Table of Contents
Comfort level in owner-occupied dwelling directly depends on his owners. Unsightly lodge with wooden box in the yard or the solid building with the independent sewerage and the garage attached to the house. Contrary to widespread myths, for improvement of the house and personal plot any serious capitals or construction skills of high level are not necessary. Certainly, superfluous they will not be, however the life and ability to overcome laziness are more important to adjust desire.
It is considered that the cellar gradually consigns to the past, and it with success is replaced by the refrigerator. However whether so it? Accounts for the electric power constantly grow and begin to frighten even people skilled. Besides, solid volumes of house preparations just will not be located in the normal refrigerator. Supermarket? Yes, it is possible to buy literally everything here, here only for some reason the most part of products can be carried rather to chemical products, and quite often dangerous … Here also it turns out that construction of cellar — reasonable step.
House or street cellar?
We choose the space for construction very carefully and we consider each trifle. For example, many aim to build cellar directly in the house, motivating it with the fact that it is not necessary to jump out on the street. The decision is doubtful as not the thicket of two-three should “dive” weekly there. And is more often what for? Couple of cans with pickles and stewed meat and piece of fat perfectly are located also in the refrigerator, we do not urge to refuse it completely.
Construction of cellar directly under the house is much more complex, than than on the street and “complications” are much more serious. In a word, we do not recommend.
Choice of the place
First of all, it is necessary to define level of underground water on your site. There is nothing difficult in it, the lowland just is chosen and the well of 2.5 m in depth then the pipe is inserted into opening is drilled and it is left for couple of days. There was water — underground waters stand at you highly. Let’s tell at once, be not upset. There is nothing terrible in it, just it is necessary to take them into account and to be engaged in construction taking into account this fact.
There is a wish to save money on drilling? Use “antiquated” receptions. The simplest: degreased wool was put on the soil cleaned from the turf, from above put fresh egg and covered all this with pot (it is possible also pan). The next morning after sunrise there is check: egg and wool are covered with dew — close to water, only wool — it is deep, both objects dry — can not worry.
For digging of ditch is chosen the height if it is available is chosen. Further you make the approximate plan of availability of communications (and desires to carry out them in the future) and you calculate the most convenient location. Do not give in to temptation to build it too close to the house, problems with underground waters can begin. Try not to build it and near big trees — the powerful root system can break integrity of design afterwards.
There is a lot of them, but the main distinctions are in whether completely they are buried in soil or partially tower above the ground. It is considered that the buried designs are more optimum in terms of fluctuation of temperatures. Actually it does not play large role and if for any reason the cellar with the eminence is necessary for you (for example — highly there are underground waters), then modern materials will come of you to the rescue.
First of all we prepare access roads for the place of future construction, we clean from the road all superfluous (whenever possible), we lay paths from old boards, etc. Can seem that in it there is no special need, but when you begin to drag bricks or cement on wheelbarrow, your opinion will sharply change. Having prepared ways, we begin to be engaged in the turf. Top soil — thing rather valuable also you should not discard it carelessly. It is possible to remove, for example, it to the lowland.
Having cleaned the turf, we begin to be engaged in marking. Business it not the most difficult, but rather important. Here once again it is possible to estimate whether factors you have considered everything, nothing was forgotten? We mean, communications are how far located, big trees, etc. grow.
Length and width of ditch depend on your desire, but “genre classics” width of 2 — 2.5 m, and length — no more than 3.5 m is considered. Certainly, it is about the sizes of the cellar, the ditch under it is necessary much wider. Depth of construction begins from 1.7 m and 2.5 m come to an end. Data depend both on your desire, and on composition of the ground, availability and lack of underground water. We warn, be not fond, do not swing the arm on cyclopean constructions — it demands absolutely different approach.
If the soil friable is also showered, walls become with slopes. The pillow from crushed stone is put on bottom (it is possible slag or beaten brick, but it is less effective) not less than 15 cm thick (if with underground waters is not too safely, and it is so possible less, but not too). Material is filled not “in bulk”, but gradually and at the same time is rammed.
Recommendations to do it only if underground waters stand too highly meet. However in this case it is better not to risk as any construction of rather solid level needs needs though some drainage. We fill in pillow from filling brick with the melted bitumen. Here you should not save, but also be not fond, act accurately.
The cellar is built of the most different materials, sometimes there are enough exotic — there are even wood structures. To read about it rather funny and there are they can cheaper, but if there is no desire regularly to repair cellar or to change it in about ten years, buy only suitable materials. Approach: granite, sandstone, slate, red brick (only high-quality, good roasting), concrete blocks and cast concrete. Categorically are no good: slag stones, foam concrete, lime sand brick. In a word, everything that too willingly absorbs moisture.
A lot of things depend on structure of the soil on your site and level of underground water therefore will not give the specific recommendation, and we will just consider options. The sandy or stony soil give the chance to save and not to be engaged in floor in any way. Certainly, only in case of low underground waters. However having made choice for economy, be ready to possible flooding on spring and fall. This option is economic at first sight, but having looked once again, understand, continuous “entertainments” with floodings and running repair are not too favorable.
