Table of Contents
In this article drainage pipes for withdrawal of underground waters are considered: full classification of products for drainage, their advantage, characteristic and key parameters is provided. Thanks to this information you learn to select suitable types of pipes for certain types of the taking-away systems according to their requirements, features of soil and so forth.
Drainage pipes for withdrawal of underground waters: introduction to subject
The drainage pipe acts as the basic construction element on the basis of which the water taking away system intended for drainage of sites forms. This element is responsible for charge and assignment of underground, melt and rain waters for borders of the territory with their preliminary filtering.
Pay attention! The large volume of melt and storm waters is capable to provoke raising of level of underground water. Emergence of such situation is extremely undesirable as the destroying impact on base part of the building and also all elements of landscaping located on the site as a result increases.
Installation of drainage pipes of large diameter allows to cope with such problems as:
- the raised soil dampness;
- forming of mold;
- flooding of the site, base of residential unit and constructions of economic assignment and also cellars;
- forming of permafrost;
- emergence of pools on paved coverings;
- formation of sleet on pedestrian paths;
- rotting of roots of cultivated flowers, vegetable cultures and other vegetation because of moisture surplus on garden and country sites.
Features of drainage pipes with the partial perforation full or its absence
If to speak about the general classification of products for the draining systems, the range is provided by the following types of pipes (as material):
- plastic drainage pipes with perforation and without it and also with its partial presence.
However most construction companies has already refused use of the pipes made of ceramics or asbestos cement because of the numerous shortcomings inherent in them:
- The big weight demanding essential costs of transportation and installation mounting of so dimensional products cannot do without use of the specialized construction equipment.
- Slow process of mounting of the draining system which can be carried out only by hands of professionals.
- Poor functional performance. On sale drainage pipes without perforation therefore openings are carried out manually are usually provided. Because of it in use the pipeline is hammered quicker therefore the frequent clearing, and in certain cases and full replacement of elements is required.
- Construction of systems on their basis is considerably more expensive, than in case of use of plastic elements.
Pay attention! In the table the average price of pipes of drainage 200 mm from different materials is specified. There are also other options of diameter, however, in products from ceramics, asbestos cement and plastic standard dimensional parameters do not match. Therefore for comparison diameter of drainage pipe of 200 mm which is present at the assortment of all specified products is taken.
Advantages of plastic drainage pipes
Polymeric products (plastic) in many respects exceed on characteristics asbestos-cement and ceramic products for drainage.
List of their advantages:
- Long life cycles.
- High rate of durability.
- Full invulnerability before corrosion.
- The small weight facilitating not only process of transportation, but also the procedure of mounting and also accelerating terms of its performance.
- Due to presence at the range of large number of feature connectors (fitting, T-couplers and so forth) mounting of system turns out fast, reliable, convenient.
- The smooth surface interferes with dirt sticking, postponing swamping process.
- Application of drainage pipes in geotextiles of 200 mm and more excludes the probability of silting of system.
- All mounting works can be carried out by the hands as vocational education for this purpose is not required, construction special equipment and the special equipment is not necessary.
On the example of drainage corrugated pipes of PVC with a diameter of 200 mm you could be convinced, as the cost of these products can also be carried to powerful advantages of plastic products.
The range of plastic pipes includes several categories of products:
In the market pipes for the draining systems from PVC are considered as the most popular.
Features of drainage pipes of PVC: classification of products by different signs
Products from PVC and other polymeric materials can be separated into the following categories:
- two-layer and single-layer;
- flexible pipes (are issued in bays which length is 40-50 m);
- rigid products for the draining systems (their length is fixed, in assortment pipes from 6 to 12 m long are provided);
- products with different strength class (alphabetic marking of SN: 2,4,6,8,16);
- pipes with the filtering wrapping and without it.
Pay attention! In the table the average price of drainage pipe in the filter geotextiles of 200 mm with perforation and ridged surface is specified. Depending on the producer this indicator can vary.
The products provided on sale can have diameter from 50 to 200 mm. There are also more massive options relating to drainage pipes of large diameter.
