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The natural stone in construction and finishing of rooms is used many centuries. But if earlier preference this material was given more at construction of buildings, then today the bigger emphasis is placed on its decorative component. Many design projects of country house construction mean use of decorative stone for finishing of walls: internal and external. Besides, in many apartments it is possible to meet zones or rooms where the interior is issued also by means of this material.
Decorative stone: types and advantages
All stone decorative material is subdivided into two volume groups which classify proceeding from naturalness of tiles. Today preferences are given to artificial options, however the natural natural stone is also widely applied to finishing work.
The following rocks usually occur among offers:
- Metamorphic – quartzite, marble, onyx;
- Sedimentary – sandstone, megrel, limestone, dolomite;
- Magmatic – basalt, granite, diorite.
The natural decorative stone is allocated with high resistance to many factors:
- To chemical and hostile environment;
- To the sun and artificial light;
- To frost;
- To moisture in all its manifestations.
Besides, it is very durable material having quite good heat-insulating indicators that provides additional comfort and heat in the house when finishing walls with natural material.
Essential shortcomings at natural decorative stone two:
- High cost;
- Big variability of drawings of surface within one party.
For this reason more and more preferences are given to artificial analog which use is not connected with such bad points. At the same time the artificial stone has all advantages of natural breeds.
Classify decorative material of not natural origin by exterior of surface which happens:
- Sawn, having smooth edges;
- Chipped, that is deckle-edged, as if damaged by the hammer;
- Butova as close as possible in form to boulders;
- Any, having the irregular design shapes;
If to consider finishing stones in terms of breeds, then preferences are given to the following names irrespective of natural origin material or artificial: slate, sandstone, onyx, granite, marble, labradorite, limestone. At the same time marble, onyx and labradorite are used most often for upclassing of the room as drawings, colors and textures of these stones allow to receive unique design the decision in interior.
Laying of decorative stone
Use of decorative stone for finishing of the room frightens many inexperienced masters, however in these works there is nothing difficult. Only, this material does not love vanity therefore all works need to be done with certain pauses and breaks. For a start it is worth specifying one moment – wall decoration stones is conducted only when after construction there have passed not less than 6 months.
Till the direct beginning of works of wall it is necessary to prepare.
For each type of surface there are nuances:
- The brick wall is cleaned from large roughnesses, closed by the metal gauze and plastered;
- The gypsum plasterboard wall fastens slightly stronger than the standard and is qualitatively grounded;
- The concrete wall is cleaned, primer is applied at the request of builders.
Other type of walls is also put in order, that is all obviously expressed roughnesses are removed, and the surface is exposed to priming.
Further mounting on one of schemes is conducted:
- From above or from below from corner;
- With seams or end-to-end.
Before the wall is covered with glue and laying of decorative finishing stone will begin, it is worth trying to collect the planned drawing on floor. It will allow to decide on the sequence of the choice of stones and to achieve optimum design of wall. If the decorative stone needs undercutting, then it is possible to make it by means of the normal Bulgarian and disk on concrete.
Mounting is conducted on normal tiled glue, but divorced to more stiff consistency. It is better to stack the first row, being guided by indications of construction level that will allow to receive equal horizontal. Between ranks usually leave intervals for seams. To achieve identical distance use improvised materials: gypsum cardboard for creation of wide seam, cardboard – for narrow.
Laying of stones is conducted slowly as the main objective of the master to achieve high-quality coupling of the basis of tile with wall. For this purpose apply rubber hammer which the stone is “driven” in glue solution.
After laying of the first row it is worth taking break so far glue will not stiffen, and only then to continue works. Having finished registration of wall, it is possible to start additional dressing, that is finishing of seams. For this purpose intervals between tiles fill with grout solution or the special fugue which can be chosen even to match the drawing of decorative stone.
That life cycle of stone wall was longer, it is possible to varnish it. This stage is recommended at registration of interior of kitchen and the dining room. If decorative tiles are used for the bathroom, then processing by the water repellent agent for protection of surface against moisture will be required.
The gravel is in many respects more convenient than simple facing tile as does not demand accurate alignment of surface level and careful determination of distance between ranks. But it also leads to the fact that masters relax and make mistakes.
Are the most typical:
- Creation of very wide seam that gives to laying untidiness and carelessness;
- Poor quality of preparatory work – bad primer of walls not for long maintains the big weight of tiles, and stones fall off;
- Damage of stone when undercutting;
- The unsuccessful drawing from tiles, bad selection of color and texture;
- Violation of horizontal of the first row that forces down arrangement of all subsequent ranks.
That it was not necessary to redo work, you should not hurry then the result will be qualitative and attractive externally.
Decorative stone the hands
Seldom, but happens and so that it is impossible to find decorative stone of the necessary color or form in shops. If you accurately represent that you want to see on walls of the house, then it is possible to make stones independently. The procedure of production is simple. Forms for tiles can be got in hardware store or too to make with own hands.
The sequence of all complex of works will be following:
- We choose stone sample for creation of form (or several stones).
- We prepare timbering from box of the bigger size which thickly and carefully we cover with solid oil.
- We stack stone and we fill in with silicone which surface we level the brush, the wetted in soap solution.
- In 2-3 weeks we take out stone, we check integrity of form and we start production of decorative tiles.
- Cement and sand is mixed in the ratio 3 to 1 and we add dye of the necessary shade of 2-3% to all mix. The density of solution has to be as quality sour cream.
- We pour out mix to half in form and we condense with percussion (about a minute).
- We stack the reinforcing layer in the form of the metal gauze.
- We fill in with similar solution, but without dye.
- We do grooves by means of stick that has to provide the best stickiness further when laying.
- In 12 hours the stone is ready.
The tiles received thus can be used for external and interior finish of walls. Except this method there are also other ways of receiving artificial decorative stone, and if desired it is possible to master technologies in perfection. It will allow to save properly at repair and finishing of rooms.
Decorative stone in interior
Decorative tiles can be used for fragmentary wall decoration or full. In the first case it is worth taking care of pointed lighting of the site trimmed with stone beforehand. Such approach is used for zoning and placing of accents in interior.
Also the stone perfectly looks together with greens and plants, especially at registration of arches and small portals.
Most often the decorative stone is applied to finishings of such rooms as:
- Dining room.
And also for registration:
- Corners of walls.
Best of all in rooms the stone of light tones looks. Artificial lightening of the issued walls can achieve, using directional light from above or from below layings.
What decision would not be made, the decorative stone will always become decoration of the house. It will give respectability to rooms, singularity, originality and even some luster. Availability of stone decors in interior demonstrates good taste and welfare of hosts.