Table of Contents
The clinker brick for facade is one of the strongest and reliable materials. Thanks to unique physical and chemical properties it much more exceeds traditional ceramic brick. High technical, mechanical, operational and esthetic rates do given material by the ideal decision for creation of presentable and long-lasting facade of the building. All characteristics of clinker brick are in detail stated in this article.
Clinker brick: history of creation
The clinker brick is kind of ceramic brick, differing in the high density of structure which turns out as a result of special manufacturing techniques. Material has received the name thanks to unique property to make ringing sound at percussion on it any metal subject.
Special clays with unique properties are applied to production of clinker brick. Material burns at temperature of 1000-1400 °C before full agglomeration of clay that turns it into vitreous weight.
For the first time the clinker brick began to be made in 1743 in Holland. It has been caused by deficit of other materials that has resulted from construction boom in Europe at turn of the 18-19th century. The first flame brick began to be used for paving of roads. In technical and operational indicators it was similar to cobble-stone which was widely applied to road surfacing, but clinker was simpler in laying and had smaller cost value. Therefore paving by clinker brick of streets and roads of big cities gained the increasing popularity.
The first half of the 19th century is characterized by prompt industrial development and growth of the large European cities. Old stone quarries could not provide due amount of the construction material necessary for construction of new buildings and roads. It became premises for search of material which would be similar to natural stone in engineering properties, and its production would be possible in any quantity.
This period has given impetus for more detailed studying of question what is clinker brick. The enterprises releasing this material which have turned into large corporations with world name and successfully taking leading positions and today over time have gradually begun to arise.
Clinker brick: what is it?
It is possible to tell that the clinker brick is high-strength product which possesses low water absorption that gives it high operating ability and does material resistant to corrosive medium. Thanks to excellent decorative qualities it can be used for exterior finish of the building.
Clinker – brick of the correct form in the form of parallelepiped with certain sizes. The outer surface of product has rough structure. The color palette of material which is caused by introduction of special additives contains more than one hundred shades since light yellow and finishing dark brown.
At material selection it is necessary to know, than the clinker brick differs from ceramic. The special type of clay called lean is applied to production of clinker. As blend mineral components of magmatic breeds are used. Weight burns at temperature over 1000 °C. before formation of necessary quantity of glass phase. While roasting of normal brick is carried out at temperature up to 1000 °C.
Thanks to unique manufacturing techniques, the level of durability of material and stability it to abrasion exceed indicators of high-quality concrete. Conditions and the mode of roasting allow to create product with small hygroscopicity that provides low moisture absorption which makes only 8%. Unlike it the brick absorbs up to 15-25% of water.
Important! Products with glazed surface are completely moisture resistant that considerably increases their frost resistance.
Production of clinker brick
Special fire-resistant high-melting breeds of clays are applied to production of clinker. At their structure there has to be significant amount of aluminum oxide (17-23%) that reduces viscosity of clay weight. It promotes low deformation of product at its roasting. If in production clay with the smaller maintenance of aluminum oxide is used, it is previously enriched with kaolinic clays.
Presence of certain amount of oxide of iron which should not be more than 8% gives to finished product peculiar shade. However the quantity of this component should not exceed norm. Otherwise it will serve as education on surface of brick of dense bed which interferes with exit of carbon dioxide from product that will become the reason of appearance of swellings and roughnesses.
The amount of calcium has to be within 7-8%. The surplus of component will lead to reduction of time of agglomeration of product that can become the clinker deformation reason. Also the probability of formation of significant amount of time increases that reduces moisture resistance of product, and reduces material life cycle.
Magnesium oxide content in clay should not be more, than 3-4% that can cause shrinkage of clay and deformation of finished product.
Features of manufacturing techniques of clinker brick
The clinker brick can be made by extrusive method or moist pressing. In the first case raw weight mixes up to homogeneous consistence and moves in container extruder where it under pressure through forming opening of certain configuration is squeezed out on tape in the form of rectangular strip with accurately created geometrical sizes.
