Table of Contents
Often the decision on construction of country house in representations of future builder communicates, first of all, with construction process. But to start this stage, it is necessary to set starting point – the project.
The market of design services is quite specific and very saturated. The appeal to its help will demand accounting of some nuances. First of all, the possible project cost which is caused by set of parts: the volume and depth of study, format of the project documentation and its final form, quantity of the offered versions of decisions and other nuances. Some design organizations can pay not enough attention to such important stage, focusing forces on the choice of more favorable construction jobs in the production plan. Especially it is peculiar to the companies which undertake performance of all complex of construction, begin m of preparation of the project documentation and download delivery of turnkey ready object. Therefore it will be better if choice is made in favor of the specialized engineering firm suitable it is more responsible to problem.
The choice of the architect – very responsible stage. How such specialist will work, will depend how comfortable will be life in the built house. To revaluate value of design very difficult
Design of cottage, in fact, designates full arrangement of the house. Therefore work with the designer becomes very important point. It is important to understand as far as the architect not only is armed with knowledge of the theory, construction technologies, design styles and receptions, to listen to wishes and the ideas of the customer, its vision of the house.
It is rather easy to give in to aura of professionalism of the expected designer. But it is necessary to know that the architect, most often, relies on the receptions and the ideas usual for it personally and repeatedly tested – it much more facilitates its task, but can not match your desires. Quite often its offers can be under the influence of possibility of technologies of the construction organization cooperating with it. Naturally, it will impose restrictions for the creative party of work.
Of course, to opinion of the architect it is necessary to listen, it is quite possible that your desires are simply impracticable or break construction technologies. But at the same time it cannot be dogma. Prevailing have to become your intentions which can change in view of invariable construction laws, but the main idea offered by you has to be embodied nevertheless. Therefore establishment of human contact between the architect and the customer is important.
But in order that your ideas really could be realized, it is necessary to pay special attention to drawing up the preliminary specifications. On its base further will also be under construction all works of designers.
As a rule, the technical project joins detailed information on purpose of the building and its certain rooms, structures of the house and space-planning decisions. Here it is desirable to include the wishes concerning utilities (sewerages, water supply system, current networks, heating and communication networks) and to materials of enclosing structures.
In what look the project documentation — on CD-disk will be provided or the drafted on normal leaf – is not of particular importance. First of all, it has to be technological, laconic and clear for the operator. To the customer, for a start, the approved part called by the for-project, or conceptual design which can quite give complete idea of architectural component suffices. Actually, it becomes fundamental for construction of cottage.
The result of work on conceptual design becomes the provisional solution reflecting the structural concept of the building consisting of several elements: sketches of facades, partial or full visualization (at the request of the customer), floor-by-floor design, etc. At the same stage also the estimated cost of future works is determined.
After the approval of the initial project, to the architect development of workshop drawings can be received. It is desirable that both stages were developed by one person – it will help to avoid probable inconsistencies and pads at construction.
Usually designers offer one of possible options: standard project, options of possible change of such projects and special designs. The last differ in the fact that your house will not have any “double”, and will become absolutely unique. But it should be taken into account that copyright of development will remain for the architect, and in the future he will be able quietly to offer it to other buyers. Of course, if means allow, it is possible to afford also such luxury, but it will be much simpler to choose for itself something among the numerous earlier developed options. Especially any project not just repeats in any place, and surely becomes attached to the specific area. Besides the experienced designer will consider structure and condition of the soil, depth of underground waters and many other things.
The main component of the project – the album of architectural concepts consisting from:
- building bindings to the site;
- all necessary drawings;
- explanatory note.
Development of the project at design of the house which is on own site is especially important. In such cases the project of the building is used at approval of building in relevant authorities. If the house is built in garden partnership or holiday village, the mentioned permissions are not required.
Development of the work documentation becomes final stage. In its framework detailed study of exterior of facades, plans of floors, decisions for interior and external finish is carried out. At this stage projects of internal engineering networks are developed and options of the organization of interiors can be considered.
The work documentation of the project has to include:
- design and calculation bases;
- study of loadings of the building;
- calculation of the sizes of elements of the building.
