Summer – time of intensive preparations of gifts of the generous earth. Preservation, pickles, wine and fruit liqueurs is incomplete list of what is prepared by thrifty owners for the winter. But producers of household refrigerating appliances have not thought up anything that could replace cellar. In appearance, in construction of cellar there is nothing difficult, but some defects can poison the joy of the end of hard work. So, we will start.
Definition of dimensions and location of cellar
The sizes are defined proceeding from what will be stored in it, but less than 2 by 2.5 m are not present sense to do. To optimum make with an its width of 2 m, and to choose length depending on requirements. It is possible to store the automobile rubber (there it does not will freeze and will not dry up) which has remained from repair paint (water emulsion will not lose the properties as early as years 5) in cellar, etc. The door becomes in narrow wall, having receded from one internal corner of centimeters 40. From this party it is possible to arrange number of shelves and, entering cellar, it is not necessary to bypass them. Room height has to be about 2.1 m. This size is not accidental. With this room height it is convenient to go in cellar, it is easy to arrange valance lighting, without excessive increase in height, and the microclimate well remains at the correct ventilation system. If to make door 1.9 m high, then there is enough place for creation of reliable crossing point under overlapping.
It is necessary to have cellar on the natural height. It is easy to define the place in the spring when on the site melt waters accumulate. You should not hope that if to construct in the lowland and to dump around soil, water will not go to cellar. It is possible in one case from hundred. Most likely, water gathers from the much bigger territory, than you assume, and, without having found way out, will go to the earth and, respectively, to flood cellar. In this case no waterproofing will save.
It is undesirable to attach it very close or closely to the base of the house. It will affect later. Soil in this place will begin to sink that is fraught with cracks in the base.
At marking of ditch it is necessary to consider several nuances:
- Walls have to be thickness in brick. If are planned concrete, then thickness is 15 – 20 cm. Load of overlapping will be not small.
- From outer side of wall to wall of ditch the gap not less than 10 cm is left. It will allow to make qualitative waterproofing and it is good to stamp the soil (clay) which is filled up in gap. If there are emptiness, then rain and melt waters will proceed there, causing soaking of soil in depth and its shrinkage. Cold air, passing on emptiness, causes freezing of walls and formation of hoarfrost on them. Owners of cellars will not allow to tell lies, in hard frosts it is possible to determine rat holes behind walls by paths of hoarfrost.
- Sizes of mouth (entrance) to cellar. It is desirable to count them in advance. The soil volume which is taken out under mouth concedes to cellar volume a little. Attempts to save time and forces, having arranged abrupt and low pass, are in the future fraught with injuries. The chatter-free width should be made about 90 cm. If it is more, then it is desirable to establish hand-rail on both sides. Depth of step we choose not less than 25 cm. Lifting height has to be about 15 cm, +/-2 cm. Therefore, with depth of cellar of 2.5 m, length of mouth will be about 4 m. As overlapping over mouth goes obliquely too, the gleam over ladder is defined on the edge of step. It has to be not less than 2 meters. Calculation of the minimum gleam: human height + step height.
Excavating depth is calculated proceeding from frost depth in your region. That is, earth layer thickness over overlapping has to be more or equal frost depth. It is possible to save on excavating depth, having filled over cellar the hill from excavated soil. Having covered it with the removed prime quality land, it is easy to turn the turned-out hill into excellent Alpine flower bed or multilevel bed. Other option: to construct over cellar barn. It can be anything, from the small shed for garden stock to the closed arbor. One condition – for the winter the barn has to be closed rather hermetically. Strong drafts it is worse than thin layer of embankment. In this case there is enough overlapping 50 — 60 cm thick.
Digging of ditch is begun with dredging of fertile layer. Further process does not matter, but though it and more labor intensively, when passing different layers you should not mix sand, clay and the soil in one heap. All this is useful in different places. Under ladder we leave equal slope. On each side mouths we dig trenches under walls. At least, two thirds of wall have to stand on cellar floor height. Further it is possible to make trench under inclination, to crossing point level under outer door. It is buried not less than 80 cm.
The first stage of construction of box of cellar – filling of floor. Previously on bottom of ditch the waterproofing, with rather big blousing on walls is spread. Then floor is filled in with concrete, layer it is not less than 10 cm. Not bad, for additional waterproofing to add liquid glass to solution. At the edges of tie where walls will be put up, it is desirable to fill concrete with broken glass, carefully observing safety precautions (thick mittens, points, etc.). It is additional protection against penetration of rodents. Rats are quite capable to expand with teeth slot between wall and floor. Use of glass is based on practice and has no theoretical justification, but really helps.
Walls are put up gradually, on 30 — 40 cm for once. At once the waterproofing is arranged and the space behind them is filled. Filling is carefully stamped. For waterproofing it is possible to use polymeric materials or hydrophobic cement mixes. After walls the ladder is made. It can be made brick or concrete. In the first case, at first the basis gives all the best. The brick in ranks keeps within length, with overlapping of seams in the previous row. After grasp of laying steps give all the best. When filling concrete ladder it is required to make two-layer reinforcing grid. The grid keeps within on slope with gap several centimeters. The timbering can be put at only 1 – 2 steps, gradually moving up, in process of filling.
For overlapping the concrete slab not less than 15 – 20 cm thick is filled in. Installation under it steel girders from channel will not prevent, at distance it is no more than a meter from each other. We fill in plate on site. Previously the reinforcing grid from rolling with a section not less than 8 mm prepares. The bottom of timbering is arranged so that he could be moved away completely. For this purpose in cellar the wood structure from props on which the timbering bottom keeps within is built. The filled-in plate needs to be moistened from time to time with water that there was no too intensive drying of concrete and its cracking. Approximately in week it is possible to cover overlapping with earth. Final drying of concrete will happen in few months and it will be possible to complete the cellar device, having established doors and regiments.
When mounting doors it is necessary to consider that shrinkage of cellar is possible and can warp door units. For elimination of it around box there has to be gap not less than 2 see. Having removed foam, it is easy to correct the block at any time. For inside door it is optimum to use the wooden cloth gathered from rabbeted boards with connection on shpuga. In cellar the increased humidity therefore it is necessary to leave the increased gap around cloth. For this purpose deeper quarter on box becomes. The outside door can be made of metal, with warming of cloth. If the outer door with figurine box is used, then small completion will be required. The lower crossing point of the block should not have internal quarter – threshold. The rabbet is reached at the expense of pressing of outer lining of door. At formation of condensate, it flows down on inside and, accumulating in quarter, can take tightly door ice. It is better to make the lower crossing point of corner or channel, having established it with small bias towards ladder.
For ventilation two pipes are established. One begins near floor, the second under ceiling. They are brought at the level of 1 – 2 m above the ground. It is necessary to exclude possibility of hit in them of rainfall and to provide way of their overlapping. For normal ventilation of rather waste pipe with a diameter of 50 mm. The mode of ventilation is set by practical consideration.