One of often used bases is pile (column or monolithic) the base. These bases are rather universal. Their price strongly depends on land relief, the nature of soil and actually of the way of construction of the base, but on average is quite not high.
Let’s not be distracted by hi-tech projects — they we hardly can do. Also we will lower the description and the most primitive and unreliable examples. Usually people look for on the Internet not just information array, stuffing themselves the head with the mass of possible options, and hope to receive the certain universal “answer to all questions” — do and there will be to you happiness. Let’s try to give such answer.
If you have stopped the choice on the pile base – not muchta to yourself brain terminology. Pile is that underground. Column is that above the ground. They can be executed on different technologies, their essence from it does not change.
So, we give the simplest, reliable and cheap technology. We dig in the earth of hole under piles (in manual or with attraction of the equipment). Depth of holes has to be lower than the level of freezing of soil in your region plus 300 – 400 mm on sandy pillow. The sizes at least 400х400 if casting of piles is made to ground level without timbering, and respectively it is more if in timbering. The way without application of timbering considerably saves forces and time, but also money. BUT, when working in timbering, after outflow of pile and withdrawal of the last from hole, there is opportunity for carrying out qualitative waterproofing of pile that, undoubtedly, will promote its durability.
After outflow to ground level the timbering all the same is required to those who has chosen the first option for casting of upper, elevated part (column). After holes under piles are dug out, in them the sandy pillow has to be filled up. Then knit, or cook reinforcing and establish in holes. Then make casting.
It should be noted that not necessary to carry out casting of one pile by one process, let in several hours (if only not for several days) — heterogeneity of hardening of concrete affect durability.
In case of construction on this base of wooden house: on it the works on the base it is possible to complete and leave it on two – three weeks for sediment. In case it will be necessary to connect all columns of your base with the stone house by grillage.
The grillage is steel concrete tape, it will accept loading from the house, to distribute it and to transfer to piles. The grillage is carried out or from already ready farms – overlappings, or is also cast on site in timbering.
Usually flight of grillage is not done by more than two and a half meters, for the purpose of increase in bearing capacity flights can have appearance of arches, but these are complicates process of reinforcing and performance of timbering a little. In case with the stone house and construction of grillage the cycle of works comes to the end with overlapping of the base with grillage zh.b. plates. Flight of floor slab not has to be more than three meters, therefore, with width of house of six meters internal columns of the base are necessary, they also have to be connected by grillage in uniform system.
Overlapping zh.b. plates it is necessary for creation of additional loading at sediment and shrinkage of the base. It is also necessary to remember that the base under the heavy stone house ideally is let stand by two seasons of soil motions (spring, fall). Really it turns out in the fall: have stopped building the base, left for the winter, have begun to lift wall in the spring. By fall have covered with roof and if you stone and is not higher than two have some, having given will be defended few months, it is possible to start finishing.
The column base thanks to the undoubted pluses, such as universality, not too high expenses in material, so and in money, becomes more and more popular among people who dream of small country happiness in the form of country lodge. Here only do not know what to begin with. We hope that our advice will help them to be defined and to start the initial stage of construction without any difficulties.
Socle call upper (elevated) part of the base. Functionally it carries out the same task that the base, and can be executed as separate element (the brickwork put through moisture barrier on continuous footing), and monolitno cast together with the base in uniform timbering.
No special difficulties with construction of socle usually arise, and having specified that the socle can sink down or support the level of wall it would be possible and will stop on its description but … The socle is interesting that it is quite convenient in placement in its perimeter of different rooms.
Let’s note that if two thirds of the room are below ground level and one above, this floor is considered to be basement and on the contrary if two thirds are located above the ground, the floor — socle.
The cellar — thing convenient and what in them is only not placed – it is both masterful and different studios, saunas with the pool and air-raid shelters on case of arrival of Martians. But it is how convenient to have basement storey, so and expensively to construct it. And in places of high level of underground water in twins it is expensive at the expense of considerable investments in waterproofing. And here placement of additional rooms can strongly help with perimeter of socle. It is natural that it will involve additional costs but will unambiguously be many times cheaper creations of the cellar.
Any of views of the base allows creation of the first floor. How does it become? Usually after wall construction and overlapping by roof, the house is given will be defended and to settle (except for options of construction of frame houses), this that time is quite suitable to start works on creation of the first floor.
It is natural that some steps on its creation had to are taken for blueprint stage. Your socle (part of the base above the ground) has to have height not less than a meter (normally it is 1200 – 1500 mm), but if you have enough height of the socle room in two meters – enough and meter. Further having receded from internal wall of the base on less than 700 mm (dependences on soil density perhaps more), we take out soil on depth of 1200 mm. Then on bottom the sandy pillow 100 mm thick with obligatory compacting is filled. The following layer, gravel 50 mm thick which then we spill liquid solution of cement and sand in the ratio 1 to 2. The following layer – waterproofing: on bottom the waterproofing material with gluing of seams bituminous mastic is covered.
And as a result the concrete tie becomes, it is possible to add easy reinforcing from grid or thin armature.
We do timbering for walls. First of all, we put away all garbage and we strengthen earth walls if they are showered. Behind that we do back wall of boards (it is better than thin plywood), timbering in this case not taken. On this wall we fix the waterproofing material with gluing of seams mastic (better to apply mastic on all area).
If when filling floor armature has not been used, it is necessary to take care of reinforcing of the place of joint of the wall preparing for casting with floor. For this purpose it is possible to use pieces of armature with a section of 8 mm, we drill in opening floor, we fill in them with cement slurry and we insert the cut armature, so that over floor pieces not less than 50 mm stuck out. We do reinforcing of wall of armature with a section of 8 – 10 mm, tying it to floor. Thickness of the reinforcing framework has to be not less than 100 mm. At thickness of 100 mm of the reinforcing layer thickness of the cast wall will be approximately equal to 150 mm.
Then we put internal wall of timbering and we cast the wall, quality classes used for this purpose in ready timbering, whenever possible have to be moisture resistant. At mix preparation independently, as they say from “what is” in concrete can be added the primers increasing moisture resistance and glue. It is also possible to reinforce mix in addition: for this purpose we clean scissors on fibrils normal bag from under sugar, so that it was long separate fibers of no more than 50 mm and we add to solution.
In height the wall can be lifted as to the ceiling (overlapping of the first floor), as well as will stop slightly above ground level, and further to conduct laying from available material.
Very important point is Produkhi — air vents in socle wall, their availability is OBLIGATORY as at construction of the house with the first floor, and without it. Usually do one opening 150kh150mm on each three meters are long socle.
After completion of works on construction of the house finally improve also rooms in the first floor. Quite often in it place garage, but such the trifle as the organization of entrance, in the financial plan would seem, right there changes all picture and does economic option of the “floating” or column base + the above described way of creation of the first floor — not favorable (it is simpler to add and make slightly the full-fledged cellar in the buried tape perimeter – the base).
Anyway it is necessary to be defined in advance as what you want to see the socle. The cellar, garage or the first floor — everything depends on your imagination and availability of money. But we remember the main thing that the socle is, first of all, continuation of the base, so has to correspond to one another.