Characteristic of perforated drainage pipes
Flexible single-layer products with perforation can be used at depths no more than 3 m. The class of pipes also indirectly indicates the recommended bookmark depth. In case with pipes SN2 depth should not exceed 2 m, SN4 – no more than 3 m.
Two-layer pipes have smooth inside face. At the same time the outer end is corrugated. As a rule, such products have the ring durability of SN6. At arrangement of system of drainage system pieces no more than 4 m long are applied. As the filter the coir fiber or geotextiles can be applied to them. At sale there are products and without filter.
Corrugated drainage flexible pipes perforated are marked by class SN8. Are delivered complete with the filtering material and without it. Are intended for deep bookmark – up to 10 m. Two-layer products of the same class allow to bury system no more than at 8 m. They are made without filter.
Features of products of Perfocor: products for the draining systems
The pipes Perfocor are successfully used for water drainage. Perforation openings on their surface allow water to get in products. After that it is transported further on sewerage system or removed in artificial or natural reservoir.
Scope of application extends to construction:
- buildings of different function;
- it is expensive;
- and also melioration of agricultural grounds.
Pay attention! Openings on this kind of pipes have the optimum sizes which are rather big to pass water in system, but at the same time are rather small to interfere with penetration of the earth, the garbage, silt and other particles capable to put the sewerage out of action.
Connection of corrugated perforated drainage pipes Perfocor is carried out in several ways. For this purpose the combination of the coupling and mating ring or connection welding can be applied.
Thanks to the fact that the rubber gasket is placed corrugations inside during connection of elements of system in the course of mounting this part cannot be displaced. The laying from rubber intended for connection possesses the same profile, as pipes. Therefore the probability of course of the pipeline and also hit of underground waters inside is excluded.
Specificity of corrugated perforated drainage pipes with geofabric
As the effective addition to the pipeline increasing terms of its operational service different types of filters are used. Geotextile fabric and coir fiber belongs to such materials.
Drainage pipes the 160th mm perforated with corrugated geofabric and more represent products with large number of rationally located openings and also stiffening fins. These small openings are placed in the hollow which forms between waves corrugations.
Stiffening fins provide uniform pressure distribution which is rendered by the soil on pipe. Thanks to the fact that loading is distributed on all pipe length the system of drainage system can maintain not only the soil pressure, but also all in addition arising loadings.
Such types of pipes are used for pipeline laying at depth of 0.7-6 m. Thanks to large number of openings which fall on 1 m of the item on special profile of product fast collecting water, its admission through all system and branch out of borders of the seasonal dacha is carried out.
Pay attention! Plastic products have enough lightweight therefore they can be considered as optimal variant of material for creation of the draining system the hands. The bay 40 m long and with a diameter of 160 mm weighs about 25 kg.
Diameters of drainage pipes and feature of application of their elements
If you undertake creation of the draining system on the site the hands, it is necessary to take the following recommendations into account:
- The system effectiveness depends on that how true will be your choice concerning diameter of pipes.
- The perforated product with diameter of 110 mm is capable to execute drainage of the site from water in radius of 5 m. This information has to be considered in designing process of the scheme of placement of drainage system.
- Pipes shall keep within with bias that party where mounting of well or septic tank will be made.
- Process of connection of all elements of the pipeline has to be technology correct.
Pipes with a diameter of 63 mm are used on an equal basis with products of 110 mm. In each such element there is network of small openings.
Specialists recommend to buy drainage pipe 63 in the filter geotextiles for application on sites which are placed in lowlands or in zones where the high level of underground water is observed. This material can be used for arrangement of drainage at construction of cellar, underground garage and also the cottages of modern type having the first floor.
Pay attention! The choice of diameter of pipes directly depends on depth on which the drainage system will go deep. For example, products with diameter of 63 cm can effectively perform the work at depth up to 8 m. They will not be suitable for depth exceeding this indicator.
The choice of pipe for the draining system as soil on the site
Base part of any construction can be washed away by underground waters even at depth of 1.5-2 m. Underground waters include the components capable to destroy the basis in the structure. The waterproofing in such cases is powerless therefore it is necessary to resort to more drastic measures – to construction of the draining system. At the same time it is necessary to consider soil type and also degree of its moisture content.
