Table of Contents
“My house – my fortress” is expression, in literal or figurative sense, many apply to the country housing. However, if the house is fortress, then the adjacent site to the house is allotment, let and small on the area, but also demanding protection against invasion of uninvited guests. Of course, the best way to protect the property is production on perimeter of the country site of solid fence.
What to begin construction of solid fence with?
The solid fence is architectural construction therefore its production begins with design. At this stage it is necessary to decide on type of the base and its configuration. The main criterion by which the type the base is determined it is type of the soil and quality of soil.
- The clay type of the soil is stable dense soil. For solid brick fence on data of the soil production of small buried continuous footing suffices. Width of tape can be 35 cm, and depth of 60-70 cm.
- The sandy and podsolic type of the soil – this soil is unstable, possibly, its partial washing away by abundant rainfall, and the soil leaky. Continuous footing with the profile section of tape in the form of letter “T” is suitable for brick fence. Depth of the base can be 60-80 cm, and width of the upper shelf in film 40-50. At the same time the upper shelf of tape partially rises over the soil.
- Peat, oozy and boggy types of soils – these soils are even less stable, than podsolic. In addition to small consistency of the soil, at these soils in most cases there are highly located underground waters. For construction of brick fence on these soils the tape pile and stuffed type of the base is made. Depth of tape can be only 30 cm, at the same time width of tape can reach 120 cm. Depth of concrete piles in tape of 150-200 cm. This base, kind of is on unstable soil at the expense of wide tape, and as “anchors” in its design piles are used.
Cases when the country site has bias are frequent or it is located on hill slope. At such features of relief continuous footing is made in the form of the symmetric steps which are gradually decreasing in process of soil bias. For example, on the site the good loamy type of the soil having to production of the simplest continuous footing, but the difference, for example, between upper point on the site and lower makes, let us assume, 2 meters. First of all the extent of future fence is measured. The received distance is separated into identical pieces 200-250 cm long, and as a result find quantity of steps in the base. At the same time if to consider single step from all tape, its depth will be 60-80 cm and width about 25 cm. On this simple example it is possible to make without special knowledge calculation for monolithic tape on the site with any bias.
Production of the base for brick fence
Production of continuous footing is begun with excavation of trench, the calculated depth and width. The trench bottom is rammed surely and fill up 10-15 cm with layer of crushed stone of average fraction. Further reinforcing of tape is made. At production of tape with rectangular profile in section, reinforcing is carried out by the prefabricated reinforcement cages laid horizontally at each other. If the tape section profile in the form of letter “T”, that is, has the wide shelf in upper part, then reinforcing of the lower part of trench is carried out by the frameworks laid horizontally, and for reinforcing of the upper shelf mount in parallel each other 2 two prefabricated reinforcement cages and, of course, they are connected with the lower frameworks.
More difficult the situation with production of the continuous pile and stuffed footing is. After excavation of wide, but superficial trench, only 1-1.5 bayonets in depth, on the extent of length of trench carry out marking and will define arrangement of monolithic piles. The distance between piles approximately makes 150-170 cm no more. Drill wells under piles hand drill or by means of the special hydraulic drill installed on the basis of cargo transport. After well-drilling in the peat, oozy or boggy soil, there is high probability that some time they will be filled with underground water. Therefore after drilling you should not delay, and at once to establish to wells the metal frameworks collected on round collars and to make concrete laying. Will also not prevent to have near at hand the pump with the external filter for pumping of excesses of water. At not strong underground waters, it is possible to manage even the simple pump.
During filling of piles I condense concrete weight by means of the mace of immersion vibrator submerged in it. The most hard work is to fill in piles, after their production, at the bottom of superficial wide trench the drainage pillow in the form of 10-15 cm of binding gravel or crushed stone is filled. Further to the vertical frameworks which are released from piles the laid horizontal standard frameworks with square collars knit. This tape can be reinforced also without frameworks, having laid the grid connected from reinforcing bars on all length of tape. However frameworks of monolithic piles have to be all the same connected with grid.
In independence of type of the soil and profile of tape and configuration of the base, apply concrete of M350 or M300 brands to its production. At the same time during filling of continuous footing with normal rectangular profile in section, there is opportunity to reduce cubic capacity of the poured concrete, and to respectively reduce financial costs. For this purpose in the course of laying of concrete I submerge in it on tape extent different stone of strong breeds. For example the granite fragments, river stone or pieces of solid concrete which have remained after dismantling of old constructions.
Optimum for laying of fence to use one-and-a-half hollow ceramic brick.
- Why one-and-a-half? The one-and-a-half brick has the sizes of 250x120x88 mm. With these sizes there will be minimum quantity of pieces of brick in each row and the minimum quantity of everything of ranks. Therefore, the laying will be quickly made also with the minimum errors and deviations.
- Why hollow? The fence, even brick, is not load-carrying structure and load of brickwork is absent. At the same time, using hollow brick, there is chance to reduce depth of tape of the base as rather small weight and loading from all laying has hollow brick will be minimum.
- Why ceramic? The lime sand brick has the increased hygroscopicity, and the fence laying will be constantly affected further on both sides of rain, snow and to temperature drops. All these adverse factors can lead to destruction of structure of brick.
The brickwork of flights of fence is carried out in half-brick. At the same time strengthening fence design – brick columns, put with the parties in brick or one and a half bricks. Begin laying with production of the solution consisting of cement and pit sand in the ratio 1 to 3. Having made solution, initially on tape of the base the first rows of the most extreme brick columns are exposed.
At column laying with the parties in brick, the first row will represent two bricks laid in parallel. In the second row, parallel two bricks will be located across to the bricks located in the lower row. In such sequence the laying of all brick column is carried out, at the same time at the beginning of laying precisely on the center of column place 1 vertical rod of armature with a diameter of 12 mm. Also in the course of laying through each 2-3 rows from solution between bricks place rolled wire of long about 100 cm. The released ends of rolled wire start further in solution seams between brick-on-edge courses in flights.
At column laying in one and a half bricks, in the first row lay clockwise 4 bricks, so, if to take a detached view in row 1 sucker and 1 spike turns out. In the following row bricks are laid similarly around, at the same time bandaging will make 1/3 from brick length. As a result brick columns with the parties about 38×38 cm turn out. In column, in the course of laying there is empty space equal about 1/3 bricks. From this “well” at stage of laying of the first rows of column release 1-3 vertical rods of armature, and after column raising on necessary height and hardening in solution seams, fill in the reinforced turned-out “well” with liquid concrete.
Having decided on type of laying of columns and having put their ranks on solution, on all extent of monolithic tape of the base between the extreme put brick ranks the nylon thread or thick fishing line stretches. Further on the extent of the tense thread note arrangements of all brick columns in fence and make laying of their first row. Exactly thanks to thread, all columns will be strictly located on one flat line, and the fence will not dance. During brickwork it is not recommended to lift for one approach brick columns higher than 150 cm, and flights by thickness in half-brick higher than 100 cm. The risk of roll is too high. Therefore optimum will be to lift brick columns on height about 100 cm and to pass to laying of flights between them. Further 1-2 days later to continue all brickwork of fence.
At laying of flights bandaging of bricks in ranks can make 1/3 or 1/2 from brick length. There are no strict criteria here to whom how more usual to lay brick. However indispensable condition at laying is laying in horizontal solution seam through each 2-3 rows of the burned rolled wire or reinforcing bar with a diameter of 8 mm. At the same time the rolled wire reinforcing ranks has to be well connected with the rolled wire produced from brick flying columns.