Table of Contents
The person is spoiled by comfort. Modern dwellings remind cozy cocoon in which convenient and warm to its inhabitants. Floor coverings as which earlier the tree or stone most often acted became more various. To replace the carpets which were partially closing floor the carpet which is completely wrapping up the room has come. This covering attracts with magnificent exterior and excellent properties thanks to which heat and cosiness reigns in the house.
We choose material
It is possible to find wide choice of carpet in any shop of building materials. Material is released in the most various coloring and invoices. Correctly to pick up optimal variant for the house, it is necessary to get acquainted with the main characteristics of covering.
Natural or synthetic?
The natural carpet is made of wool fibers. It is traditional material for rug weaving. Flexible, having fine heat-protective characteristics, elastic, quickly recovered after deformation and for a long time keeping the set form. However it is necessary to know that all models which contain more than 10% of wool are among natural products. It is clear, that it is very big and various group of coverings. Both completely woolen panels, and mixed to which synthetics or other natural fibers, for example, silk is added enter it.
Its properties and, respectively, cost also depend on structure of carpet, by and large. Than more wool, the covering is more expensive to those. All natural panels differ in attractive exterior. It is considered to be that it is rather difficult to look after them. In practice it not so. The cloth easily gives in to cleaning by the vacuum cleaner. At the same time it is better not to be fond of wet cleaning by means of the washing unit as material is hygroscopic and well absorbs moisture. It is rather simple to remove spots by means of special means.
Different fibers become raw materials for synthetic cloths:
- Polyamide or nylon. From it make best quality synthetic carpet. It is soft, can have steady dense pile of different length on which traces from furniture are almost not visible, long keeps color and is easily cleaned. Such covering will serve about 10-15 years. It is possible to carry rather high cost to number of shortcomings.
- Polyester. From this fiber make quite rigid covering with characteristic synthetic gloss. It differs in high resistance to damages and long keeps color. Besides the cloth is not subject to influence of microorganisms and fungi. Carpet cost from polyester is lower, than nylon, however and life cycle is shorter too. It makes about 5-8 years.
- Olefin, fiber from polypropylene. It is not subject to influence of moisture and ultraviolet at all, it can be used even in the open air. Has the lowest cost. However quickly disappoints the owners with high fragility, fast wearability and low quality of cloth. It is actively forced out by other fibers which are produced on the basis of polypropylene. They differ in high wear resistance and softness, keeping at the same time democratic cost.
- Polyacrylic. It is to the touch almost indistinguishable from natural wool. It is perfectly painted, keeps color and has good heat-insulating properties. However wears out very quickly therefore it is used only as additive to mix of other fibers.
Cloth method of production
The carpet is made by three main ways defining its exterior, quality and cost. The woven cloth is carried out on the technology similar to rug weaving. For production of cloth the natural or artificial jute basis is used. On the exterior it reminds grid on which covering threads are fixed. This strongest, qualitative, but also expensive cloth. Most often the natural carpet is in such a way made.
The tufted panel is made by means of glue. By means of needles of thread are stuck in basis and are fixed on it by glue. Depending on production technique the surface can be different. These are fibers or eyelets or their various combinations. Not cut loops give to cloth wear resistance and rigidity. Height of pile and loops can be identical or different. In the latter case very interesting volume pattern turns out. However to clean such carpet rather difficult. The tufted cloth should be protected from humidity and other adverse factors which can destroy glue.
The needled cloth differs in high wear resistance. At its production threads “are driven in” into basis. The panel which has turned out as a result is imposed on the second basis which is most often made of rubber. The lint-free carpet, on the exterior and the resembling the texture felt becomes result of works. Such covering is irreplaceable in rooms with high passability. Besides it perfectly absorbs sounds and has low cost.
Features of pile
Especially popularly tufted covering. This method of production allows to create carpet cloths, various on design. These are loopback panels when uncut loops, nap, with threads fibers, and their different versions from above are visible.
Depending on type of pile allocate several types of carpet:
- Loopback. Single-level and multilevel versions meet. Differs in good wear resistance which is provided by the rigid basis and uncut threads of loops. If the covering rather dense, is not less than 500 g/sq.m, it is easy to clean it though it is necessary to remember that the dirt which has managed to get deep into pile, to remove very difficult. Single-level surfaces are formed by loops of identical height, multi-level are the panels with interesting volume pattern which are turning out owing to combinations of loops of different height. The last version is more difficult in leaving.
- Nap. This look includes several variations. Coverings from high pile are characterized threads more than 5 mm high, average pile – 3-5 mm and short pile – 2-3 mm. Panels are rather easy in leaving, have appearance of “traditional” carpet as externally almost not otlichima from woven coverings.
