the street is the increased resistance to temperature differences. It is especially important during grade level when liquid begins to pass from one aggregate state into another. Material is capable to sustain about 300 such cycles without loss of durability. It is important for ladders. Here joints between steps and substeps give in to heavy load, and the slightest spalling can lead to destruction of all design.
Thanks to extrusion method of production of brick tile, it possesses low indicator of water absorption. Its structure has capillary channels via which excess moisture is taken away. Therefore on the surface of facing emergence of mechanical damages is excluded.
Street floor facing material has to have the increased wear resistance. As the brick tile for steps has IV and V class of abradability, it guarantees long life cycle of product. The material having the highest rate of wear resistance is produced by the German producers.
The strongest covering is made by the Stroeher company. Such tile it is possible with effort to scratch, but on it there will be no left no uniform trace. The Spanish clinker on this indicator concedes to the German analog, but also the price at it is much lower. The Polish companies very often give normal ceramic tile under the guise of clinker. And brick steps of the Russian production integrate high quality of material and rather low product cost.
The brick tile for porch has to have antiskid properties to avoid traumatism.
All stoneware according to European standard of DIN 51130 is divided into five classes:
- R9 clinker is used for laying of massive wide ladders which have several tiers;
- the brick tile of R10 is used for the room of public value where it is possible to execute not only facing of ladder, but also all its elements;
- the tile of R11 is applied to finishing of ladders in art studios, creative workshops, laboratories, at the plants;
- the brick tile for porch on the street has indicator of R12. Thanks to high rates of wear resistance, durability and frost resistance material can be used for finishing of freezing chambers, cleaning systems, the firefighter of stations.
Important indicator for stoneware which is used for floor covering is material resistance to loads of bend. The value of durability of ceramic tile is equal to 20 MPas. As the main loading during operation of ladder falls on edge of step, here it is difficult to revaluate mechanical properties of clinker.
Thanks to the structural surface of clinker, the best coupling of the basis with glue is provided that affects durability of design.
Kinds of brick steps for porch
The brick tile for the street can be technical, waterproof and facing. The first option is used mainly for sidewalk paths, platforms before the building, in rooms with big passability of people, for example, pedestrian underpasses, stations.
Waterproof facing products are used in pools, saunas, baths, shower and other rooms with the increased humidity. The facing option is applied to exterior finish of facade of the building, internal and external staircases.
The famous producers of clinker for ladders release material of different formats:
- brick steps with notch;
- ordinary steps;
- plates with the Florentine profile;
- angular brick steps;
- angular plinth;
- right and left plinth;
- ordinary plinth;
- corner under step;
- the pro-thinned-out steps with corner;
- balcony facings.
All products are made in different tone and geometrical variations that allows to revet even structurally difficult ladders. Specific coloring of floor tile turns out as a result of impact of high temperature on natural compounds of clay, such as iron, magnesium, silicon which passing into other forms, paint product. Therefore thanks to the different content of natural materials in initial raw materials, at the exit the floor tile has rich color gamut.
Brick tile for steps: product price
Angular modifications of tile for street steps are very demanded.
The most demanded facing materials is released by the German company Stroeher. These are massive, massive, frost-resistant treads which will become highlight of any interior.
The Russian company “Ecoclinker” releases floor covering which is made by extrusion method that allows to create the products having high strength on the compression and bend permanent to temperature differences and having esthetically attractive appearance.
The Spanish producer Exagres makes products at more affordable price, however, not of the worst quality. The Polish company Paradyz offers broad variety of shades and flowers of paving brick slabs which have high technical and utilization properties, is capable to maintain considerable loadings without loss of structural strength and original state of product.
If to speak about the cost of laying of brick tile, the price of work will depend on its size.
Mounting of brick tile
Facing of stair flights is one of the most complex works for the tiler that undoubtedly affects the price. Laying of brick tile at step is one of the most expensive services along with other facing works. Before laying of tile it is necessary to execute waterproofing.
Helpful advice! As the basis for ladder the best option is the reinforced concrete.
