Table of Contents
Any person who is going to live in country house cottage it or normal giving, faces need of the device of water supply. In the modern house the bigger volume of water, than in the normal apartment is even necessary for full-fledged life. Except usual conveniences there is also bath, flower beds, kitchen garden, the greenhouse, and, perhaps, pond or the pool. All this demands additional water flows and forces to resolve issues of the water supply centralized or individual.
And if the central water supply system solves similar problems, then its absence results in need of the device of well or the well. What from them it is better? First of all, the choice depends on at what depth the water-bearing stratum lies. If water is not more deeply than 10 meters, then it is better to dig well. The bedding of water is deeper, the well equipment becomes more preferable. However it is possible only in case in top layer of soil there are not enough stones. Large number of stone inclusions complicates drilling so that it becomes simpler to dig out normal mine well even if its depth reaches 20 meters.
Besides, the well has also other advantages. The deep pump is necessary for any well. So the lack of electricity does not leave the choice, owners of such sites anyway should equip well. The following difference – in the well not really large supply of water, in its well is much more. And it is possible to take it not only bucket, but also the same pump.
But digging of well is not similar to normal digging out of hole in any way. First of all, any place of the site does not suit for it, the well has to be removed from pollution sources. Digging is followed by large number of excavated soil that demands the organization of export. Well and, the main thing, well – rather difficult construction assuming high qualification of the workers who are engaged in its device. Besides without special materials and the tool to perform similar works, especially if it is required to plunge deeply, it is almost impossible.
Let’s consider mine wells as engineering constructions. They consist of the mine which is revetted with tree, brick or concrete from within, in which the lifting collar, and covers or roofs is built in. Instead of the elevator the elevator crane can be arranged.
As on what depth it is necessary to dig well was mentioned above, depends on depth at which water-bearing layer lies. The water receiving part (submerged in sheet of water) at the expense of different lengths of trunk can be below this level, at its bottom or above. At non-pressure water-bearing layer the mirror of water of well remains flush with mirror of the water horizon, at skid rises above.
Wells in which water inflow happens only through bottom without participation of walls are considered as imperfect, and are called key. And those which filling happens also through stacks – the national teams. Rings, or felling walls in the water receiving parts which are below mirror of sheet of water in collecting wells are supplied with openings, and in key wells of it it is not required.
If daily requirement water is not big, then the key well is equipped if it it is required more – assembly. The more deeply in water-bearing stratum there is mine, the more will arrive waters. When the cut of trunk gets water-bearing layer bottom, the well is considered perfect and its walls which are below water mirror are carried out by permeable. If and in such well of water it appears less necessary, the sumpf buried in waterproof layer is arranged. It becomes the additional reservoir collecting water in well.
It should be noted that the cross size of the well mine, diameter of rings and the area of trunk felling influence productivity very little. Therefore choose them proceeding from convenience of earthwork operations. Most often it is 0.8 — 1.5 meters.
The taste of the water lifted from wooden well in many respects depends on wood which goes for construction of felling. Physical and chemical properties of water also can sometimes depend on it.
Wood of oak, elm, hornbeam, alder or larch best of all is suitable for underwater part of well. Among them the hornbeam and oak are the most long-lasting breeds, under water they serve 20 — 25 years and 50 — 60 years in surface part. Surface part can be executed from pine, cheaper material. It is desirable that the logs intended for felling have been previously sustained and had the identical, not too large diameter (about 150 millimeters). Preparations up to 2 meters long before endurance have to be sanded up and put for drying and storage indoors. The logs which are stored without protection will be affected by rain, the sun and winds, most likely, will crack deeply and for well felling will become unsuitable.
Oak preparations within 2-3 months dry, then of them it is made and carefully the felling gathers. Its parts are numbered by indelible paint then the felling understands, and logs are put for 1-2 years in flowing water – thus, the stained oak turns out. Exhaust only wreaths which will be under water (10-12 wreaths). After staining of part have to be dry-through again and only after that they can be used for production of felling.
It is the simplest to construct wooden wells of square section, usually and do. First of all, from sanded up logs the felling of the necessary sizes gathers on the earth. The ends are cut without the rest “in claw”. Instead of logs also the bar of the 150th h150 millimeters can be used, it is much simpler to tie up it in corners. One more material which will be suitable for assembly of felling – plate (the log with a diameter of 20 millimeters dismissed lengthways). In this case in well their flat parties have to be turned.
