Table of Contents
About the device of ceilings is written not so a little. But generally it concerns or the designs from gypsum cardboard of sheets demanding possession of certain skills, or the stretch ceilings rather expensive and the demanding involvement of specialists with special purpose tools and devices. However it is expensive or difficult – not necessarily what is necessary for convenience. Of course, it is possible to try, to put a lot of effort and to level ceiling by means of plaster, risking not to correct, and finally to spoil surface. The following option – high quality of finishing demands both means, and time, and work to employ painting crew which will manage not cheap.
In too time there is rather economical and easy way to achieve good result – to equip ceiling from PVC of panels. Attention to such ceilings is paid unfairly a little though they deserve to consider them in more detail. What represents this material and as with its help to make long-lasting, pleasant, practical and what is very important, inexpensive ceiling?
Use of the PVC panels allows to apply universal way to receiving esthetically pleasant and ideally equal ceiling during record-breaking short terms. One of important conditions – mounting of panels can quite be made independently, without the aid of the attracted construction crew, installation will not provide any special difficulties.
Were available for sale of the PVC panel already for a long time, are not only one-color, have wide color range. There is set of design solutions of panels, they can imitate various invoices: wood, basalt, facets, etc. It should be noted also their opportunity to reflect light, it promotes more uniform distribution of light indoors. Material of the PVC panels is corrosion resistant, long-lasting and inexpensive. It is possible to carry to similar panels also the MDF panels, operating ability of this look is almost identical with the PVC panels, differences consist in way production and material. At PVC plastic structure, and at MDF – wood.
Types and advantages of the PVC panels
Type-setting rack, externally similar to lining, can reach in length of 1.5-4 meters, width of elements – 10, 25 or 40 centimeters. Each type of the panel can have different thickness (up to 25 millimeters), it should be considered during selection of profiles on which the ceiling will fasten. Profiles represent several versions: main (starting), internal corner, outside corner, baguette and connecting profile. Can be mounted also on clamps (special fastening brackets). Connect by means of grooves and thorns. Can form both jointless surfacings, and ceilings with seams.
Tiled square panels. Are fixed as well as rack. Can be laid out in the form of pattern. Have sizes 300×300 — 980×980 millimeters.
The sheet panels externally similar to sheets of hardboard with the drawing applied on them. Fasten to furring glue or nails. Joints between sheets are closed up by plastic rails or sealant. Have the much bigger sizes: thickness of 3-6 millimeters and dimensions of 1220×2440 millimeters.
False ceilings have the mass of advantages:
- Simplicity and ease of mounting. Special preparation is not demanded by the basis, it does not need to be grounded and leveled, there is enough furring from metal sections or wooden bars.
- Are very unpretentious in leaving. For washing of ceilings from PVC it is possible to use practically any cleaning agents. The covering has firmness before influence of aggressive components.
- Have good characteristics on sound absorption and heat insulation. In material there are isolated cells, also between the basis and the surface of panels the airbag is formed. These factors also help to hold sounds and heat.
- Considerable economy of financial and human resources. Installation borrows much less time, than laying of normal tile also costs considerably cheaper the majority of other options.
- The moisture impermeability allows to use PVC materials in rooms with high humidity (toilets, baths, kitchens, bathrooms, baths, etc.). In difference from the ceilings made of gypsum cardboard, covered with wall-paper, painted or the whitewashed ceilings, plates of PVC are not deformed from humidity, will not turn yellow and will not crack.
However it should be taken into account that the plastic ceiling indoors with the increased humidity has to be established on framework from galvanized profile.
Separately It should be noted fire resistance of material. The PVC ceiling panels are manufactured of the plastic having property not to sustain combustion – it fades at ignition.
Raw materials for production of panels do not contain harmful compounds and impurity. On structure it to similarly composite material applied in production of packaging of foodstuff and the medical equipment that is is absolutely eco-friendly. These factors allow to apply panel PVC in sports and child care facilities. And the ability not to accumulate condensate does possible application of such tiles and in not heated rooms.
Such ceiling does not demand painting, can be cleaned by any cleaning agents and does not absorb smells.
In what cases it is worth mounting PVC ceiling:
- at uneven joints between overlappings, strong defects and roughnesses of soffit slabs;
- cracks in ceiling;
- temperature drops and high humidity of the room;
- frequent floodings.