Then, volume strip, moving according to tape, it is cut on separate products. Crude bricks arrive on preliminary drying after which the humidity of products should not exceed 3%. The dried-up material goes to roasting.
The main advantage of this way is receiving high-quality brick with accurate geometrical sizes. However the technology demands big power expenses that increases cost value of product.
The second method allows to lower power expenses, along with it to worsen quality of finished product. The essence of process of moist pressing is as follows. Clay weight is cleaned, dried up, crushed to powdery state and humidified. Then mix is filled up in forms where is exposed to pressing. Finished products come to cameras for final drying for 24-48 hours at temperature of 80-85 hail. Then the dried-up bricks arrive on roasting.
Roasting of the created bricks is carried out in tunnel furnaces of continuous roasting, more than 200 m long where the dried-up products stacked on pallets arrive. The conveyor with pallets slowly moves in the camera. Brick products pass several zones with the different, accurately established temperatures, maximum of which reaches 1400 hail.
Thanks to such technology clay completely sinters. As a result the strong brick monolithic block with certain decorative appearance turns out.
Look and standard sizes of clinker brick
The clinker brick can be made in the following standard sizes:
- unary 1NF of 250х120х65 mm in size;
- one-and-a-half 1.4NF 250х120х88 mm in size;
- double 2.1NF 250х120х140 mm in size;
- european standard 0.7NF 250х85х65 mm in size;
- modular 1.3NF 288х138х65 mm in size.
For implementation of convenient mounting the clinker brick which sizes are called as fractions is issued: 3/4; 1/3; 1/2; 1/4. The trueness to size of brick is regulated and no more than 2 mm on thickness, 3 mm on width and 4 mm longwise allow to allow deviations.
The facing clinker brick can be corpulent in the absence of emptiness, and hollow, having through holes of the different sizes and forms. Their quantity and the size influences the product weight which for 35-40% smaller, than at corpulent product.
Therefore finishing of facade clinker is carried out with use of hollow brick which does not create excess load of walls and house footing. Besides, thanks to the immobilized air layer it is created high surface heat insulations.
The face side of clinker brick can be:
The clinker brick can be issued different forms and under the order for the specific project that allows to realize the most courageous design intention. Products can have the rounded, semicircular cuts and internal curves.
Scope of application and kinds of clinker brick
Today the industry releases several types of clinker. Bricks of each type have specific purpose.
Construction unary or ordinary clinker bricks are applied to construction of supporting structures, such as columns, columns, bases, socles and steps of ladders. These power elements built by means of clinker differ in durability, resistance to external influences and mechanical strength.
For interior finish the clinker brick is used extremely seldom. Often it is applied to creation of separate fragments which supplement the general concept of interior. Also it can be used for facing of the furnace, fireplace, construction of interroom partition. For inside lining of walls the color or white brick tile under brick which for many years keeps color is most often used. Thanks to unique manufacturing techniques, on it effects of negative impact of external negative factors are not displayed.
The facing or front clinker brick has high decorative properties and wide range of coloring. Thanks to glazed outer surface of product, the maximum resistance to atmospheric actions and sunshine is reached that prolongs the term of operation of material with maintaining original state.
Facing clinker is produced not only in the form of rectangular products with strict geometry, shaped parts are also made.
The sidewalk clinker brick is used for paving of roads, bridge, park avenues, garden and pedestrian paths. The clinker brick for paths has the increased resistance to abrasion and mechanical shock influences that allows to receive long-lasting covering which the long time will keep primitive exterior.
Clinker brick for facade: types and range of application
Today manufacturers release several kinds of clinker brick for facade, each of which has the advantages and distinctive features.
The most esthetic is the brick of manual molding. Thanks to unique manufacturing techniques it is possible to receive product of unique form and the size with the different invoice which surprises with the variety. Such effect is reached thanks to the fact that initial raw materials, clay, remains in the natural look, then pressed with preservation of all channels and time of material. As a result the unique invoice turns out.