Without carrying out similar calculations unpleasant circumstances are guaranteed during construction jobs.
Can seem that it is minor question. In fact it not so. Despite additional expenses (not too big), it is possible to be sure that the embodiment of intention will be under constant control. The architect throughout all construction will constantly monitor work flow, since breakdown of sites of the building, and finishing with the roof device. As a result he will act as the interested and authorized representative of the customer.
Similar control is necessary proceeding from several reasons. It will help to save time and will not allow builders to show dishonesty which can lead even to such unpleasant situations as dismantling of the built house.
Choice of the architect
The big name of architectural firm or the architect flashing in advertizing or known from specialized magazines, not always becomes the key to success. First of all, the cost of the services provided by them can be unreasonably high. Besides practical experience and the professional maturity replaced with commercial promotion it will not be obligatory to correspond to the cost of services.
To anything on blueprint stage to study house interior to trifles, to select furniture, textiles and another. Of course, it is worth thinking of it, but conceptually, arrangement of interior is most of all subject to changes.
Often architectural projects of the companies are most of all completed with interior drawings that creates illusion of completeness. But other drawings have to become the main absolutely. The money paid for the projects consisting generally from interior part will be spent in vain. It is possible to call facade of the house his face, and interior – soul therefore and it is necessary to treat it with not smaller responsibility, than structure of the building. Better if to transfer development of interior part to the following, separate, stage. You should not spray attention at initial stages to what does not demand urgent detailed study yet. The basic principle of approach to construction – transition to private from the general.
The paramount attention should be paid to contents in the draft of such paramount drawings as: master plan, cartogram of earthwork operations, vertical layout, engineering networks, plans of overlappings, floor plans, construction cuts, drainage systems, facades, roof, rafter systems, vertical communications, difficult constructional members and nodes. On these, the main technical parts of the project, the corresponding approvals in allowing bodies will also be made out.
Drawings have to be clear not only for the customer, but also for builders. It is necessary that they have been saturated with the marks and the construction sizes allowing to avoid additional questions of the contractor.
Design of country house
If exterior of the house, the used construction materials or interior decisions depend on many factors (cost, availability and taste of future house owner), then some councils for the general design on which in many respects and the project will be based can be useful to everyone.
The design of country house has to be based mainly on family composition and the maximum allowed sizes of the building. It is also necessary to consider that such economic rooms as the summer kitchen, the shower, the bathroom or warehouse of stock, can be in separate constructions.
It is necessary to consider also in what time use of country house is planned. So, if live generally in it in the summer, then the open area will become the main place of stay: verandah, terrace and so on. Standard projects of such houses usually provide on the big sizes. The most widespread design consists of the general room, verandah or terrace, small utility rooms (the storeroom, kitchen) and the necessary number of bedrooms. It is necessary to aim at that the area of corridors and halls has been most reduced. Combination in one room of several functions is possible: the verandah hall or the general room performing functions of the bedroom.
The verandah and kitchen have to be placed as it is possible closer to exit. Usually the verandah serves also as pass to internal rooms, in that case it will be also the hall. It is inexpedient to build terrace of less than 8-10 square meters. The similar design is convenient, but it will demand increase in the area of porch. It is good if not only terrace, but also porch it is covered with canopy.
Verandahs can be built in the building or attached to the house. It is the best of all to execute surface of walls in the form of the glazed stained-glass windows opening on the platform of rest or in garden. It is not necessary to build it with exit towards the street. Most expressively glazing of the adjacent walls separated by rack — rather narrow angular impost looks. The distance between the glazed zone and floor is allowed not less than 30-40 centimeters. Also deaf it is necessary to execute and the small site over glasses, it will be possible to hang up curtains or blinds for protection against the sun here.
Entrance on verandah and outer door to the house have to be located so that through pass between them was as it is possible well. In that case the furniture placed on verandah will not prevent pass. It is necessary to provide also the place for table d’hote. If here it is going to spend much time, then it is desirable to increase the area to place sun beds or sofa. At the same time too you should not encumber such site with furniture, so its main advantage – abundance of light and scope. Wattled or folding objects which can be used also in the general room or, on the contrary, on the street are very convenient. It is desirable to orient this placement on the South, the southwest or the southeast. If the house is used during cold weather, not heated verandah will play platform role.
