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The chemistry – science difficult, and not everyone owns knowledge in this area. However the one who works with the chemical compositions and provides course in them certain processes, has to have idea of the used substances. Density of epoxy resin in finished product will be high only if components are picked correctly up and optimal conditions for polymerization of structure are created.
Epoxy resins: kinds of the chemical compositions
Application of epoxy resin was also strongly included long ago into our life. In life where reliable connection or strong structure is necessary, this means is irreplaceable. Epoxy resin is one of types of synthetic pitches, the oligomer containing epoxy groups. Substance has difficult chemical formula.
Depending on structure, distinguish several types of pitches:
- Epoxy dianovas. Are actively used in life and in the production sphere. Compounds with impregnation function, bulk floor, glue structures – not the full list of use of polymers of this type.
- Epoxy dianovas, intended for production of varnishes and paints. With their help strong paint coats are created.
- Epoxy modified. Are used for carrying out repair work.
- Special epoxy resins. Features of structures (with chlorine, resorcin, etc.) allow to apply them in special conditions.
Any epoxy resin consists of two components – directly pitch as the main substance and hardener. Different fillers give to structure certain qualities.
Main consumer properties of epoxy resin
Cost of epoxy resin quite high. To gain small amount to domestic needs it is quite available, but considerable volumes demand considerable financial expenses. At the same time the popularity of substance grows. It is possible to explain this fact with availability of high consumer qualities of this polymer.
It is possible to distinguish the following from the main characteristics:
- Durability. At the high level of technological effectiveness of processes of production and application the stiffened pitch can compete to separate quality classes.
- Thermal stability. Epoxy resin can maintain influence of temperature from 200 °C and above.
- Water tightness. In firm state substance does not absorb water.
- The gluing properties. High level of adhesion and durability of connections allow to stick together big surfaces.
- Many aggressive chemicals resistance.
- Small weight of products.
These characteristics are inherent to all types of pitch. These qualities can be shown to a greater or lesser extent depending on the additives used at preparation of epoxy resin.
Helpful advice! Buying epoxy resin, surely it is necessary to define (independently on the basis of information on packaging or to ask the specialist of the selling company to provide the information on goods) purpose of structure. Even the insignificant discrepancy can affect final result.
Modern ranges of application of epoxy resin
Emergence of new structures constantly expands range of application of epoxy resins. By means of these polymeric materials it is possible not only to stick together objects and to create decorative products, furniture, but also to replace the considerable sizes metal structural elements and mechanisms, reducing their cost and losing weight.
It is possible to carry to the main scopes of epoxy resin:
- Production of composite materials. Using way of impregnation of synthetic fabrics, make fibreglass and coal plastic. Material turns out easy and strong. It is actively applied in modeling, during creation of machines, rockets, the ships, airplanes.
- Production of furniture. These are options both line (generally kitchen table-tops), and exclusive (tables from sleb, table-tops – the rivers, cards, pictures, etc.).
- Creation of electric insulation and waterproofing materials. Epoxy resin is dielectric, it is water-proof.
- Production of jewelry. Jewelry of epoxy resin (Coulomb, bracelets, brooches, etc.) inexpensive also differs in decorative effect and esthetics.
- Repair works. It is possible to fill in with epoxy resin the cracked table-top, to make new floor, to eliminate leak in the boat, to repair automobile body, using fiber glass fabric, etc.
- Production of different hand-made articles, souvenirs, bench models.
It is much simpler to work with epoxy resin, than, for example, with metal or ceramics.
Production of epoxy resin: addition to the instruction
Epoxy resin always goes complete with hardener as without it the main liquid will not stiffen. All information on how to make epoxy resin, can be read in the instruction to application. The manufacturer nevertheless does not light separate important points therefore It is necessary to tell about them separately:
- Both the shortcoming, and excess of hardener affects quality of final product. At deficit weight will be characterized by stickiness. The excessive amount of additive will accelerate polymerization process, but will lead to material cracking.
- It is necessary to stir components the subject which does not have additional elements (blades, nimbuses, curvatures, etc.). Such devices accelerate hardening process course.
- The toxicity of epoxy resin is shown in liquid state, but it is insignificant therefore airing of the room is quite enough for creation of safe conditions.
- It is impossible to allow hits of third-party liquid both in separate components, and in ready structure.
- It is necessary to mix such amount of material which can manage to be developed prior to hardening process. If nevertheless epoxy resin is prepared much, it is better to pour it in small amounts in different tanks – it will longer keep necessary viscosity.
Helpful advice! By preparation of pitch for different types of works it is necessary to observe the certain technology including right choice of structure, temperature condition, algorithm of actions and time frames.
Technology subtleties of work with epoxy resin
From the moment of preparation of mix and prior to its active hardening there are 40 minutes for which it is required to manage to spend structure. In progress of work pitch can be used as adhesive substance, for drawing top layer on the basis, for filling of cavities or special forms. Proceeding from the purpose, the necessary amount of epoxy resin has to be involved.