The white clinker brick is unique material. For its production premium clay which is extracted near arrangement of limestones is used. The finished product is capable to keep for many years the primitive whiteness, despite negative impact of weather patterns. Such effect is reached by roasting of clay to condition of agglomeration that allows to gain dirt-resistant and waterproof effects.
The corpulent clinker brick is applied mainly to facing of steps of external staircases. It is reliable and strong material which thanks to ridge surface has the anti-sliding effect. The product is made of high-melting slaty clay which is extracted only in northwest part of Germany, and is standard for production of clinker.
The decorative clinker facing brick possesses the same technical indicators, as normal brick for finishing. However has more attractive esthetic appearance that is visually displayed on photo of facade of houses from clinker brick.
The clinker ceramic brick maintains considerable temperature drops, several cycles of freezing and defrosting, has the increased moisture resistance.
Helpful advice! Given material it is possible to apply to construction in regions with the increased humidity and low temperature.
One more variation of clinker is the brick tile, photos of facades of houses from this material clearly demonstrate popularity of product which looks as normal brick. However the weight of tile is much less that does not make heavier load-carrying structure. It can be used for facing of the old building. The cost of product is much cheaper that makes material the most available and demanded.
Technical indicators of front clinker brick
The resistance of material to external influences and durability of covering depends on the product density which forms in the course of clinker roasting. For front clinker brick this indicator is 2000 kg/m ³ that testifies to the high density of brick which is capable to maintain considerable mechanical loadings without destruction.
Having low porosity, material has low hygroscopicity which is only 3-5%. Thanks to such quality, the clinker brick absorbs very small amount of moisture which is not capable to destroy internal structure of product and facade of the building.
Helpful advice! For the buildings located in zones with the increased humidity it is reasonable to use the glazed clinker brick which is not capable to absorb moisture.
Thanks to the high density and low indicator of moisture absorption the clinker front brick differs in the increased frost resistance. It is capable to sustain more than 75 cycles of freezing without visible destructions that does it irreplaceable for the buildings located in latitudes with frigid climate.
For load reduction on the base and walls of the building the front clinker brick is released hollow, by t. e most facilitated. Through holes of different configurations are formed as a result of use of special forms at pressing stage.
Thanks to low porosity material has the increased heat conductivity which makes 1.17 W/m of °C. Therefore before wall decoration of their building it is necessary to warm previously.
Having high density, the clinker brick has low vapor permeability which is only 0.07 mg/(m/h/Pa) that carries it to not breathing facing materials. However, thanks to this property, material reliably protects design from moisture penetration.
Helpful advice! Using clinker facing brick, it is necessary to think over good ventilation system to protect building walls from formation of condensate.
Thanks to availability of high-melting components as a part of product and roasting of material at high temperatures, its good fire resistance is provided. The design keeps stability without destruction and deformation even at very high temperatures.
Clinker has no soundproofing properties. Due to the low porosity and high density, sound vibrations freely get in the room. Therefore when using clinker brick it is necessary to provide reliable sound insulation which can be created by means of thermal insulation material.
The clinker brick is made of natural natural materials. Therefore products turn out environmentally friendly and without harmful compounds.
Interestingly! Raw materials and finished products without fail undergo control of radiation background.
Main advantages and shortcomings of material
Such characteristics belong to the main advantages of clinker brick:
- material resistant to influence of corrosive medium;
- the brick is steady against sharp temperature differences and low and high temperatures;
- has dirt-resistant properties that excludes need of regular cleaning for maintenance of attractive exterior;
- the term of operation of brick is more than 100 years;
- finished products are issued different form, texture and color;
- does not lose the primitive color at influence of ultraviolet rays, atmospheric phenomena;
- material is capable to maintain considerable mechanical loadings;
- universality of application;
- is not exposed to biological destructions;
- probability of formation of wall saltpetres on the surface of material after its laying is excluded;
- has the increased moisture resistance;
- has stylish and effective exterior.