Technical characteristics of PVC of panels
These are rectangular or square plastic designs with rigid edges. Ultimate strength on compression — 70 H/mm2, density is 1.38-1.42 g/cm3. Keep invariable exterior within decades. Are operated practically in all weather patterns. Maintain subzero temperatures and plus to 50 °C, some of them are capable to resist to temperature in +115 °C.
The front, upper part can be troughs the drawing or paint of different color. It allows to pick up the material suitable to any interior of office, the house or apartment. Over the image the layer of the glossy or flat varnish intended for protection against external influences and for giving of additional attractiveness is put.
On exterior of the panel can be separated into several types, differing with way of putting paint.
The most widespread method – printing. Such panels are usually carried out in standard coloring: granite, tree, gunny, exotic, marble, etc. also concern the cheapest. Often are not too long-lasting, the drawing can be erased over time, plastic for such options undertakes not best quality. There can be problems when joining. Not too high quality is compensated by low price.
The next way – the thermopress. The drawing is put by means of special thermofilm. Not too differs at the price from panels with the printing drawing, but provides the bigger quantity of options of coloring is considerable.
Lacquered surfaces. Color plates of PVC become covered with varnish. The varnished panels serve much longer, varnish will perfectly keep the drawing from abrasion. However such covering is afraid of scratches therefore when mounting it is necessary to be more careful. Are very good for bathrooms and kitchens — on surface there is no spot left, and they easily wash.
The most qualitative – the laminated panels. They look as natural materials: tree, flax, skin, etc. But laminate is afraid of direct hit of sunshine, it can exfoliate from surface. Therefore it is better to use them in the rooms darkened: halls, corridors.
One more option — panels monophonic. In this case different dyes are added to plastic. It is the most reliable and universal way. The coloring will not burn out in the sun, will not disappear from scratches. The only minus it is possible to call not too big variety and external originality. The most widespread – white colors. They are applied not only to mounting of ceilings, and and to slopes. But from the practical point of view monophonic panels become the best choice.
Technology of mounting
Before starting works, the PVC panels have to pass the acclimatization period. For this purpose several days them need to be kept in the room intended for installation. During this time plastic will get the size characteristic of room temperature, and it will help to avoid emergence of slots between separate elements. The coefficient of temperature expansion of PVC panels is very high, at temperature change of air within-10 — +40 °C the three-meter rail will increase by 9 millimeters. Expansion will be not so noticeable by width, but too exists. Therefore it is required to consider that their application in bathrooms, in kitchens, on loggias and in other places with temperature drops will lead to emergence of slots when cooling air and their disappearance after return to normal temperature. Ideally panels have to be mounted at temperature a little smaller, than constant for this room. In this case after acclimatization of plastics will increase in sizes and will cork slots so that will look from outside uniform monolith.
There are several opportunities of fastening of panels:
- Directly to basic surface of ceiling glue. If the wall quite equal, then directly is applied on the panel MDF glue then it is just pasted. Glue with zigzag strips is applied on all pasted party. Glue is rather elastic therefore it does not interfere with expansion of panels at temperature drops.
- Gluing to the leveling furring. In this case glue needs to be applied only on places of direct coupling of tile and bars of furring. Not too big surface of gluing therefore it is recommended to carry out connection by fixing materials in addition turns out.
- Mechanical fixing of panels on furring. Panels are attached by nails, stapler brackets, self-tapping screws. Rather reliable and easy way having essential shortcoming – fastenings interfere with temperature expansion of material. Therefore it is possible to recommend it only for rooms with stable temperature moisture conditions. In rooms to which sharp temperature change, such as loggias or balconies is peculiar buckling of panels is possible.
- Fastening of facing to furring clamp to plastic, metal or wood furring. clamps (or clip-on earrings) fasten on metal sections or wooden bars. For fastening use brackets, self-tapping screws or nails. It is necessary to pay attention to that their heads did not prevent mounting of the following panels.
Clamps, fixed on plastic furring it is possible to call the best way of fastening. Such fastening does not interfere with temperature lengthening, panels do not spoil because of use of glue, special purpose tools are not required, facing is fastened to furring. If it is necessary, the tile can be dismantled, and then is established back or in any other place with furring.
