Table of Contents
Construction of the frame house, as well as any other housing, begin with production of the base. Frame houses are characteristic the small total weight, for this reason under construction of the frame house make the pile and screw or column base.
Pile and screw base for the frame house
This type of the base is made for construction of the frame house only on stable steady soil. The sandy or boggy soil is not suitable for the pile and screw base. Initially on the site breakdown by means of the wooden stakes hammered into soil and stretch between them of fishing line or twine is made. Breakdown is carried out strictly according to drawings or the plan of future house. Having pulled twine, further on all perimeter make on mark soil, designating arrangement of screw piles. The distance between piles averages 150-170 cm.
At the following stage start drilling in soil of metal piles. Usually drilling process mechanized is also carried out by means of the cargo transport equipped with mobile sleeve and hydraulic actuator. There is also manual way of drilling of metal piles, however it demands enormous physical efforts. After drilling in soil of all piles according to the drawing, on all upper ends of piles primary binding is mounted. As binding use the wide metal channel inverted by regiments down. Depending on form of the upper end of piles, the channel is welded welding or mounted by means of bolts or pins.
Column base for the frame house
The column base is less whimsical to stability of soil. Such type of the base can be made even on the sandy or podsolic soil. Production of the column base also, similarly, as well as pile and screw begins with breakdown. After designation of perimeter of the building and its main axes the tense twine, start excavation of square holes. The interval between holes usually makes 150 cm. Hole form – the correct square with the party of 40х40 cm or massivenesses of structure of the building of 60х60 cm. Depth of hole is calculated proceeding from the level of freezing of the soil during the winter period. On average holes make 80-120 cm in depth.
After production of holes, carefully I ram their bottom, and fill layer of crushed stone of crushed fines 8-10 cm thick on bottom. This rubble pillow performs function of drainage in the period of spring thawing of snow and autumn rains. The pillow from small crushed stone is rammed and stack over it reinforcing grid. For production of reinforcing grid armature bars a3, with a diameter of 10-12 mm, longwise equal to the party of square hole are cut previously. I stack the cut reinforcing bars on the flat platform perpendicularly each other so that the cell of 100х100 mm was formed, and connect among themselves by the burned wire. Further on the made grid fix several reinforcing holders of round shape holding reinforcing grid in the raised state.
After laying of reinforcing grid in its cent the prefabricated reinforcement cage with the party of square collar of 12-15 cm is established. The collar matches grid by means of the burned wire and make filling of concrete pad brand concrete not below than M450. The minimum thickness of concrete pad is 10 cm. After filling of pillow about 7-10 days then, around the prefabricated reinforcement cage which is sticking out of monolithic pillow establish wooden box wait, and make filling by concrete of the column. At the same time, stopping filling in concrete column, submerge mortgage metal plates in liquid concrete. 28 days later, later it is full of concrete hardening, to mortgages the inverted channel or double tee with wide regiments is mounted. It is recommended also before charge soil of vertical columns, to process their surface hot bituminous mastic or to envelop roofing material.
Beginning of production of framework
Lower binding of the frame house.
Having the channel plane as the basis, over it stack the cut-off strip of roofing material or other waterproofing material and start production of the lower binding. For lower to binding in structure of the frame house 4 pieces of bar with a section of 150х50 mm connected among themselves are applied. For this purpose the bar is previously stacked on edge on the equal plane and connected among themselves to the help of metal pins with a diameter of 10-12 mm. Before fastening bars, previously in the field of end face and internal lateral face, in bars wood is chosen in half-tree. These grooves are intended for further mounting of vertical angle ridge and sexual log. Having prepared finally lower binding from the connected bars, its mounting on the plane of channel is carried out by means of long bolts or pins.
Nodes of frame houses.
At the following stage, after mounting of the lower binding from the bar fastened among themselves, pass to installation of angular bars. It is necessary to tell at once that all connections between bars, racks or sexual logs, are made only by means of metal bolts. No nails or self-tapping screws at this stage of construction of the frame house are used. Pay to angular bars when mounting special attention. Having fixed in the lower part angle ridge by bolt, in turn put to outer sides of this bar vertically leveling instrument and, having exposed angle ridge ideally exactly, the bar is fixed the temporary props and struts made of waste or board of small thickness.
Device of walls of the frame house
Upper binding of the frame house.
After mounting of the main vertical angular bars with a section of 150х50 mm, on the upper end of bars it is necessary to do upper binding. Here it is necessary to recede and tell a little that if the frame house to two floors is built, angular bars strengthen vertically established channel if the building one-storey, in it is not present need. The upper binding of the frame house in design is strongly similar to the lower binding. However at one-storey construction, apply only 2-3 bars with a section of 150х50 mm connected by pins to upper binding. At the same time grooves under mounting log of ceiling overlapping are also provided.