Such factors belong to shortcomings of clinker:
- high heat conductivity of material leads to considerable heat loss;
- mounting of product demands certain skills of the bricklayer;
- high cost of product;
- performance of installation works requires use of special masonry mortar which is suitable for clinker brick.
Helpful advice! Each sample of clinker brick has the unique drawing therefore products from one party can significantly differ. Before performance of work it is necessary to execute preliminary sorting.
Rating of world famous producers of clinker brick and price of product
Today the clinker brick enjoys wide popularity therefore in the construction market it is offered by significant amount of producers from which leaders are:
- LSR group is the first Russian producer of clinker brick which takes the leading positions among the world companies;
- International corporation CRH Group has arranged own production in 25 countries of the world. Turns out quality products which are appreciated by professionals;
- German producer Wittmunder Torfbrand Klinkerwerk makes more than hundred years classical option of clinker brick;
- German company Feldhaus Klinker releases clinker brick of attractive exterior in wide color range;
- German company ADW Klinker makes clinker brick in courageous color variation;
- Russian producer Rauf releases facing clinker brick of natural shades;
- Dutch company Daas Baksteen makes clinker for 120 years which differs in unique coloring;
- Polish company Roben is also famous for unique shades of product;
- German company Terca is known in the world market more than 200 years. Here the best materials for improvement of the area and landscape are made;
- Russian Alpha profile producer turns out high-quality products in different variations;
- Ukrainian company Kerameya makes high-quality, long-lasting and expensive products.
The German clinker brick takes the leading positions among products of other producers today. However these products are the most expensive.
LSR group: clinker brick from the Russian producer
The LSR Group includes four high-tech modern plants which are located in the Moscow and Leningrad regions. They release the wide range of ceramic brick. Front products take place of honor and compete with foreign analogs in the field of design execution.
For production of clinker high-quality cambrian blue clay which gives to finished products high mechanical and operating ability is used. As a result it is possible to receive strong, long-lasting and esthetic product for available cost.
Raw materials and material that are issued at the plants of the LSR Group pass strict control according to requirements of the current legislation. The variety of color variations and invoices provides the growing demand for clinker brick.
The facing clinker brick is made for exterior finish in nine main shades which became basis for creation of collection of products with own names: dark red “Edinurg”, red “London”, dark red fleshing “Nottingham”, cream “Marseille”, white “Venice”, snow-white “Naples”, straw “Valencia”, light gray “Uppsala”, brown “Munich”.
CRH Group concern
The CRH Group corporation consists of several companies which release different construction materials. One of them is the clinker brick. The modern technology and the high quality equipment allows to create qualitative product which occupies one of the leading places in the world.
Depending on the location of manufacturer, the field of clay and production technique of material, exterior of finished products is characterized by uniqueness and originality.
As the most popular model ranges are considered:
- Miraz – clinker bricks of saturated red color with seamy surface are capable to give to the building noble and perfective aspect;
- Wega – smooth clinker bricks of color of bitter chocolate are ideally combined with white finish that allows to give to building facade vivacity and to emphasize accuracy of brickwork;
- Orion – clinker with smooth surface of color of milk chocolate can be used with lighter lacing, for example, of color of ivory or light gray that will favourably emphasize architecture of the building;
- Gozdnica – clinker bricks with different shades of yellow color, beginning light opaque and completing dense sandy, are capable to create optimistic mood and to fill the atmosphere of the site sun, even in rainy weather;
- Ochra – products of traditional color of brick are capable to emphasize accuracy and respectability of the building made of other construction material;
- Cherry is deep, noble, saturated shades of red color are capable to decorate any facade of the building favourably.
Classical clinker from Wittmunder Torfbrand Klinkerwerk
The German company Wittmunder Torfbrand Klinkerwerk is the only producer of classical option of clinker brick. Products are made on ancient technology more than hundred years. Roasting of brick happens in the annular furnace – unique which has remained in Europe. Process of agglomeration is carried out at temperature of 1400 hail. for two weeks. It gives the chance to receive product, strong, long-lasting and unique on exterior.