At the same time it is important to know polymer consumption. The exact indicator is especially relevant when considerable horizontal surfaces are filled in. For example, consumption of epoxy resin on 1 m ² table-tops – 1 l (or 1.1 kg) at thickness of layer of 0.1 cm. This quantity without additives. The average value can also differ depending on producer of polymer.
Layer of epoxy resin, optimum for hardening, – 1 cm. Thicker covering can burst during hardening. If it is required to fill in thick layer ‒ 2 and more centimeters, it is possible to do it step by step, causing structure in stages. For large volumes it is possible to pick up epoxy resin with hardener.
It is important to prepare correctly surface on which polymer will be applied:
- To remove dust.
- To degrease. If solvent was applied to these purposes, it is necessary to remove it and to wait until the remains evaporate, that is the surface will become dry.
- Wooden parts should be smoothed out abrasive paper. It will create roughnesses which will increase contact area.
- Metal surfaces need to be ground to gloss.
When pasting parts it is necessary to pull together design with clamps.
Councils for production of color epoxy resin
To be sure of result of coloring of epoxy resin, it is better to get especially for it the intended means. It is possible to find them in the shops and art salons trading in the corresponding products.
Types of paints can be the following:
- Monophonic. Give to epoxy resin certain color (blue, red, violet, etc.).
- Fluorescent. Thanks to availability as a part of lyuminoform of product gain effect of luminescence. Can give also additional color shade.
- With effect of dullness. Absorb gloss of material.
- Metallic. Products gain metal gloss.
- With spangles. The stiffened epoxy weight is poured.
On photo of epoxy resin on the Internet both types of dyes, and finished products with their application are shown. It is possible to choose desirable option of color. The type of products in many respects depends on amount of the entered dye. Several drops will keep transparency, will give subtle shade. Having increased amount of dye, it is possible to receive more expressive color. To achieve bright, deep shade, it is necessary to paint at first structure in white color, and then to add desirable shade.
Helpful advice! That there were no difficulties in work with dyes, it is better to get means of the same producer which has made epoxy resin.
Epoxy resin for creativity: features, main brands
One of qualities of epoxy resin – transparency – allows to apply this material for creative work. Similar structures use for production 3D – pictures, original table-tops, jewelry, decorative home decoration. As the great filling composition of epoxy resin is applied during creation of herbariums and different exhibition models of natural material. Fresh flowers and dried flowers, exotic species of insects, samples of minerals gain additional originality and exoticism under transparent polymeric layer.
At selection of material for creativity the class of epoxy resin is important.
The most popular transparent structures are:
- Resin Art. Substance of liquid consistence, is applied to drawing and performance of different design works. The structure gives to objects 3D – effect, creates glossy layer.
- Magic Crystal-3D. It is used at production of volume objects of the small sizes: jewelry, vases, candlesticks, charms, decorative body, etc.
- Epoxy CR 100. It is applied to creation of the products having considerable volumes and surfaces therefore goes on sale big packagings.
- ED-20. It can be used both in building sector, and for production of different decorative elements.
- Aquaglass Citrus. Quickly stiffens both in thin layer, and in thicker ‒ up to 2 cm, it is convenient to apply to performance of coverings.
- Diamant. It is used for creation of jewelry, is on sale in small volumes.
Helpful advice! Buying pitch for creativity, it is necessary to be sure that it is steady against yellowing.
Products from tree and epoxy resin the hands
Large number of photo with images of the products made of epoxy resin or using this substance is posted online. Significant amount from them is made from tree and pitch. Wood is quite often given preference because of the high level of environmental friendliness and natural decorative effect. Even the raw surfaces can be fine elements of interiors, and in case of application of accessory materials their design value increases.
Any wooden surface which even is ideally ground has time into which epoxy resin gets, creating strength connection. Therefore the combination of materials is successful for production of exclusive furniture. Epoxy resin to filling or pasting of wooden surfaces is more often applied transparent. It can be also tinted depending on design intention.
To independently make product of tree and epoxy resin simply. As an example it is possible to take the idea from the Internet. About the choice and training of epoxy structure in article it is told above, but several advice to house handymen will not be superfluous:
- for connection with epoxy resin use of only well dry-through wood is admissible;
- when filling horizontal surfaces it is necessary to maintain the strict level of arrangement of product;
- heavy mechanical load on elements with epoxy inserts can be allowed only for the 4-5th day after hardening.
Considerably enhances decorative effect of products from epoxy resin and tree availability of illuminations. About technology of creation of the shining polymers there is also information in this article.
Density of epoxy resin: standard and actual indicators
Epoxy resin differs in alkalis, halogens resistance and some types of acids. This quality is provided with the chemical composition and the main properties.