Preparation of the main surface of ceiling
When mounting ceiling on the prepared furring previously it is not required to prepare the ceiling basis, it is possible “to treat” cracks only.
If panels are directly fixed on the basic basis, it is required to clean it from old painting. To clear away all ceiling there is no need. Only places with the peeled-off paint or whitewashing are cleaned off. Modern glue easily gets through layer of old strong paint and is linked to ceiling basis. To check the bearing basis, on ceiling the piece of adhesive tape is pasted, and then the sharp movement comes off. If old painting has not fallen off, then it will be suitable for deduction of tiles. If old paint comes off together with adhesive tape, then it is necessary either to clean wall, or to establish framework.
It is desirable to make processing of the basis antifungal primer which will exclude emergence of mold.
Mounting of furring
The prepared surface is marked by means of tape measure and pencil. The places intended for fastening are drilled previously. It is possible that such work requires drill bit. The marking of openings has to consider the direction of profiles.
The ceiling will have the best view when panels are located along long wall. But if mounting is carried out by one person, then it will be more convenient to it to fix short pieces.
Furring can be made of metal (it is desirable zinced) profile or of wooden bar. The general principle of mounting of framework is similar to how he prepares for gypsum cardboard, but at the same time the step between guides is much more as at PVC, in comparison with HL, very small weight.
There is incorrect opinion that ceilings of PVC can be mounted only on timber frame constructions. It is quite possible to execute mounting and on metal furring. Metal furring gathers from those profiles, as framework under gypsum cardboard: UD – bearing and CD – directing. The design is carried out in the form of grid with step from 70 centimeters to 1 meter. Either the PVC starting profile, or baguette profile is fastened to the UD profile on perimeter of the room. Then set of panels begins. For right mounting in plates there are special locks (grooves). Are fastened to profile of the panel by self-tapping screws at the edges of locks.
If for framework the tree is used, dry bars of 40×25 millimeters are applied. The scheme of installation of wood furring same and with the same step.
One more, the most convenient, way of installation of furring – ready J-profiles and N-profiles from PVC. They allow to apply the clip system of fastening of panels.
Places of joints with walls are covered or special ceiling plinth (it is possible to use also plinth for floor) or universal corners.
At competent mounting of framework it will serve not one year. At the same time panels can be replaced with others without dismantling of the framework.
Installation of the PVC panels
The polyethylene film protecting the faces of panels is removed just before mounting.
Panels by saw with small tooth are cut (for example, hacksaw). Crosscutting has to begin with thicker part, that in which “thorn” is located. Longitudinal cutting is carried out by knife by means of the directing rail. Panels can be cut through at first from one edge, and then from another. In length sites smaller are cut off, than ceiling, the size, receding from edge about 5 millimeters. This gap is necessary for their introduction to profile of molding or trench of J-profile. During temperature expansion the gap compensates increase in length of the panel. But if the shortened panel is used, then the gap can be reduced up to 2-3 millimeters.
It is important to remember that cutting of panels has to be made from face side – it will prevent emergence of chips.
Also it is necessary to provide gaps and if corners will be trimmed later or closed by universal corners. In that case the free distance between wall and edge of the panel is necessary.
Previously in places of future installation of electric devices it is necessary to make openings for lamps. The electrical wiring is carried out in interceiling space and keeps within so that it could not be damaged during mounting of panels. It is the best of all to arrange wires in cable channel, fixed on ceiling as well as profiles or bars of furring. After laying of wires in cable channel it is closed by cover.
For mounting it is possible to use on perimeter moldings or edging plinth. The first panel is brought to molding (or other used design) by three parties: party of arrangement of thorn and two end faces. Before it it is desirable to cut off thorn. The free party with groove fastens to furring. All subsequent panels are joined by groove and thorn and the party to groove attached to framework. The last panel is cut on width, and from end faces reduced by 5 millimeters. After that it moves in the accepting trench against the stop and is joined to already installed penultimate panel.
On it the procedure of the device of ceiling from PVC of panels can be considered finished, it is necessary only to wipe its surface with wet rag.
Such ceiling will not demand any special leaving. It is only necessary to remember that it cannot be washed by means of caustic and abrasive means and also it is necessary to save from damages which can be put with sharp objects.