Clinker bricks have natural natural shades of the burned clay. In manufacturing techniques of products dyes and chemical additives are not used. At the plant all work is carried out mainly manually that reduces defects emergence probability. All these factors do final product environmentally friendly and safe, but also very expensive.
The clinker brick is made in three formats which have own names: thin, Hamburg and Oldenburg. The color gamma is very various. Here the biggest and various palette of shades which are safely combined with each other is provided. Also there are almost monophonic products. The red clinker brick which gives certain vivacity to the building enjoys wide popularity.
The business card of the company are clinker bricks, photo visually it display, gold and silver color which are not released by any producer.
Helpful advice! If the building needs to give ancient look, it is worth using exclusive collection of front clinker of the company that it is capable to turn the house into the medieval castle.
The company creates unique bricks, two identical products are not among which. Separately bricks do not look too esthetically. They gain special attractiveness in laying with beautifully executed seams as it is visually shown on house photo from clinker brick.
Clinker brick from ADW Klinker
The German company ADW Klinker is one of “fashion-makers” in the field of clinker production. Its products differ from other analogs in courageous and various color gamma which turns out as a result of special production technique and thanks to special raw materials. Brick products are made only of white clay. It allows to create various shades of product. But it is reached without use of dyes. Certain mineral additives which as a result of heat treatment give to clinker unique characteristic coloring are added to raw weight.
The company offers set of unique collections rulers where the unique and unusual combinations of paints created by experienced graphic designers are provided. From them it is possible to allocate three most popular options. The Hamburg collection is provided by products of color of malachite and its shades. Bricks are issued with smooth surface and the deformed form that allows to create special facing of the building.
Other, a little coldish option is the Fubsortierubg collection where the gray-silvery shades which are smoothly turning into saturated black color prevail. Such facing will be ideal for the sound massive building. It will favourably emphasize its monumentalism and greatness.
If it is necessary to create the warm, solar and fresh atmosphere, then it is worth stopping the choice on the Sintra sabioso collection where the gentle beige and sand shade and reserved brown color complemented with the wavy line and impressive surface of brick are combined.
Today many designers, creating the masterpieces, give preference to products of the ADW Klinker company, the courageous design intentions allowing to realize which will not lose the original state even under the influence of severe winter conditions.
Clinker from the Daas Baksteen company
The Dutch company Daas Baksteen is engaged already more than 120 years in production of brick products. The released facing clinker brick, photo of houses visual to that confirmation, has unique and unique picturesque coloring where several shades in the form of stains and brush strokes are harmoniously combined.
Important! The company grants the right for creation of own sketches of clinker bricks with the subsequent production that gives the chance to realize individual design intention.
It is possible to distinguish “Baksteen 051-Cedarwood” from the most effective and unique collections. Here the face side of product has the impressive structure imitating cedar bark. Light tone are kind of appeared through saturated dark shades that allows to create effect of dimensions. Such facing will look most esthetically with snow-white frames of doors and windows and other front elements.
Other warm and playful collection “Baksteen 035-Dalby” creates the hospitable atmosphere thanks to harmonious combination of shades peach, red and colors of ochre that are complemented with impregnations of dark brown color through which warm colors are looked through. Such facing will allow to create lovely fantastic lodge.
One more unusual option is the Baksteen Sussex Multi collection. Here clinker bricks of the oversize of 240х90х50 mm which surface on color gamma reminds rocky structure are provided. It is ideal option for chalet which needs to be improved after completion of construction large number of bushes and trees. It is also good facing for office building and country house.
Russian producer of clinker brick Rauf
The clinker brick at the Rauf plants is made on modern European technologies, using quality raw materials and the reliable foreign equipment. This company treats the LSR group which for 20 years turns out quality products at very moderate price. The clinker brick of the Russian production, is made in various impressive and shaded variations of red, brown and ochry color. However products for the present cannot compete with foreign analogs. But production promptly moves forward.