The surface of plates turned in well, bars or logs are carefully processed by electroplane or the jointer plane, not to have splittings, roughnesses, hangnails, and chips. Timber works are carefully adjusted (the tightness of design depends on it) and gather on dowels. The main task – to achieve tightness, the felling should not miss pollution in well trunk. Each wreath is marked for exact subsequent assembly. Brackets adjacent wreaths connect, bars sew corners, outside vertical boards the middle will connect. So try to obtain rigidity of design at possible distortions at its mounting in the mine.
The felling can gather both from below up, and on the contrary, and the technology of mounting will depend on mine depth. When soil allows if the entering of water is not too big, the mine up to 6 meters comes off all the way down and temporary fastening is arranged. The binding strengthening keeps within on bottom, for convenience of work can be floored. Then from below up according to marking the felling prepared in advance gathers.
If the condition of soil or depth of the mine do not allow to use the technology described above, it is necessary to arrive differently and to collect felling from top to down:
- at first in the way described above the mine comes off on possible depth to the maximum, the felling gathers as well as in the previous option — from below up, up to the height of 2-3 wreaths over earth surface;
- then soil is undermined on 20-25 centimeters in the middle of each of felling walls, wedges are hammered into the dug-out part;
- soil on felling corners comes off;
- wedges from the middle are released, and the ready felling precipitates on the dug-out depth;
- three previous actions repeat.
When lowering to the mine the felling can jam. For its draft the load which weight can sometimes reach several tens tons is used. But building of wreath from below even more difficult procedure. Therefore in the diameter the mine has to be dug out with stock, and the lower felling is supplied with the widened boot and cutting edge on outside contour.
Certainly, the wooden well can please eye and taste (special smack of water), however presently it is almost completely forced out by the well made of steel concrete. Steel concrete wells are more long-lasting, do not grow with mold and do not demand scarce not cheap waterproof wood.
Main advantages of construction of concrete well: availability of materials (cement, crushed stone, sand) and construction speed (there is no need for long preparation of wood). Besides also special qualification is not required. Sand for well has to be large, sifted on the metal gauze and cleaned from dirt. The cement acquired long ago, which even has not dampened will not approach – the grade of cement worsens over time and it loses the knitting properties. Also the reinforcing bar is required.
The trunk of concrete well is made in two ways: from ready rings or monolithic in timbering.
- The trunk made of concrete rings
Concrete rings can be cast manually. Thickness of walls will be 100 millimeters, otherwise mesh reinforcement will not allow concrete mix to fill completely gap between internal and outside timbering. But ready rings which are issued for the systems of the sewerage, inspection chambers, water supply system, etc. are most often used. Rings have diameter in 100 centimeters and smooth or step end faces. When using rings with smooth end faces it is necessary to provide their coupling for exception of shifts during mounting. In end faces 6 slots (depth of 100 millimeters, diameter of 20 millimeters) can be drilled by the perforator. The marking for drilling becomes on template, thus, slots in different rings will match. Probes of suitable diameter are hammered into the slot of upper cut. The ends of probes are ground on cone with the blunted top. Such cone will help to combine openings of upper and lower ring. If rings are made independently, then mortgage elements can be provided in advance.
Rings can be connected also by means of bolted or brackets of steel pads. Such type of connection not only will prevent side shift, and will provide longitudinal tie that is necessary in cases when the trunk collected in advance falls to the mine.
When the trunk collected in advance falls to the mine, it is desirable it, as well as in case with wooden felling, to supply with the boot having cutting edge. If with concrete rings assembly, but not key, in sidewalls of water receiving part of ring openings in which water will inflow have to have well. That together with water sand and dirt did not get to alignment of well, from within they are filled up with coarse gravel, and outside — small. But it is the best of all even if other rings are got in finished form, to make water receiving part independently as ring of open concrete. As option also normal concrete in which from porous there will be only inserts can be applied.
In preparation of open concrete sand is not used, and as filler crushed stone with grain more grains of the sand making water-bearing stratum by 10 times undertakes. Crushed stone is enveloped in sour cream figurative solution of cement, keeps within timbering or form and is slightly stamped.
Assembly of steel concrete well is made on the technology repeating assembly technology of wooden felling. The difference is that under the lower ring wedges are not driven in, and deepenings into which wooden chocks or bricks are inserted are dug out. Then other earth is dug out and the ring falls by support. Then the same actions make under other support and put ring on soil. Such way is applicable if depth does not exceed 6 meters. In deeper mines the opening to water-bearing stratum is dug out at once, and rings fall in turn. To avoid collapse of walls of the mine struts are established.