- Skroll. The loopback carpet made of yarn of several tones with the different height of loop. As a result the multi-color drawing with volume “sculptural” effect turns out. In certain cases loops of covering can be cut to imitate more expensive woven cloth. These are very beautiful models, rather inexpensive, but quite difficult in leaving.
- Velor. Covering with the cut pile up to 8 mm high. After cutting of loops of thread are processed on special process and become fluffy that gives the chance to receive very homogeneous, smooth, reminding velvet surface. The covering depending on assignment can be both soft, and elastic, even rigid. The simplest kind of carpet in leaving. The main shortcoming – on it dirt and dents clearly is noticeable. The panel with the drawing helps to hide problems.
- Saxony. Nap covering from twisted yarn. Loops of one height are cut, the plain surface having specific “granular” appearance as a result turns out. As twisted threads are used, pile can be high – up to 15 mm. Panels differ in elegant exterior. The special popularity is gained today by kind of Saxony under the name sheg. This cloth with very high, up to 30-40 mm, rough pile.
- Frieze. It is made from strongly twisted yarn. Loops of covering are not cut owing to what have peculiar “curly” appearance. Structure of pile heterogeneous that helps to hide possible pollution and dents. For the same reason it is slightly more difficult to look after product.
- Sut-loop, or the combined covering. Reminds multi-level loopback, with that difference that high loops are cut, and lower remain uncut. As a result the cloth, interesting in texture and exterior, turns out. Besides uncut loops give the chance to successfully hide dents and pollution.
Coloring of panels
Choosing carpet it is worth paying attention to its coloring. Production techniques of covering provide two ways of coloring of product. The first assumes use in the course of production of the threads which are previously painted in the necessary colors. Such product will differ in the maximum stability of color. The second way consists in drawing the drawing on already ready panel. In this case paints of covering will quickly grow dull as are less fast to exposure.
In order that the choice was correct, it is necessary to decide on density of carpet cloth. Than it is higher, especially densely fibers will adjoin to each other, respectively, they will be more difficult to be trampled down and they will serve much longer. And it belongs as to nap, and loopback models. Density depends on set of factors: heights of pile, thickness of yarn, amount of threads on square centimeter of basis, etc. Therefore when choosing covering surely pay attention to these factors.
It is clear, that than more densely carpet it is more expensive to those. Not to overpay, but also to pick up the most suitable qualitative model, it is necessary to represent accurately in what conditions it should be operated. For rooms with high passability, for example, of living rooms or halls, it is better to choose products with more high density and low pile. And in rooms where the intensity of movements is not so high, for example, in the bedroom, it is quite possible to lay less dense carpet with long pile.
We calculate necessary quantity of cloth
The logic prompts that to define how many it is required carpet for the room, it is necessary to calculate its area. For this purpose we measure length and width of the room and we multiply the turned-out values. If width of material matches room width, it is only required to add on 5 cm of spaces on all perimeter. Production requirements are that. Afterwards the excess cloth will be cut off, but so that completely to repeat all possible deviations of real surface.
If it is supposed that panels will keep within end-to-end, the calculated area needs, most likely, 10% more. “Excesses” will go for arrangement of joints. It is worth to remember also about various ledges, columns and to that similar architectural delicacy. Their area increases to the general. These rules work only concerning covering without the drawing. Availability on cloth of patterns complicates calculation a little and increases amount of material.
The drawing in roll according to the standard can be displaced. The deviation according to standards is allowed up to 0.35%. Thus, on 10 m of cloth 3.5 cm of the drawing displaced towards the official report is necessary. When laying several panels this shift will give about 5 cm. Therefore the cloth stock is obligatory. It is necessary to provide also possible distortions. If floor surface insufficiently equal it is necessary to add 4-5 more cm to the planned metric area. Quite often defects of the basis, such as small bias, flat concavities or cambers want to cover with carpet. If all this is present, the stock of cloth is necessary.
It is not necessary to think that the remains when cutting covering should be thrown out literally. They will perfectly be useful for repair of different damages: the fragments with indelible spots burned, which are cut through or the wiped sites. The rag intended for patch is imposed on the damaged place. Sharp knife, taking two layers of cloth at once, the defect is cut out. The damaged panel is thrown out, and new keeps within on its place and is pasted.
Mounting of carpet
Begin with preparation of the basis. The carpet can be stacked on the basis with small defects, it perfectly will disguise them. Only “contraindication” – the tie which is not covered with anything. The smallest cement dust, getting into material time, it is capable to contaminate it and to rise to the room. Therefore it will be more correct to lay insulating cover on tie. Before mounting of cloth the basis is surely cleaned from pollution and dust.