Among the offered range it is possible to choose clinker brick which is capable to create esthetic building image. One of such options are products of vanilla color which in combination with white or brown finish, window and door openings, pediments and hinged roof of the same color, are capable to create the harmonious and attractive building.
One more interesting option is the clinker brick “brown M_H”. It is painted in different shades of chocolate color which favourably emphasize the superficial relief drawing reminding the wood invoice. Such brick will be ideally combined with white or beige finish that will allow to create respectable facade which will be favourably excreted against the background of other buildings.
The White Venice collection is provided by the products painted in gentle-pink color thanks to which at natural lighting the effect of ideally white facade is created. Clinker is harmoniously combined with dark brown or black seams, front elements or roofing covering.
Technology of facing by clinker brick of facade of the house
The clinker brick is recognized by many specialists who have noted its high strength, durability and reliability. However this elite construction material is very expensive therefore at its laying it is necessary to observe strictly all production processes which should be carried out accurately and carefully not to receive, finally, defects.
The surface before laying needs to be cleaned previously. It is recommended to begin laying dry with the first row. It will allow to arrange exactly and correctly vertical joints and to exclude excess cutting of brick. Now it is necessary to measure height of the clinker brick established on the construction site. It is necessary to determine the average height of layer of brickwork taking into account horizontal seams which has to be identical to each new row.
The following step is determination of the smallest horizontal level from which mounting of the first row begins. Further it is necessary to mount strictly vertically by means of anchors couples of vertical rails on all length of facade which are used as side edges of facade. Between rails the cord which determines layer height stretches. Now it is necessary to prepare stacks of facing material and containers for masonry mortar.
Helpful advice! When performing facing it is recommended to alternate bricks from different parties to receive uniform distribution of color and to achieve accurate and facade of an esthetic type.
Features of laying of clinker brick
After the end of all preparatory work it is possible to start directly laying of material on special solution. Thickness of seams has to be no more than 10 mm.
Helpful advice! Working solution should be divided into several parts which correspond to sites of work. Mounting needs to be carried out the whole layers to sustain the average thickness of seams.
If it is necessary to provide the ventilating air emptiness in wall that is especially important for wood structures, it is necessary to leave through each 4 rows empty vertical joint which should be filled with thermal insulation material. When laying brick it is necessary to watch that solution has not got into airspace between facing material and wall strictly. It is for this purpose recommended by trowel to press it on clinker from air gap.
Because the clinker brick has low indicator of water absorption, for its best mounting the product should be moistened before laying. Each new layer keeps within to the level of cord which determines the average height of layer. Equal quarter of its length needs to accept classical bandaging of seams when performing bricklaying. Movement joints are arranged as it is possible closer to building corners. The distance between seams has to make 10-13 m.
For once it is necessary to lay no more than 5-6 rows. To level structure of bricklaying it it is necessary not to beat off, and to saw off. Excess solution should be deleted at once and if it has already grabbed it is necessary to remove it very accurately, using rigid brush or wooden blade.
For reliable connection of facing layer and load-carrying structure it is necessary to use anchor from alloy steel which need to be implanted in wall under certain corner to front layer, for avoidance of moistening of heater at formation of condensate on anchor surface.
Ways of finishing of facade clinker brick
Depending on material of load bearing walls of the house, need of creation of additional heat-insulation layer, kind of clinker brick, the technology of performance of finishing of facade can be different.
There are three ways:
- performance of finishing of walls by clinker brick with creation of airspace between wall and material;
- facing of facade without the organization of air gap;
- finishing of walls with mounting of heat-insulation layer between wall and facing material.
The way assuming creation of airspace which distance makes 2-4 cm is considered the most widespread option. It is necessary for ensuring free air circulation between load bearing wall and finishing material which at the same time protects enclosing structures of the building from atmospheric precipitation, without interfering at the same time with their ventilation. Such technology considerably increases building life cycle. It is the most relevant for combined or wooden buildings.
The technology of this way provides creation of ventilation channels of free air circulation. It is every 3-4th vertical empty joint in brickwork in the lowermost and upper row which is not filled with solution. In it it is necessary to build in the special ventilated grid for elimination of penetration of rodents.
