Table of Contents
What should we build the house?
First of all, it costs nerves. I assure — to worry there is nothing. To build the full-fledged winter house for full-time residence independently — task quite achievable and actually not difficult (as it is easy to tell it, when the main work already behind). What for this purpose is necessary? First of all, huge desire to have own house where behind wall music at drunk neighbors where you are not afraid that the child who has played in the bathroom will fill in with water of neighbors from below does not play, and you will not be flooded by neighbors from above. Generally it is only necessary to want.
Then time is necessary – construction takes away lot of time, believe! By the way, quite we solve matter of time, it is possible to build, say, after work and on the days off and also on issue. I built the house two seasons.
Further will be necessary as it is banal sounds – money. With money as it usually happens, not everything is so simple, more precisely, not easy with requests which you to yourself define. Here each trifle is taken into the account: material and its quality, your weakness and members of household on leyba of the producer of this or that material whether you dig holes under the base or you employ the equipment and so on. Personally I doing all 100%. Paid only for material in the price and quality which tried to stick to notorious golden mean (who would know that it is it is this golden mean). My creation six by eight meters have cost much to me not. The house, from bar 150х150, with inhabited penthouse and the total living space of 96 sq.m. has turned out actually. Roof from metal tile with polymeric covering. Here local water supply, heating, the sewerage, registration and laying of the electric line to the house (300 meters), interior and exterior finish, windows with double-glazed windows, well and other household little things in life in the form of toilet bowl and the bathroom has entered. Any gold switches, peacocks under window and other glamour. Also the sums were included into this such necessary devices in construction as the chainsaw, the generator on 3 kW the electro concrete mixer, and further on trifle, part of the small electric tool remained with me since former times.
Also It is necessary to tell that all rated sum is not required to you forward, all and at once at all. To start construction, for the first season not a lot of money is quite enough. On this money become the base, walls rise, and all this is covered with roof. On time, spending for work for 4-5 evening hours — carrying out all these works keeps within 3-4 months (ideally June – September). These terms have also included technology breaks in works, such as base sediment, interruptions in supply of material or trip to rest by all family.
Ideally two assistants will be useful for work one. Of course, with such deal work will go quicker, but quite really to make everything and absolute SOLO (the truth in this case not to do without certain share of ingenuity and skill)
The first step is the hardest
We, of course, begin construction of the house with bases – from the base. On the Internet and books there is mass of information on how to do where and on what soil. Personally this abundance has thrown me in shock and nearly has forced to refuse the invention. By what horrors authors only do not frighten the beginning builder. We do not listen to anybody — everything elementary (with rare exception constructions on swamps). It is known that the construction subject on marshy soils and is forever solved for a long time.
Ideally, on all types of wooden houses the continuous small buried footing approaches. It is carried out in the form of the tape cast in timbering steel concrete monolithic. On 300 mm buried to the soil and on 200 rising over ground level.
Personally I did the pillar-pile base therefore I will in more detail describe it. The soil on my site represents the clay monolith going down on unknown depth. At the same time underground waters are extremely highly located that is not the best combination for construction. The clay impregnated with water, according to authors of many works on construction, can “tie node” any steel concrete tape (I do not know, did not see). But slightly frightened of writers, and generally for profitability reasons, I have put foundation of the house on superficially cast piles.
Has begun with division of land. For this purpose the cord, pegs and hydrolevel was necessary. Hydrolevel represents two transparent plastic flasks connected by plastic tube and filled with water. Works by the principle of communicating vessels — thing in construction extremely useful and repeatedly applied, buy, without thinking.
So, we mark the place where there will be our house, we break pegs between which the cord stretches. Then we define spaces for digging of holes for piles. It is possible to drill openings under piles petroldrill, it is possible by machine, I dug everything in manual. In my case twelve piles have turned out. On five from sides and on 3 from end faces. Now I can tell that the quantity of piles from lateral faces can be reduced by 1 pile from each party. Holes under piles dug on one meter of 70 cm and 600 600 mm in depth.