Substance in pure form, without hardeners, has the following indicators:
- the elasticity is 3000-4500 MPas;
- ultimate strength reaches 80 MPas;
- density matters 1.2 g/cm ³.
The main units by which measure density of epoxy resin, – g/cm ³ (kg/m ³).
The indicator of size can depend on the following factors:
- From temperature. The products received by hot way of hardening, more dense.
- From availability of air. Bubbles as a part of epoxy layer reduce density.
- From availability of pigmental additives. Dyes, giving decorative effect to material, reduce its density.
- From quality of hardeners. When using acid additives density of material is higher, than after application of alkaline.
Density of epoxy resin (kg/m ³ or g/cm ³) – one of key indicators of durability of the hardened material. If during operation the product made of polymer experiences considerable mechanical strain, it is necessary to pay special attention to this size.
Helpful advice! It is almost impossible to determine density of the composition of epoxy resin prepared for work in house conditions, the laboratory is for this purpose necessary. Therefore, it is possible to achieve optimum size only at respect for technological effectiveness in the course of work with polymer.
Technical indicators of ED-20 epoxy resin: density, viscosity, temperature
Broad application both on production, and in life was received by ED-20 epoxy resin. It represents the liquid substance of yellow or brown color which does not have additives. This pitch can be connected to different hardeners, depending on the purposes and the used volume use the plasticizer.
Products from ED-20 are characterized by the following qualities:
- high density and durability;
- mechanical stability;
- water tightness, dielectric properties;
- thermal stability;
- high level of adhesion;
- small weight.
The key technical parameters of pitch of this type have such indicators:
- density of ED-20 epoxy resin, kg/m ³ – 1110-1230 at cold way of curing, 1200-1270 – at hot;
- dynamic viscosity – 13-20 Pas/sec.;
- softening temperature – up to 60 °C;
- gelatinization time – 8 h.
ED-20 pitch – material universal. High level of density allows to apply it both to production of interesting jewelry, and to creation of machines, the ships, airplanes. This polymer also is parts of paint and varnish products.
Important! It is possible to store ED-20 pitch only in densely closed capacity at temperature not above 40 °C.
Polyester resin: how to work, toxicity of structure
In industrial production large amount of pitches is applied. In life the most acceptable – epoxy and polyester. Both options – thermosetting plastic, after hardening they cannot be returned to liquid state. Polymerization process of polyester resins begins at stage of their production on production. The hardeners going in set only accelerate this reaction.
From here it is possible to draw conclusion that polyester resin will harden also without additive, but the special relevance is acquired by structure effective life.
From the main advantages of polyester resins it is possible to allocate:
- low cost;
- fast curing;
- lack of intensive change of viscosity.
Level of harm of polyester resin low though polymer has quite expressed smell. At long contact and indoors the structure can cause irritation of upper airways and reddening at hit on skin. It is simple to work with polyester resin. Hardener, or more precisely the accelerator, it is necessary to pour in the proportions recommended by the manufacturer, to stir not intensively (it will help to avoid emergence of bubbles) within 2 minutes.
Hardener in polyester resin carries out catalyst role, that is at its addition heat production, activating polymerization process begins. It is possible not to bring additives in this type of pitch, and to use external sources of heat.
Helpful advice! You should not apply polyester resin on epoxy layer – substances will be stratified.
Whether epoxy resin and as far as is harmful to health
As for epoxy resin, the words “chemical”, “synthetic”, “reaction”, “polymerization” and more difficult frightening names of substances are constantly used. It is easy to association to guess – continuous chemistry, so, harmfully. In contents of article there were already attempts to take up the matter, but it is so important and relevant that it is worth stopping on it more thoroughly.
Once again there is a wish to pay attention that the harm of epoxy resin is connected only with its liquid state. At steam inhalation there can be discomfort in stomach, headache, cough. It is easy to avoid all this if to work indoors with ventilation, and it is even more reliable – in respirator. At infrequent contact with structure of problems usually does not arise. The same who is engaged in industrial production are most protected from influence of hazardous substances.
After hardening epoxy resin is non-toxical. If carrying Coulomb or bracelet has caused certain negative reaction, it, most likely, is connected with specific features of organism, with allergic reaction to specific substances. More often it is materials on the basis of which the decorative coat of product, but not its main part is executed.
To avoid hit of pitch on skin, it is worth working in gloves with rubber or other similar impregnation. Epoxy resin does not cause burns, but it is necessary to remove it at hit as soon as possible: because of body temperature it will begin to stiffen, and then it will be more complex to move away her – solvents which are toxic more pitch will be necessary.
To some extent work with epoxy resin – trial and error method. In article information which will help to avoid problems at least partially is placed. If desire is complemented with the correct organization of working process, knowledge of features of the used materials, result it will be obligatory to please.