Concrete bed on pillow from the crushed stone which is filled in with bitumen — more expensive, but also more sensible option. Instead of bitumen (and it is possible and together) the rich clay which is previously prepared and saved from impurity is quite often used. The layer about 3 cm then it is leveled and rammed keeps within.
Concrete is filled in on clay literally right there (if you use only bitumen, time is not of particular importance) that she has not managed to dry. At the same time the timbering and concrete rather carefully is used level. Concrete layer about 10 cm, and grade of the concrete — at least M300. In one and a half-two weeks the five-centimetric tie from above is put. It is possible to use and more economic options of filling of floor — the suggested layout is used in the “heaviest” cases.
Monolithic concrete — option not the cheapest and simple, but very reliable and long-lasting. We warn, it is necessary to fill in walls at the same time that there was no tension on joints and so-called “weak points”. Means on perimeter, boards can be moved to height in process of drying.
Both boards from boards, and special construction are used. The last now not only are on sale, but also are rented, and not only through familiar builders, but also quite officially. Thickness of walls moderated — 8-10 cm, but here reinforcing is all the same desirable. The simplest single-row option becomes, but it is sound as it is necessary. Certainly, reinforcing should be prepared in advance, “having tied” it to floor.
Brick wall or concrete blocks traditionally give all the best in one row, but a lot of things depend on design of the cellar. If it partially towers above the ground and load of walls decreases, there is quite enough also this option. The distance between walls and is covered by soft clay with earth, and it should be rammed through each 35 cm approximately.
What roof is necessary to you, depends on design. It is possible to block top concrete slab, and it is possible to use bars and not eaves board (in basis). Everything depends on loading. For example, on concrete slab it is possible to fill more solid layer of earth and respectively, your cellar will have minimum temperature drops. If the roof is blocked by concrete slab and you have decided to give all the best to the maximum, then from above (on plate) roofing material on which filler (slag, crushed stone, haydite) pours is put. It is filled so that the inclination from the center to edges was formed. Further the concrete layer about 3 cm thick then the waterproofing — bitumen and roofing material follows is put.
Traditionally something becomes like small lodge over entrance to cellar. However the tradition is observed generally when it is built in any eminence. If the site at you rather equal, it is possible to put normal door (rather wide) under solid inclination and to try to think up how to protect it (and also cellar) from rainfall. We advise not to be too lazy and nevertheless to construct “lodge” at entrance. The construction this rather conditional also does not demand special skills or expenses, but here the cellar will become protected much better and with design of the building it is possible to think up much interesting.
Desire to save material and forces are natural, but here results they occasionally in unnatural results. Excessively abrupt and narrow steps are simply dangerous. Practically with guarantee that you or someone from members of your family will suffer serious injuries at excessive economy. We remind, you will rise with load. Steps at the full length of foot become and it is desirable from sound concrete with reinforcing. If there is a wish to save and make them of the same armature, do not forget to sheathe at least them rubber. It is possible also from tree if only they were convenient and reliable.
The waterproofing is obligatory — it is not subject to discussion. As we build not “temporary barracks”, but sound construction “for ages”, initially we do so that it was not necessary to remake. Before works it is required to level and plaster walls. Cement and sand solution in the ratio 1/2 is for this purpose used. The waterproofing substance is also applied on it already.
The most interesting methods — the getting waterproofing for concrete, but is more often used normal bitumen with filler. The scheme looks so: bitumen layer, then roofing material, again bitumen layer fastens. One more interesting option of waterproofing — various additives in concrete. Now they are on sale rather widely and if is there is desire and finance, we only allows for. The more carefully you will work, the better for you.
Ventilation of cellar is important for maintenance of optimum temperature and humidity. If not to take care of it, your products can just decay. The device of ventilation requires only two pipes with a diameter about 12 cm (for standard cellar). One is established under the ceiling, another is closer to floor. In total because of temperature difference (cold air falls down, warm rises upward) ventilation is provided. It is possible to hammer ventilation pipes into hard frosts from above with some heater, burlap and polyfoam is good as normal straw or dry oak leaves (resistant to rotting and almost not containing any mold dangerous to products), and.
Near cellar it is possible to plant bush or, for example, trees of dwarfish cherry. The root system at them is not dangerous to the normal building, but excess moisture will quicker leave. With the same purpose it is possible to put on roof and on each side ordinary moss. It remarkably “takes away” moisture.
The simplest methods of disinfection two — ordinary sulfuric checker and the unslaked lime put in tank with water. In both cases you need to act quickly and at all not to be late. Certainly, after application the cellar is carefully closed.
The humidity can be eliminated, having put capacity with ordinary slaked lime. However and excessive dryness too to anything. In that case the bucket with sand which periodically pours down will help.