If the construction object is located in cold climatic zone, before facing performance by clinker brick it is necessary to create additional heat-insulation layer which atop becomes covered by vapor-permeable film. Further the surface is plastered with use of the reinforcing fibreglass mesh. As heater it is applied mineral and fibrous mats or polystyrene.
Helpful advice! When using mineral wool it is necessary to leave distance in 2 cm to facing material to exclude the probability of formation of condensate in heater.
When using front panels under clinker brick the need for mounting of additional layer of heat insulation as material already contains heater is excluded.
Necessary tools and materials for finishing by clinker brick of facade of the building
For performance of facing works of facade of the building it is necessary to prepare the following tools:
- trowel for laying of clinker brick;
- the hammer pick which is used for roughing down and the cabin of brick on part;
- vertical wooden rails with the section of 10х10 mm;
- semi-graters for lacing of horizontal seams;
- cord for check of correctness and flatness of brickwork;
- wooden blade or rigid brush for removal of the stiffened solution;
- special pencil;
- metal sheet of V-shaped form to expand vertical joints.
Helpful advice! For mounting of clinker brick it is necessary to choose elastic trowel, thickness as smaller, than seam thickness.
For mounting of clinker brick it is necessary to use special dry mix from which working solution prepares. Ready material has indisputable advantages before independently prepared cement and sand solution. As a part of ready dry mixes there are no water-soluble salts which form afterwards white raid on laying.
The prepared solution from dry mix has homogeneous consistence thanks to which it does not exfoliate that excludes contamination of airspace. Besides time for bricklaying with use of special solution is spent much less, than when using cement and sand mix.
Masonry mix for clinker brick
Today specially developed structure for clinker brick of the Polish production Kreisel 130 enjoys wide popularity. It can be applied as to outside, and interior finish without application of additional finish of seams that allows to create uniform and uniform color of seams. After hardening it has the increased moisture resistance and frost resistance. With its help it is possible to prevent formation of wall saltpetres.
Material is made 5 flowers: brown, gray, brick, graphite and black. For receiving ready solution it is necessary to mix it in proportion of 25 kg of mix and on 2.9 l of water. It is possible to use ready solution at air temperature from 5 to 25 hail. The consumption of masonry mix depends on wall thickness and makes 17 kg at thickness of 6.5 cm, 45 kg – 12 cm and 110 kg – 25 cm.
One more popular masonry mix for clinker brick is the dry structure of Baumit Klinker S. It is ecologically safe, modified material which consists of route cement, mineral fillers and additives, for improvement of operating ability of product. Is issued in gray, light gray, dark gray, anthracitic, black, brown and beige color. It can be applied to interior and exterior finish without use of the fugue.
Mix is shut by water in the ratio of 4.5 l on 25 kg of solid matter. Ready solution has high adhesion. It can be used at temperature from 5 to 30 hail. for 1-1.5 hours.
Finish for clinker
For closing up of seams which are formed as a result of laying of clinker brick, and creation of decorative effect the special finish is used. It can be made on the basis of cement or pitches. The first option is used for outside facing, and the second – for internal works.
Helpful advice! If it is necessary to close up wide seams, it is necessary to choose finish on cement basis with sand addition.
Before performance of finish of seams it is necessary to prepare facing surface. It is necessary to dry carefully brickwork on what several days can be necessary. It depends on weather patterns. At this time the surface has to be reliably protected from influence of sunshine, atmospheric precipitation, and excess moisture. Works on finish of seams have to be carried out at favorable weather patterns at temperature not below the 5th hail.
Mix is produced in the form of dry powder which needs to be connected to water before receiving working solution of appropriate body. For this purpose it is necessary to fulfill strictly the requirements of the instruction which is specified on packaging.
To check whether the suitable consistence has turned out mix, it is necessary to take a little material in hand, to compress it in fist and then to roll between palms in roll. If on palms there are solution traces, it is too liquid. If the roll crumbles, mix too dense.