The first and most important stage is the marking. Here it is necessary to consider several parameters at the same time: plane, flatness of seams and identical height of all steps. Standard height of step is 15 cm, width is 30 cm. The most demanded size of brick tile for steps is the format of 30х30 cm and 15-30 mm thick. To calculate quantity of steps, it is necessary to separate the total length of ladder into height of one step.
When calculating quantity of tile it is important to adhere to integrity of product. Each undercutting will worsen exterior of all facing. Also marking ladder, it should be taken into account that the porch has sidewalls which consist of vertical facing.
Further it is necessary to arrange horizontal lighthouse row. It will set the plane and suture. Now it is possible to start laying of the first row. Width of seams between tiles is 4-5 mm. When the laid tile grabs, it is possible to stack substeps.
Important! Steps have to be executed with inclination in 1-1.5º to avoid stagnation of water and formation of pools.
As the rear side of tile has low porosity, it is necessary to cover with glue, both the basis, and product. Thickness of layer of glue is approximately equal to tile thickness. However it is better to make layer thinner, than more thickly. Surely it is necessary to level surface that there were no emptiness.
Thanks to variety of form factors it is possible to join steps and substeps in different variations. For creation of volume and effective laying of brick tile at step it is carried out with an overlap. At such way between nose of figured step and the stair riser the gap about 2-3 mm is left. The main advantage of such option is that it is possible not to try to obtain ideally equal cutting of vertical plate. Such method is used for laying of clinker on tree or metal.
Laying of steps is end-to-end possible only on concrete bed as its coefficient of temperature expansion similar to clinker indicator.
Between brick steps it is necessary to leave gaps about 10-12 mm which are rubbed clean special moist mixes for wide seams.
Helpful advice! You should not paste the sticking-out part of step. It will allow to keep integrity of design at deformation of the basis.
The choice of glue for brick tile
The wide range of the glue structures intended for outside works is presented at the construction market.
Glue are separated into the following types:
- moisture resistant;
- mix for non-standard surfaces;
All-purpose adhesive is suitable for facing of internal elements of the room by means of tile, small and average by the size. This glue mix is not suitable for outside works as has no sufficient elasticity and frost resistance. It is not capable to provide connection fortress that can lead to destruction of brick steps.
The strengthened type of glue is suitable for facing of surfaces big tile with sizes more than 30х30 cm. It well reacts to static and dynamic loads, however badly transfers temperature fluctuations. Therefore it is not the best option for outside works.
Moisture resistant glue is used for objects which are exposed to continuous or long influence of water. However such glue is not suitable for outside works. Heat-resistant glue mix is applied to facing of furnaces, fireplaces and other objects with high temperature. The glue structure for non-standard surfaces is used for laying of tile on metal or tree. White glue is applied to facing of transparent mosaic tile.
Frost-resistant glue is intended for laying of tile on the street. It guarantees resistance of facing to temperature differences. At the heart of structure there are special additives which provide elasticity and good adhesion of the basis with clinker, and glue deformations at the same time interfere.
Popular grades of glue
As the most popular grades of frost-resistant glue are considered: Ceresit CM 17, Ceresit CM 117 and UNIS 2000.
The main advantages of glue mix Ceresit CM 17 is the good adhesion and excellent elasticity. Clay is not afraid of moisture. The structure is capable to maintain with firmness temperature drops in the range from-50º to 70ºС throughout 100 cycles. In 30 minutes after drawing mix completely stiffens.
Moisture resistant and frost-resistant Ceresit CM glue 117 is suitable for different types of the bases: concrete, limy, cement. It can be used for internal and outside works. Glue is ideal for facing of outdoor pools. It is capable to maintain temperature from-50º to 70ºС more, than 100 cycles. Time stock for adjustment placement operations of tile makes 20 min.
The glue structure of UNIS 2000 has wide scope of application. It maintains temperature variation from-50º to 50ºС about 30-40 cycles. In 10 minutes after drawing completely hardens.
The steps executed from brick tile not only preserve porch or ladder against destruction, but also create monumental and graceful type of all design. In spite of the fact that this facing material costs much, it has high technical and utilization properties and can serve for many years, without having lost at the same time the original state.