Having finished mounting of upper binding on angular vertical bars, at this stage, it is desirable to mount sexual logs from bar of 150х50 mm or 150х40 mm and to make mounting of draft floor. As material to draft floor it is applied cut or floorboard 25-30 mm thick. Having executed the sexual basis and having free access to the main axes of the building, start mounting of intermediate wall bar. Section of this bar is selected proceeding from climatic zone of arrangement. There are, of course, rated formulas, however if to explain everything well, then at construction in northern regions, the section of intermediate wall bar is 150х40 mm, and in the southern regions the bar with a section of 100х40 mm or 100х50 mm is used.
The intermediate wall bearing bar is mounted between upper and lower binding with interval of 100-120 cm. After mounting of vertical wall bar, without affecting those places where windows or door openings will be located, all wall vertical bar amplifies among themselves additional crossing points. Having finished fully production of framework, make mounting of ceiling beams, and pass to house framework covering.
The assembly technology of the frame house has to be observed faultlessly! Any nails and self-tapping screws in fastenings of nodes!
What heater is better for the frame house?
Heaters can be separated into two classes: natural and synthetic. Natural substances belong to natural: peat, clay, sawdust. Now they are applied seldom owing to low characteristics on energy saving, moisture resistance, operation term. They were forced out by the products made on technologies of chemical production.
There was the whole class of the synthetic materials having higher ability to heat insulation than antiquated ways. Among them for warming of frame houses are most often used:
- mineral wool;
- polyurethane foam;
- ecocotton wool;
Each of these materials has the advantages and shortcomings. On set of qualities recommends mineral wool.
Therefore main council: use quality synthetic heaters!
Covering and heat insulation of the frame house
Initially ready framework of the house, sheathe from outside part of SMALLPOX or moisture resistant plywood. Besides, approach the choice of sheathing material proceeding from regional arrangement. Moisture resistant plywood possesses special impregnation, however it is more expensive, than SMALLPOX. Veneer sheets or OCP (opilochny chip plate), mount from outer side of the building on the wall bearing bar by means of self-tapping screws. Having sheathed completely framework from outer end, from the inside, in the formed niches in walls make mounting of mineral wool in the form of plates.
At the same time it is important to make mounting of plate of mineral wool between wall bar surely vraspor. For this purpose the plate is cut off specially 2-4 cm more on width, than flight between bars.
Having mounted mineral wool, make internal covering of the frame house, using the same materials, as well as for external covering. However before sheathing completely walls, previously, in framework place electrical wiring and water pipes. At the same time distributing of electrical wiring in any house built of tree shall be in corrugated pipe. Having finished with internal covering, by means of mineral wool make warming of the ceiling and sexual basis then begin mounting of roof and finishing external work of the frame house.
The technology of construction of the frame house is simple. Simplicity allows to save both on the project, and on construction. Plus — inexpensive materials and you will be pleasantly surprised with the estimate on construction of the frame house.
Mice in the frame house
It is frequent stereotype. People think that because of design features, namely many emptiness, mice and rats will lodge in your frame house. There are many ways how to protect the frame house from rodents. For a start get cat!
And if it is serious, then one of the most reliable ways of protection of the frame house against rodents is use of galvanized grid from metal with small cells. It can be laid on draft floor or to envelop it socle. Height of the metal gauze laid under socle covering has to be not less than a meter. Also, before warming and finishing, it is possible to upholster with close-meshed grid all corners of the house.
The metal gauze it is possible to protect also already built frame house. For this purpose it is necessary to bury it along the base, at depth up to 80 cm (and if holes of rodents are already present, then is deeper, than the dug courses). The grid can be driven at distance from the house, on its perimeter to make deep, rather narrow ditch and to fill up it with crushed stone.
Protection of floor will prevent penetration of rodents. At its device it is possible to use both the metal gauze, and monolithic reinforced concrete slab.
How much is to build the turnkey frame house?
Due to relative low cost and simplicity of mounting projects of frame houses with penthouse up to 150 sq.m are the most popular.
Everything depends on the area and number of storeys, and of course — on finishing, it is the most expensive component. Very approximate cost of “box” without whitening and communications begins from 200 dollars for square meter. Anyway it in one and a half is cheaper than time, than wooden, and time in two — than the stone house. Once again we will repeat that formula very rough. Calculation of base bid of the frame house can be made independently without estimator.