The increased water content in soil can lead to destruction by frost and rotting of plants, emergence of fungi on them and on fruit-trees and also to bogging of the territory. In this case it is recommended to use the corrugated pipes made of polyethylene. With their help you will provide the budgetary and fast system of drainage which will take off pressure of underground waters and will significantly reduce their level.
Types of soil and optimum materials:
|Soil type||The recommended material for drainage|
|Crushed stone||products with perforation without the filtering material|
|Sandy||pipes with the filter from geotextile fabric + embankment from crushed stone|
|Clay||pipes with the filter or without it + embankment from crushed stone 0.2 m thick|
|Loamy (combined)||products with the filter from geotextile fabric|
Characteristic of plastic drainage pipe of 300 mm
Plastic pipes for the draining systems have proved as strong, reliable products. They are economic and effective. Use of polymeric products allows to lower considerably costs of electrical energy and money of performance of work on drainage of the site. The similar system is capable to serve for 40-50 years.
The technology of arrangement of drainage system assumes use of the filtering materials, as a rule, of geotextiles.
Pay attention! Pipes with a diameter from 63 mm to 250 mm go on sale already in geotextile wrapper. Products with large diameter are used for construction on objects of industrial function. They also need geotextile wrapper which in this case is carried out manually.
Irrespective of the size of products the system is always installed under inclination and in each case it is worth adhering to certain parameters. Pipe fitting with diameter of 300 mm is carried out with bias not less than 3 mm. As this type of products can correspond to classes of rigidity of SN6 and SN8, laying of the pipeline can be carried out on depth more than 2 m.
Characteristic of drainage pipes of large diameter for ditch
The choice of diameter of pipes also depends on inflow of underground waters. In other words, selection of products for drainage system is based on the indicator reflecting amount of water which passes in 1 second.
Here also other factors matter:
- level of groundwater occurrance;
- amount of excess moisture;
- nature of landscape.
Pipes drainage PVC corrugated with a diameter of 500 mm, 400 mm and 630 mm belong to two-layer products. Their double walls have corrugated covering from outer end, and from the inside of their smooth surface.
Due to presence corrugations of wall of pipes show high resilience to emergence of any deformation changes under the influence of loadings.
It is possible to find the products corresponding to the following classes of ring rigidity in the assortment of the modern construction market:
Such variety allows to lay the pipeline at different depth. Polymeric pipes of large diameters have the broad range of working temperatures. Extreme points correspond -40 °C and +60 °C.
Helpful advice! Construction of the highway for removal of excess moisture from the site – not the only scope of similar products. Use pipes with large diameter as drain shafts for control of condition of system of drainage system and also its clearing.
Additional recommendations about use of pipes
Works on construction of drainage system on the site are most often carried out along with its development. That the drainage system functioned, it is necessary to organize to it the maximum migration of water. The indicator defining access of moisture to the pipeline is called water permeability of soil. Sprinkling by special filtrational materials is applied to its increase.
Treats such materials:
- crushed stone;
Thanks to the filter the liquid volume from the site coming to system increases. That the drainage system was not filled with silt and dirt, the speed of current of water on pipes has to be not less than 0.2 m/s.
Widespread mistakes when laying drainage system:
- application of pipes which are not intended for mounting in certain type of soil (for example, use of pipe without geotextile filter on loamy soils);
- lack of the filtering sprinkling;
- lack of necessary biases;
- charge of trenches not filtering soil;
- untimely removal of the saved-up liquid from collecting well.
Effective work of drainage system depends not only on respect for technology of mounting, but also on technical maintenance of the pipeline in the course of further operation.
Technical maintenance of drainage system assumes regular check of system regarding blockage and malfunctions, elimination of those at their detection. Besides, it is systematically necessary to trace condition of level of underground water in the territory of the country site that the nobility, how effectively the sewerage copes with conclusion of excess moisture. Also will not prevent to check quality of underground waters.
Thanks to timely carrying out project repair and scheduled maintenance and also fault recovery, you will be able not only to increase pipeline life cycles, but also to exclude the probability of emergence of accidents.