On bottom of holes the sandy pillow as depth explicitly is lower than the level of freezing, not thick 200 mm thick was filled. Then have been welded from armature with a section of 12 mm of pyramid of reinforcing of future piles. Truncated pyramids two meters high, in the basis 550kh 550mm, in top 400kh 400mm, are made of 4 fittings of racks with the cross-pieces and hay crops of rigidity welded on them in any order. This design fell to hole, was established on one height concerning other piles by means of hydrolevel.
Then the timbering has been established and filling was carried out by concrete mix. On the bottom (in the first third of filling) solution was filled in with ratio: 1 measure of cement of brand 500 on 3 measures of sand and 2 measures of filling brick. In the second third of filling the amount of sand has been reduced by 1 measure. And in the last third filling brick has been completely excluded from structure. Have so risen from the earth on half-meter of pile of future house.
Until to load-carrying structures of the base time for sediment was allowed, has appeared opportunity without hurrying to make crossing points between piles. I have decided to make them of lightweight aggregate blocks. To cast itself, for the purpose of saving of time, did not become: has bought on system to base ready. For mounting of crossing points between piles not deep trenches 300 mm wide and 250 mm in depth have been dug out. Then on 200 mm of trench have been filled up with sand (for the purpose of tamper sand has been spilled by water). The remained 50 mm are filled up with crushed stone and spilled by liquid cement slurry. On this basis then the wall – crossing point from lightweight aggregate blocks 200kh 400mm has been laid out by the size. The crossing point gave all the best thickness in block floor on cement slurry one to three cement and sand respectively.
The base was ready. All work has from beginning to end taken one month.
Walls are our everything!
Two weeks when I was engaged in construction of crossing points between piles, I have considered sufficient for abutment of piles. Therefore, without postponing, the bar for walls was purchased. The bar was bought natural humidity, 150kh 150mm, without grandstanding, the cheapest. Twenty cubes by my calculations had to be enough for me. Besides the board cube 100kh 25mm, three cubes of board 150kh 50mm, and one cube of bar 50kh 50mm has been ordered.
Process of assembly of walls of bar is simple. The bar keeps within one on another with warming between wreaths (in my case jute). I joined corners on thorn. In one bar the groove was cut, in the second thorn then they kept within into place and came down. Between wreaths on corners no bandaging became, but on perimeter surely fastened dowels. For this purpose by means of drill with a section of 26 mm on tree and drill through two wreaths in the third the opening in which the wooden dowel was driven was drilled. Nagel I did of the birch handles bought in shop for rake with a section of 25 mm. They enter ideally. It is necessary to calculate length of dowel and depth of opening so that the dowel was 50 – 60 mm shorter than opening, and it should not be driven not to the bottom, and with calculation of 25 mm of free wheeling up and down. The dowel has to enter rather easily, and at all not from sledge hammer — wreaths have to have freedom for shrinkage.
In places of the planned window and door openings laying is carried out with the admission of one, two wreaths. Afterwards, after shrinkage of the house, the aperture will be sawn completely through and issued. There are many ways of registration of apertures and this subject demands separate article.
I built house box three weeks. Having lifted twenty wreaths, was engaged in rafter systems and roof. On box of felling we install rafter systems. I knocked together 150х50 triangles from boards. At the height of 2500 mm the board for rigidity was beaten horizontally and also afterwards to these boards penthouse ceiling furring fastened. The bottom side of triangle at the same time was beam of floor of penthouse and ceiling beam of the first floor.
Beams at me have turned out long 7000 mm, they supported limits of walls on 500 mm, providing sufficient overhang of roof. Except horizontal rigidity at distance of 500 mm from edge of each transfer – beam, the vertical racks giving additional rigidity are established. Triangles of rafters are established through each meter, their 9 pieces. On already established rafters the waterproofing (at me is universal nanoizol) was tense.