However the concrete wells mounted from ready rings have the shortcomings, main of which – insufficient tightness on joints.
- Monolithic well from concrete
It is more effective to build mine wells in the way of continuous concreting – it will help to avoid abutting connections. At such option on the flat platform the boot for mounting of the lower concrete part of well is established. On boot the double-sided timbering is mounted. The timbering of outer side is lifted to 10 centimeters, and internal arranged as belts — metal or plywood sheets with height in 20-30 centimeters. Everyone the subsequent strip is put after previous is filled with concrete to the top level. After the ring reaches height in 100 centimeters, it falls by bottom of the mine which is dug out a little more than it is demanded by ring height.
In the established ring the armature acting from its end faces is increased then the outside timbering, and after it is established, the same as it became before, internal. Concreting happens stages to gradual building of sheets of internal timbering. After the second ring is concreted on all height, the mine goes deep and the concrete trunk falls by grade level. The cycle is repeated so many time how many it is demanded by design depth. Over earth surface the trunk exit to 0.75 — 0.8 meters is mounted.
For brick well comes off round, the mine is not less than a meter in the diameter. The thickness of course depends on well depth: up to 6 meters – in one brick and one and a half bricks for deeper. The laying is conducted with use of the framework strut increasing rigidity. The framework represents 3 horizontal rings connected by means of 6 vertical rods. At the lower, steel concrete massive ring the terminal edge is fettered by iron knife. Height of the lower ring not less than 100 — millimeters, and diameter is at 5-millimeters more, than at other rings of framework.
The second and third ring are made of wood, their outside diameter is equal to the outside diameter of laying, internal is 20 millimeters more, and height – 80 millimeters. In each of rings openings on circle, 6 pieces on 32 millimeters are evenly drilled. Rods with diameter not less than 15 millimeters will be inserted into these openings. In this quality reinforcing bars can be used.
Rods fasten to the lower ring, are clamped by nuts with washers. After that the average ring is put on, and the received design falls to the mine. Then the upper ring is fixed. Rods can have half of depth of the mine, then the average ring provides 12, but not 6 openings. In 6 the probes going from the lower ring, and are fixed in others 6 – from upper. When rods are equal to well depth, in the middle they are wedged on average ring and reliably fixed. It is the most convenient to use three-meter pins of M16 for rods. They are increased by thick nuts – six-sided 100 millimetric bars with thread of M16 drilled through on a turn-key basis 27. The average ring in that case conveniently is fixed at the necessary height between two nuts.
After installation of framework start directly brickwork to which check apply ring template. In laying through each several ranks (3-5) rings from iron fine wire which is tied to rods soft wire are laid.
If water arrives through bottom and side surfaces of brick joints, then, as well as in concrete wells, between bricks it is necessary to establish evenly inserts from porous concrete. For improvement of tightness of seams liquid glass in volume of 1:10 can be added to the ready solution which is used for laying.
After the laid-out wall reaches the middle of the mine, the average ring will disturb laying. Therefore it or moves above, and then falls by the last number of the laid-out bricks, or bricks are trimmed and densely keep within under average ring. The following row gives all the best over average ring. In the same way it is necessary to arrive also with the last spread row at the level of upper ring. This ring after the termination of laying densely sits down on bricks and drags on nuts. Later it will serve for fastening of cover of well or its roof.
Well from stone
Instead of brickwork the mine can be revetted with stone. In this case the laying happens in the same way to use of framework. Stones are selected by the size and keep within with bandaging when the small emptiness which are formed between large stones are filled with solution. The largest stones are applied to the lower ranks. As well as in option of brick well through 12-20 centimeters the wire the increasing durability keeps within.
Each well shall be closed for protection of water against hit of garbage, dust and dirt. The device of cover or construction of roof over alignment of well does not depend on how it has been built and the choice of their design is regulated only by taste and convenience of owners.
To find out, water from your well is how suitable for drink, it is necessary to hand over its test on the analysis.
Drinkable water is considered at such standards:
- no more than 30 points of chromaticity;
- not less than 30 centimeters of transparency on standard pin;
- no more than 10 Mg/l content of nitrates;
- it is no more than 2-3 points of smell and taste;
- on 1 liter of water it is no more than 10 colibacilli.
However if water which the well established on the site slightly gives falls short of required standards, then it is not so terrible – the modern systems of cleaning quite cope with final cleaning.
It is natural that the water intended for watering or other economic needs is regulated not so strictly, practically any well water suits for it.