Table of Contents
Brick buildings are among the most reliable, long-lasting and strong. However it happens so that on walls of the room signs of freezing and gradual destruction appear. In that case you should not wait, it is necessary to take measures for warming immediately. Over time the problem is only aggravated and leads to emergence in the house of dampness, fungus, mold and, of course, cold weather. How to fight against trouble?
Outside or from within?
To get rid of freezing of walls once and for all it is necessary to warm them competently. It is possible to make it both outside, and from within. It seems to much that internal works will be less labor-consuming and costly therefore they stop on such option. It in root is wrong. The main problem is that the wall warmed from within will not become warmer, on the contrary, it will begin to freeze through even more, than earlier. And effects of such works on warming of cold wall will be the most deplorable. Only the heat-insulation layer strengthened on outer side will become reliable barrier to cold. Besides it will protect it and from influence of moisture and light that will significantly prolong the term of operation of design.
Internal warming is made rather seldom and only when outside it is impossible:
- administrative prohibition on any changes of facade of the building;
- the movement joint located behind “cold” wall between constructions;
- not heated room in which it is impossible to carry out works on warming, for example, the elevator shaft, being behind wall.
It is possible to recognize all other reasons of need of internal warming as insolvent. External works are justified even then when it is necessary to mount new finish coat of the building or to change design of facade.
If the reasoned decision on carrying out internal works is made, it is necessary to execute them with all care. And it is necessary to begin with material selection.
We select heater
The main problem of internal warming of design – strengthening of freezing of walls. It happens because of the shift of “dew point”. So call the conditional place where the moisture arriving from the warm room begins to be condensed. This point after warming is transferred closer to internal part of wall or, in the worst case, to its surface from within. The appearing condensate will begin to destroy topping coat, wall and inevitably breaks heat-insulating properties of heater. It will lead to serious heatlosses, big humidity and even emergence of dampness in the room.
To avoid such effects, it is necessary to pick up heater correctly. It has to be the material forming jointless surfacing that through joints condensate did not come to surface, with the minimum moisture absorption and vapor permeability. It is clear, that “warm plaster”, mineral wool, stopper and other coverings similar to them do not approach under these requirements. Use of expanded polystyrene, material with joints, is also undesirable.
From all available options most often for internal warming use polyurethane foam. It is quickly hardening frothed liquid creating qualitative moisture resistant heat-shielding of walls. It has caused complexity of its use. It is rather difficult to carry out forming of plain surface of the necessary thickness. The technology of works assumes construction of timbering and filling with its foam in parts. Some “handymen” suggest to use framework as it becomes when warming ceiling overlappings or external walls. However constructive parts will become bridges of dampness and cold that will reduce to zero effect of the carried-out works.
On the end of forming of layer of heater the qualitative vapor protection and hydroprotection is established. It is possible to use for this purpose polyethylene film. It is fixed to floor, ceiling and nearby walls by means of rails and glued with mastic or sealant. Polyurethane foam will not sustain finishing facing or plaster owing to the small durability and density. Therefore on the framework fixed to the next walls, floor and ceiling put up plasterboard wall on which the finishing covering is applied. Such option of warming can be considered optimum as the dew point passes or to joint of main wall and heater, or into thickness of polyurethane foam. As the vapor permeability of material is very small and there is no air access, condensate will not be able to be formed, therefore, the wall will remain dry and warm.
Less effective option – warming by expanded polystyrene. It is much more convenient material in mounting, but it does not meet the requirements of internal warming. Its main shortcoming – availability of multiple joints when laying. It is connected with the fact that the insulating cover is issued in the form of standard sheets of certain sizes. During mounting it is possible to try to minimize negative effects of this phenomenon. All panels should be adjusted as much as possible to each other, and to grease end faces of sheets before laying with sealant. Glue is applied on plates with continuous surface, without the passed sites. Before its drawing it is good to perforate heater by means of the special needle roller to improve quality of connection.
One more way of internal warming – construction of double wall from different materials with heat barrier as which elements of heat-insulated floor are used. In the second case on outer surface of wall heating coils are established. They join only in hard frosts to warm up wall and to displace dew point towards the street. That there was opportunity to finish the room, the wall from gypsum cardboard or thin brick is established. On it the heater layer from the inside keeps within. It is quite effective option which will protect from formation of dampness and destruction of the main wall. However costs of electric heating will be very big.
Technology of works
Before to start performance of work, it is necessary to understand that to save on quality of materials or implementation of all paragraphs of the instruction does not follow. Attempts to reduce costs can lead to serious problems.
Warming is carried out in several steps:
- Preparation of wall. Works are performed only in warm season, in the absence of rainfall or the increased air humidity. The basis has to be dried carefully up, it is one of the main technology conditions. To accelerate process of drying of wall it is possible to use heaters or the heat gun.
- The dry surface is cleaned from all coverings to the basis. Dirt and dust cleans up. Sites on which the fungus was formed or there was mold, are cleaned especially carefully. The basis is processed by anti-septic tank and grounded. It is the best of all to use primer of deep penetration. It is necessary to allow wall to dry out after carrying out each operation.
- If warming by means of polyfoam is planned or heating coils the surface needs to be leveled and plastered. For work the special solutions intended for finishing of rooms with the increased humidity are used. Plaster has to dry without use of heaters or the heat gun. The ready surface is also grounded.
- Heater mounting. The technology of works will differ depending on type of material. Upon termination of laying it is necessary to allow covering to dry out well.
- Installation of framework for plasterboard plates from which the second wall will gather. The design fastens to ceiling, floor and nearby the located walls. On it gypsum cardboard plates are mounted. Between them and the main wall with gap heater keeps within 2-3 cm.
Features of external warming of brick walls
External warming – optimal solution for problem of “cold” wall. The barrier from heat insulation perfectly protects design from freezing.