Over isolation furring is started up. I carried out furring from eaves board 100kh 25mm. Furring is not continuous, distance between boards of 200 mm.
Then on furring the metal tile has been sewn, and on it I have winded down the work of the first season. Till spring the felling needs to settle, and continuation of works is possible only after that.
The second breakthrough
Began in the spring with has spent on drink window and door openings and pediments. Work is the simple, and suffering all different variations. For pediments all from the same board 150х50 we knock together framework, putting places of future window openings of penthouse in its design. Then, outside on framework the hydra waterproofing material is let.
On isolation furring from board 100kh 25mm is outside sewed, and on it it is already possible to fix external finishing. From within we fill space between racks and cross-pieces of framework of pediment with heater (I have made it min. cotton wool).
Then we sew furring from bar 50kh 50mm. At me this furring is located vertically with the interval between bars equal to width of sheet of mineral wool. The second layer of heater is put between furring racks.
Not to puzzle with air layers I used membrane vapor barrier with the reflecting covering. The vapor barrier has been sewn by the stapler directly on furring, and then moisture resistant gypsum cardboard from above has been attached.
According to the same scheme also the roof (walls) and ceiling of penthouse have been warmed. All partitions in the house are also made of gypsum cardboard, and the framework collected from metalprofile is taken as basis. For this work has left about a month.
As there is a wish for conveniences!
Time to be engaged in communications, and first of all — the sewerage has come. For it two wells of the collector which are reported among themselves the trench filled with crushed stone mixed up with sand have been dug out (just two holes of 2 meters in depth). Walls of holes are strengthened by old tires from machines. From holes to the house the trench in which have put waste pipe with a section of 110 mm has been dug. The trench has turned out about a meter depth. One pipe end leaves tank of the septic tank buried under the house, the second, clear comes to well.
The tank septic tank at such arrangement naturally has to be closed most hermetically, it is still connected also with the fact that the culture of fecal bacteria working in it extremely does not love open air. Waste only from toilet bowl comes to tank septic tank, other drainings of the house go, passing septic tank, in pipe and to holes on pipe.
As the underground waters mentioned above on my site are extremely high, and it interfered with fast diffusion of waters from holes of collectors to the soil, it was necessary to carry out the general water drainage from the site — drainage. Drainage trenches, sand-filled have been for this purpose dug on site border, crushed stone and small construction waste, have made water drainage towards ravine.
Then time for water supply has come. For the first year, being filled up with the general works, I have decided not to subtilize and provide only uninterrupted supply with service water (drinking it is always possible to bring from the spring or to buy, eventually). For this purpose in 20 meters from the house the well 4 meter depths has been dug out.
The well dug in August when the level of underground water is lowest. During the most droughty period, reserve of service water in well at me it has turned out cube order. From well to the house the trench of 1 meter in depth has been dug through. In it the water pipe is laid.
In addition to warm water supply system, the pipe (pumping water) it is passed in other pipe — section waste pipe with a section of 110 mm. I bought sections for convenience of mounting on 1.5-2 meters.
From well to the house water is pumped by means of the pumping station as which also maintenance of constant pressure in water system of the house enters.
Heating has risen some problem, gas of message it has appeared far therefore and it is expensive. But having counted expenses on different solutions of this problem, was defined in favor of electricity.
On the total costs the second season of construction all communications, windows and doors, exterior finish by siding without outside warming have entered. There was final interior finish.
But, at least, more than a half of works is already made: the roof over the head is, walls – our protection, conveniences – need. For the rest, having done for the first time everything listed in uniform complex, I at last, have understood what to me there was house to construct, and it is regarding not only some money. Well, but, the inexpressible feeling of own slope compensated all monetary, physical and moral expenses. Believe me when the house already stands, and you in it create own space when the house – the yesterday’s box in the eyes becomes the dwelling, for the sake of it is worth deciding on construction of own house and to pass all stages from beginning to end.