Table of Contents
We already told about installation of electric heaters and, in general, have concerned question of the choice of radiators. In this article we will dwell upon problem of selection of batteries much more as the sea of the offered products not so much helps to pick up suitable option how many forces to get confused.
The market of water heating appliances is provided by not less than 20 manufacturing plants almost from all parts of the world. Also can seem that purchase of radiator – business quite simple: has gone to shop, has picked up the model suitable at the price and design, has got home and independently or by means of mechanics has established. In fact everything is much more difficult.
So, someone buys radiator, agrees about installation with third-party workers, and from the beginning of season of heating finds leak.
There are situations and it is much worse. The person gets and installs the battery in the summer — establishes and quietly expects heating inclusion. But does not wait because the radiator unexpectedly bursts earlier — during trial pumping in warm season. At the same time not only the apartment of the owner, but also all floors under it is filled in.
Practically everyone heard about such, enough similar, unpleasant situations. Also there are they only because nobody explains to the person what radiator will suit him and what is not present.
Statistics confirms that during operation in the conditions of the city one getting out of the operating condition is the share of 600-1000 heating appliances because parameters of operation of the battery did not correspond to the reference specifications of the device (bad water treatment, corrosion, pressure, etc.). Can seem that one of one thousand cases — is not a lot of. And if to consider that 5 batteries on average are the share of one apartment, then it turns out that the possibility of flood is the share of one of 120-200 apartments with just established radiators. And what if it is your housing?
Features of use of different types of radiators
The modern market is filled with huge number of offers of radiators of convectors. Generally they differ on ranges of application and are made with different utilization and technical characteristics of different materials. But it is the most interesting to us radiators which are calculated on the high pressure of the heat carrier.
In the rest of the world the two-pipe heating services works: one pipe serves for heat carrier supply, and the second – for branch. At the same time heating appliances are connected in parallel. Can seem that, because of increase in length of pipelines, the system becomes more expensive. But such laying uses pipes of small diameter therefore the total cost costs much more cheaper.
The one-pipe system has the main shortcoming – it practically does not give in to regulation. Once you begin to regulate only of heat of devices in system, changes happen also in other sites of network. What occurs in multifamily house in such situation? System extent big, devices of the apartments leaving and on sunny sides, and on shadow are powered. If on upper floor giving of the heat carrier is limited, the t change of flow of hot water concerns also all underlying apartments and becomes more cool everywhere.
This shortcoming the two-pipe system is deprived. It is possible though absolutely to block receipt of heat carriers, at neighbors of it it will not be noticeable.
Inhabitants of our houses should adapt to one-pipe system shortcomings, and, so and to use heating appliances with small hydraulic resistance and large supply of durability. For this reason the convector remains the main device for the domestic market. Such battery is pipe with the plates strengthened on it creating as the bigger number of channels between which there passes air is possible. Heat transferred by the heat carrier to plates passes to the air moving on channels from below up. Such heating appliances have received the name from concept of convection – movements of the air which is heating up in channels.
For clear and simple explanation of features of operation of devices the certain classification of heating appliances including including, and indicators of the molded and working pressure is entered. This molding of pressure shows digit at which the radiator was tested at the plant. The western standards demand the safety factor of durability showing ratio between the molded and working pressure of 1.3.
Steel panel radiators — the highly effective thermal devices having technical characteristics, the equal 8.7 atmospheres under the working pressure and 13 atmospheres for pressure molded.
Are recommended for use in low, individual construction, and in buildings with any number of storeys – if they are equipped with individual thermal points. You should not try to apply them in systems with the values of pressure which are repeatedly exceeding individual. In the multi-storey buildings connected to the centralized system there is probability of hydraulic shock which similar devices will not sustain and, at best, the term of its service, at best, will be reduced to year or even even less. Also it is impossible to leave similar radiators not filled with the heat carrier, its draining is not allowed. Otherwise there is internal corrosion and also life cycle is sharply reduced.
Steel tube radiators – usual classical design, technical characteristics: 10 atmospheres at the worker and 15 atmospheres with the molded pressure. Wall thickness at tubular elements is 1.2-1.5 millimeters.
Section bimetallic radiators take the place, the combination of steel for the carrying-out channels and edges from aluminum yields good results, and the operating and molded pressure respectively of 15 and 22.5 atmospheres. They have no restrictions on number of storeys of buildings for installation.
Radiators pig-iron – are best of all familiar to our consumers. At domestic batteries and their European analogs from Spain, Italy and the Czech Republic characteristics are almost identical. Can be used in the systems using badly prepared heat carrier (contaminated, with the increased aggression, etc.).
Such batteries are most usual, however and they have the shortcomings. So, because of big inertance, pig-iron batteries are insufficiently effectively adjusted. Installation mechanical or automatic (the heat carrier regulating flow depending on indoor temperature) the valve before entrance to the battery will be not too effective. Blocking of giving of heat does not result in fast result as the volume of already available heat carrier in pig-iron radiator is big, as well as deadweight. Therefore together with automatic regulators it does not make to use such radiators special sense. The only exception – the pig-iron radiators deprived of this shortcoming. In the market there are pig-iron batteries at rather low prices, with perfect design and high quality of casting: DemirDokum (Ridem), Ferroli. Hydraulic shocks endure pig-iron batteries not too well, and domestic models demand before installation of additional painting and broach between section connections.
We have dealt with shortcomings of pig-iron radiators, we will consider features of other models.
Panel radiators have the molded and working pressure within 12-13 and 10 atmospheres. We already mentioned about higher requirements to resistance coefficients (ratio of the molded and working pressure) above. Therefore upon purchase of import panel radiators it is necessary to consider this factor.