Specialists recommend to stack carpet on especially for it the intended substrate. According to the statistics it significantly prolongs material operation term because acts as peculiar shock-absorber, taking away on itself part of loading from furniture and movements of people. Besides the substrate improves sound-proof and heat-insulating properties of covering, allows to level small defects of the main floor. It gives effect of soft surface, even less dense carpet seems more fleecy and thick.
The covering before laying needs “to rest in bed”. For this purpose it is brought in advance to the room where there will be mounting, unpacked and spread on plain surface. From long storage on material folds can appear. It is quite reparable. It is necessary to humidify slightly carpet surface with warm water and to leave it in the straightened state. After drying of replacement disappear. In a day the covering is ready to mounting.
Before laying material is cut out. It is necessary to consider the direction of pile surely. It has to be identical on all surface. It is the best of all to display material so that pile has been directed from window. When laying several panels joints are carried out very precisely, with accurate coincidence of the drawing. Besides it is not recommended to have joints in zones of intensive movement and on entrance to the room. That the seam was as much as possible imperceptible it try to place perpendicular to window.
Mounting of carpet can be carried out in several ways.
Method without glue
Best of all is suitable for integral pieces of material which need to be laid in small rooms. It is considered the simplest. In case of need it is very just possible to make dismantling of panel. However use of way without glue has also shortcomings: the lowered wear resistance of cloth, insufficient durability of laying and possible appearance of swellings and “bubbles” on covering.
Process of mounting consists in the following:
- The carpet is cut taking into account addition from all directions on allowances on 5-7 cm. Material keeps within the center of the prepared basis.
- By means of rollers the panel is accurately and evenly rolled to corners.
- In corners the tense cloth is made an incision in the form of letter V, excesses are cut off, the covering is fixed by plinth.
For receiving more strength connection it is possible to use expansion seam or metal rail.
Very widespread option of laying of covering. Its undoubted advantage is strong fastening with basis, possibility of mounting on big squares and absence of wrinkles and bubbles on cloth during correctly carried out works. Negative sides of glue method – more labor-consuming mounting and dismantling of covering. Special attention should be paid to the choice of the gluing structure. It has to correspond completely to characteristics of cloth, to be with it compatible and absolutely safe for the person.
Mounting is made step by step:
- The cut-out cloth is displayed on all floorage. Cuts in corners and other necessary undercuttings are carried out. Then about a half of panel accurately rolls down towards the middle.
- Glue is applied on the released basis. It is necessary to adhere to the consumption rates specified on packaging. The insufficient amount of glue will not be able to provide quality of fastening, and its surplus can act on surface and spoil product.
- The panel is stacked on the basis greased with glue. For receiving very plain surface roll carpet with roller, carefully smoothing various folds.
- Similar operation is performed with other half of covering.
- Cut off cloth, fix plinth.
If when laying not to do without joints, they are glued surely. For this purpose make laying of panels with an overlap, with overlapping about 5 cm. At the same time edges remain not pasted. Sharp knife on ruler in the place of overlap accurately cut off carpet, taking both layers at once. Excesses remove. Thus the panels which are ideally joined with each other turn out. The covering is unbent, the basis is greased with glue, impose on it cloth and accurately glue joint.
Laying method at which the elasticity of carpet cloth is used. For its implementation gripper – rails with the sharp nails filled at an angle in 45 ° are used. This way demands special skills therefore it is most often used by professionals. It consists in laying of gripper on room perimeter, extension and fixing of cloth on rails. Stretching advantages in increase in life cycle of covering and excellent exterior of the laid cloth. Carry rather high cost of mounting which consists of purchase of gripper, special substrate and fee of specialists to shortcomings.
Mounting on bilateral adhesive tape
This method of laying can be considered the most short-lived as over time the gluing layer of adhesive tape collapses. Especially quickly it occurs under the influence of the increased temperature and humidity. However speed and simplicity of mounting and dismantling which is assumed by use of such way attracts many.
Works are carried out in the following order:
- Thorough training of the basis. The adhesive tape will not be pasted to the dusty, contaminated or greasy surface. All this needs to be removed.
- On perimeter of the room the adhesive tape is pasted. The upper protective film is not removed. Then in the same way all room space is filled with the strips of the gluing tape which are crossed at right angle. Fastening step – about half a meter.
- The cut-out material is laid on the floor, carry out necessary undercutting. Roll half of covering to the center.
- Beginning from the middle of the room, accurately remove protective film from adhesive tape and stack on it carpet. For roll the roller is used. Display material to walls.
- Cut off excesses of cloth. Establish plinth.
Carpet – very beautiful and practical floor covering. Variety of options of cloth gives opportunity to pick up the material, most suitable for certain conditions. Laying of panels will not make special work even for the beginning finishers. The accuracy, patience and strict observance of all requirements of the instruction will be required. Then the result of the done works will please with magnificent exterior and long service of warm and beautiful floor covering.