How to choose heater?
It is possible to find the various materials intended for warming of walls in sale. Each of them is in own way good. The main distinctions – in vapor permeability, moisture-proofness and heat conductivity. At material selection it is necessary to pay attention to the first two characteristics which are considered as defining. The mounting mode of covering and possibility of use in certain weather conditions depends on them. Thickness of the stacked layer is defined by heat conductivity. It is necessary to calculate isolation width for the pleasant materials, during calculations the power of heating appliances and possible heat waste is surely considered. Specialists advise to choose covering which, without differing in other characteristics, will have the smallest width.
The most popular heaters suitable for external works, are considered:
- Basalt plates. The plates made of the basalt fiber fastened with binding material. Are issued in two options: foiled and without facing. Are convenient in mounting and have good heat-insulating properties.
- Extruded polystyrene foam, EPPS. Material with the special structure consisting of the closed small cells. Thanks to it it is considered one of the best heat insulators.
- Cellulose heaters. The light, loose, fibrous material consisting mostly of cellulose. Forms environmentally friendly, long-lasting covering with excellent warmly and sound-proof characteristics.
- Polyurethane foam. Initially represents foam after which hardening strong, moisture resistant, jointless surfacing with high heat-insulating properties is formed.
- Mineral wool. The fibrous material received from fusions of metallurgical slags, their mixes, and also some rocks. Is issued in the form of plates of standard dimension.
- Expanded polystyrene or polyfoam. Consists of air which has filled microscopic thin-walled tanks from frothed polystyrene. Very light, cheap, environmentally friendly material.
Preparation of wall
As well as when mounting internal warming, much attention should be paid to preparation of basis. It is necessary to carry out works also to warm season that the wall was absolutely dry. Old isolation or plaster needs to be removed to brick. Then the surface is smoothed out from dirt and attentively looks round. At detection of different roughnesses, chips or differences of height it is necessary to close up them solution or to trim to acceptable level. The dried-out wall is smoothed out again, delete construction dust and grounded, using solution of deep penetration. The surface is again well dried.
On basis, ready to work, the special system consisting of beacons and plumbs is mounted. Its use is necessary in order that the layer of heater has been laid exactly. The construction defines outer edges of heat-insulating layer therefore mounting of heater and the subsequent finishing finishing are significantly facilitated. For installation of design to the upper edge of wall in a row at identical distance fix anchor or screws. To each of them fix cord or strong thread with plumb on the end. They have to reach the bottom of the warmed surface. Between cords horizontal threads are laid and become stronger. Peculiar control grid by which it is necessary to be guided when mounting of the warming layer turns out.
Work with polyurethane foam
Frothed liquid which is represented by heater before hardening is rather complex in mounting. For this reason most often material is used for warming of slopes of roofs or attic-floor rooms. However, it is possible to apply it and to external heat insulation of brick walls. Only nuance: to create the warming layer of the necessary width, from bars or metal section the framework equipped with external windscreen is mounted. Directly in it foam filling is made. There is also method of sputtering of structure which is used in cases when thickness of heater has to be small. The advantage of method is that the maximum adhesion with surface allowing to provide excellent heat insulation is reached. Upon termination of works heater can be painted aqueous emulsion ink or to establish over it finishing finish coat.
Mounting of mineral wool
For work with this heater it is required to install furring and frame system which is necessary for push fit of material on wall. Furring is mounted from wooden bars. Its step has to be on 2-3 cm already, than width of sheet of cotton wool. In this case the covering will rise into place densely, without unnecessary gaps. Along with furring are established anchor on which heater panels will be established afterwards. Specialists recommend to choose two-layer covering for uneven walls. Softer layer is established directly to wall, so it will be possible to achieve better coupling between heater and basis.
Finishing finishing of heat-insulating material can be different. Plastering on earlier established armoring lattice is most often used. Also often apply fixing of covering with external furring with obligatory windscreen. Over it different facing is established: from lining and siding to brick. The practical ventilated three-layer warming which is used in the most different climatic zones is so equipped.
Isolation by expanded polystyrene
It is, perhaps, the easiest way of warming. On bottom of construction the small shelf from corner is established. It is necessary for alignment of cloths of heater. For fastening of expanded polystyrene the special gluing structure is used. It is applied on each leaf with thin layer, it is desirable without the passed sites. Then the panel is established into place and is strongly driven into the corner. Installation is controlled by means of control grid from plumbs and beacons.
Installation of several layers of material is most often supposed. In that case it is necessary to remember that each subsequent row can be mounted only after established before it already “has grabbed”. As practice shows, it is the best of all to establish panels with shift on half of the previous row. It is recommended will strengthen cloth sling anchorages, therefore, each fastening to hold not only corners of upper plate, but also the middle of cloths of the previous row.
All joints of sheets should be glued with the reinforcing plaster tape. Sites near window openings and corners of buildings are subject to bigger danger of destruction therefore heater has to be in addition strengthened by metal corners. Over the mounted heat insulation the armoring lattice keeps within and plastering is carried out. As a result the plain surface without open places or gaps on which rodents can reach heater has to turn out.
Expanded polystyrene has low vapor permeability that prevents full removal of moisture from the warmed wall. Therefore it is worth thinking concerning mounting of design with ventilated or if it is impossible, the facade which at least is partially ventilated. In that case moisture will not linger on wall and to destroy it. For the same reason before works it is necessary to dry especially carefully warmed wall.
Warmly in the house it is necessary and many are ready to fight for it, warming brick walls the hands. It is rather simple to make it. Neither special knowledge from the field of construction, nor special skills is required. Careful implementation of all instructions, accuracy and patience will allow to receive good result, and then the warm house will always meet owners by invariable comfort and cosiness.