Process of finish of seams is quite simple and is carried out after 4-5 days after the end of installation works. By means of special purpose tool solution nestles on horizontal and vertical joints so that it has completely filled space and has adjoined to solution for bricklaying. After full drying of the fugue, its excesses are removed soft brush. It is necessary to do it very accurately not to damage integrity of surface of seams.
Kinds of laying of facade from clinker brick
There are three main ways of laying of front clinker brick:
- The direct laying allows to create the drawing by means of different options of bandaging of brick with use of uniform distribution of seams.
- The decorative laying assumes creation of ornament by means of certain scheme of seams and with use of bricks of different flowers.
- The art laying, or patten and relief, gives the chance to create the drawing, having used not only different schemes of seams and alternation of flowers of brick, but also having applied difficult architectural elements in the form of dredging, ledges, pilasters, inclinations and other volume patterns.
Classical direct option of brickwork
Depending on arrangement bricks it is possible to receive different drawings which are characteristic of laying of a specific type on the facing surface of facade:
- the Gothic laying assumes alternation of suckers and spikes in each horizontal row where each spike is located strictly on the center laid below spoon;
- the Flemish bond provides alternation of ranks;
- the laying “path” represents the drawing where 5 rows keep within spoons which in each new row are displaced on half of brick or quarter of brick, and alternate nearby;
- the English garden wall bond consists of 4-6 rows which keep within with the displaced seam, alternated by row from bricks;
- in the English laying ranks in turn alternate;
- flemish bandaging assumes different alternation in each brick-on-edge course by means of which it is possible to receive spiral, Flemish, diagonal bond;
- irregular and asymmetrical change of suckers and spikes is provided in savage laying;
- the Brandenburg bandaging assumes laying in each number of three bricks which alternate with one where joints are located through 1-3 rows strictly vertically;
- bandaging “fir-tree” assumes creation of ranks where bricks are located at an angle 45, being specularly displayed in every second row.
On the photos of houses from clinker brick posted on the Internet it is possible to see visually different options of direct laying which is used for facing of facade of the building.
Decorative laying with use of color and impressive brick
The decorative laying assumes creation of facing of facade where geometrically accurate drawing of seams in combination with impressive, color or relief finishing components is observed.
The invoice of brick is directed to underline expressiveness of brickwork. By means of seamy surface it is possible to create the atmosphere of the ancient building which has worried several centuries. The clinker brick for socle, pylons, retaining walls is usually used with the sandpaper impressive surface reminding chipped stone. The brick with the rough invoice is more often applied to facing of multi-storey buildings, eaves, piers.
Helpful advice! For strengthening of effect of decorative effect it is necessary to include in brickwork, the impregnations of glazed bricks located in certain or accidental order.
Having used bricks, different on color, which are harmoniously combined among themselves, it is possible to create unusual decorative ornaments on building facade. The most popular flat patterns manage to be received as a result of implementation of one of layings: Flemish color, chaotic, chain color, the Dutchwoman with different options of shift of brick, Gothic, Silesian, cross, Brandenburg and English. More visually they can be seen on photo of beautiful houses from clinker brick.
Today the great popularity was received by direct Bavarian laying. The unique drawing turns out alternation of different shades of the brick stacked by stretcher courses that is visually displayed by the photos of houses from clinker brick located on the Internet.
The classical option of the Bavarian laying assumes use of bricks of four flowers: dark red, brown, red and black-brown. The first row gives all the best in chaotic order from all flowers. The calculation of the second row is carried out in the same order where the next finding of two bricks of identical color is not allowed. Through one row it is necessary to observe vertical arrangement of seams.
When there is question what finishing material it is better to use for facing of facade of the building, many specialists give preference to natural, environmentally friendly, strong, wearproof, long-lasting and esthetic clinker brick. Despite the high cost of product, it is possible to forget for many years about carrying out repair and seal of cracks on the surface of facing, enjoying original state of esthetic and presentable facade.