It is convenient if the course conducts with verandah in kitchen. In that case the distance if meal occurs in the open air, is reduced to lunch zone. If in the house the certain dining room or the dining room combined with kitchen is provided, the verandah is used as the vacation spot. Then the door on verandah from the general room is provided.
Calculation of the area of kitchen is carried out proceeding from the place necessary for the equipment: plate of 50×60 centimeters, washing of 50×60 centimeters, work table of 40×60 centimeters, refrigerator. Elements of the equipment are placed in one row before which it is also necessary to provide distance not less than 60 centimeters.
Under premises of kitchen allocate the place at external walls of the house, natural good lighting has to be provided here. The entrance to kitchen is located near entrance to the house. In houses with big area it is convenient to equip the additional entrance conducting with the street directly on kitchen. Entrances from different sides of the house are located.
General room, bedroom
The general rooms in country houses often perform several functions: living room, bedrooms, dining room. Therefore it is convenient to use folding furniture for which storage it is necessary to provide the fitted cupboards in advance. Also chair-beds, sofa beds, folding-chairs will approach. All this will allow to use rationally interior even absolutely small, at 11-12 squares, the room. Usually the room of the general room is connected with verandah entrance to the house.
The fireplace especially as it is almost impossible to become its owner in the city will become decoration of any house. If you decide on arrangement of the center, then it is necessary to consider that it will demand occasional empty seat and special niches for firewood (otherwise they should be stored directly on floor).
If construction of certain bedrooms is provided, then it is quite possible to manage minimum dimensions. It is enough to provide places for ottoman or bed, small cabinets for clothes, dressing or working table. At the limited total area of the house reduction of the sizes of bedrooms is reasonable as allows to use the saved area for other rooms.
Bedrooms can be conveniently placed also in attic room. Most often mansard floors are arranged under gable roofs. In this case berths are located at longitudinal walls, in places with height between inclined part of roof and floor it is not less than 150 centimeters. Between inclination of roof and wall of the house it is convenient to organize cabinets for linen, clothes and house trifles.
It is the best of all to build the ladder conducting on the mansard or second floor on verandah, thus, the general room will be isolated from bedrooms and, in addition, will receive additional space which the ladder could occupy. If this room is used as the living room, the ladder can be constructed and here. Most convenient for country houses three or two mid-flight ladders with steps. They can accommodate in space under roof slope, however the distance between steps above the located designs should not be less than 2 meters. Besides internal ladders act also as means of registration of interior. Graceful barriers and hand-rail, wooden steps become essential element of furniture. The ladder can be made completely open, steps. Such light-weight openwork constructions are appropriate in rooms with small sizes as they visually do not reduce room volume. If the general room is equipped (height to both floors) what usually are arranged under cattle roofs, are reasonable to finish ladder gallery of the leader to rooms of the second floor and opened to the living room.
The subladder space can be also used rationally. In the general room the fitted cupboard can be equipped here, niche go working corner, and on verandah – cabinet for clothes or hanger.
One more option of arrangement of ladder – outside of the house, as extension to external wall. They are less convenient, but at the same time do not occupy the space of internal rooms.
It is reasonable to provide the small room — clothes storeroom for storage of garden and garden stock, working clothes, tools, buckets, bicycles and other. It is better to arrange it closer to exit.
Ate country house it will not be equipped with the sewerage and water supply system, the warm bathroom with sizes not less than 85×120 centimeters can be provided in it at the door which is coming off outside and 85×150 centimeters if the door opens inside. If the similar room is equipped, then between it and other rooms it is obligatory to arrange the platform not less than 120 centimeters long.
These recommendations concerned internal design of the house. If to speak about its appearance, then you should not overload architectural composition with excessive jewelry and parts. The compactness and simplicity of the functional decision have to correspond to facade clearness. First of all, materials of walls, arrangement and form of window openings, sun blind, arrangement of porch, covering form, carrying out of eaves of roof and barrier of balconies and terraces can become means of architectural expressiveness. And it is natural, proportions and the size of the house should not enter contrast with the site sizes.