In the western systems water does not merge, they are constantly filled. This moment is very important for corrosion processes which considerably accelerate in the system filled with air, than water. Besides economical western owners treat own heating services thriftily and start it (turn on the recirculating pumps forcing to circulate water) via special converters. It leads to smooth start and gradual increase of pressure. In our conditions the breaker just turns on, and the pump begins to work at once with ultimate power. Such inclusion causes so-called hydraulic shocks.
These features of operation of domestic networks of heating become the reason of fragility of operation of panel radiators which are expected the smaller pressure of the heat carrier in city systems. Generally such batteries gather by means of riveting and spot welding which just do not bear hydraulic shocks.
One more point which surely it should be noted – the value rn admissible for the heat carrier. These data are specified on each type of radiator. Therefore to carry out to anything their “testing” for firmness by badly prepared heat carrier or, especially exotic antifreeze. The result will be very sad.
Aluminum radiators. Aluminum combines both positive, and negative qualities. On the one hand, at material good heat conductivity, but, with another, it is very not steady in the corrosion relation. Exist in two options:
- extrusion which sections consist of three elements connected mechanically. Sealing of connections is made or glue way, or by means of sealing elements.
- cast in which each section is separate part.
The models produced for systems are calculated on high working pressure, are offered by generally Italian firms: IPS, Global, Sira (Alux), Fondital.
Influence of the different impurity which are contained in the heat carrier, seasonal and other temperature drops, the aluminum used for production of the battery emits different gases. Becomes effect of it “airy” systems because of the arising traffic jams, but they can lead even to rupture of sections. It is possible to avoid such effects if to establish automatic airoutlet valves (Mayevsky’s valves). Such devices of float-operated type are installed in upper points of radiators, in places of possible accumulation of gas. The operation principle is based that the float nestles on exhaust port water pressure. When instead of water under float there are cavities filled with gas it falls down, pits the gases which have gathered in the battery and again corks opening, rising together with water.
Purity of our heat carrier leaves much to be desired, it may contain solid inclusions, for example, scale from welding. Such pieces can get under float and lead to leak. Small and such situation will not lead opening of production of gas to flood, but will cause troubles.
The manual, but not automatic valve is safer in this respect. Air is pitted after turn of the handle which then again closes opening to next time. However, inspection has to be carried out periodically.
Besides at installation of aluminum radiators it is impossible to forget that copper and aluminum cannot exist without antagonism in uniform system. Therefore if distributing consists of copper pipes, it is necessary to forget about aluminum radiators. And if suddenly you have carried already out such mounting, the battery from aluminum should be changed urgently, otherwise will fail both aluminum, and copper elements of system.
Division of radiators in relation to pressure
All radiators on this indicator can be separated into two groups. The batteries intended for work in systems with small pressure of 4-6 atmospheres concern the first. Generally such pressure exists in cottage construction. Here easy, beautiful and rather inexpensive radiators with small margin of safety, most often panel type can be applied. There can be references and aluminum radiators.
Panel steel radiators intend for heating services of big buildings, with the low-temperature heat carrier including. The special difference – exterior which can satisfy any taste and fits into modern interiors.
At these radiators the environmentally friendly double protecting cover protecting metal from external corrosion that allows to install batteries in wet rooms.
For high pressure radiators from bimetal can be used. As their basis the design which is filled in under pressure aluminum from steel pipes acts. On gap such section can sustain up to 189 atmospheres, but are certified on pressure in 25 atmospheres as laying between sections will not sustain any more. These indicators have double stock of the maximum working pressure which is found in town multifamily houses. Special difference – lack of welded bottoms, design it is completely uniform and symmetric concerning centroid. The manufacturing techniques of bimetallic devices allow to be exempted from shortcomings of aluminum designs, but maintain their high thermal return.
Approximately the same indicators of maximum pressure at and tube radiators. Many models can be carried to elite class, they can be not hidden from views, and to show specially, and thanks to the rounded corners they also are safety. The design, thanks to optimum ratio of convection and thermal radiation, guarantees high thermal comfort. But it should be taken into account that thickness of metal does not give the grounds for optimism concerning long term of work in houses of modern building. Among foreign producers of such radiators in our market are in the lead: Kermi, Zehnder, Arbonia.
It is recommended to install before radiator in front of the battery shutoff valves, for example, ball valves. As smooth temperature control they will not approach as have only two provisions: “is closed” and is “open”. But ball valves are most reliable for locking of flow of the heat carrier.
One more option – manual valve, the crane axle box like standing in kitchen mixers. These cranes on the contrary, are intended not for full locking, and for adjustment of flow. Indoor temperature is regulated manually.
If there is a wish that such adjustment happened without participation of owners, radiator temperature regulators are applied. Except additional household conveniences such automatic devices allow to save up to 20% of the energy consumed on heating. From owners the temperature regulator needs to set only the necessary temperature then it will trace it already independently. Besides the temperature control can occur not only in all apartment at the same time, but also in each certain room.
There are also others, rather unusual for our consumer, model of convectors which gradually win the market and demand at least short mentioning:
- built in floor (Mollenhof, Jaga) which heat exchangers are generally manufactured of copper pipes therefore demand to pay attention to compatibility with other metals of the operating system;
- convectors are baseboard, located both under windows, and along walls, without occupying considerable space, most often are issued in bimetallic execution;
- convectors on steel pipes, have high “survivability”, differ in the low price, are put in the majority of new buildings, but, because of not too successful design and insufficient heat emission, in large quantities replaced with new settlers.