Table of Contents
Decorative plaster is called rather big group of construction materials for finishing finishing of interior and exterior of the house. Range of color schemes, the choice of decorative effects, ecological and functional performance cause the increasing popularity of decorative plasters.
Technologies of drawing similar finishing are rather various. So “wet silk” has to be applied on polished, ideally equal bases, and relief plaster allows not too plain surface. One type of material is been chaotic drawings, another – strictly ordered, for one enough couples of layers, and for another it is not enough also of ten. For the correct putting decorative plaster it is very important to observe production cycle (the sequence and technology of drawing, temperature condition, time of drying of layers, etc.)
But if (too belonging to this type of finishing) only the professional can execute art painting of walls, then the majority of other types are quite available to any to independent drawing. By means of decorative plaster any room can be issued: bedroom or kitchen, shop or office, reception of hospital or operational hall of bank. Too you should not forget about facades, this finishing is possible also for external walls, it not only will make the house beautiful, but also will protect it from influence of the sun, rain and snow. But in this article, among set of options we will choose only those which are possible for executing own hands.
Everyone who for the first time gets to the room in which decoration of the walls this finishing material was used cannot understand how such beauty turns out? By means of decorative plaster it is possible to imitate marble or granite coverings, to create feeling of stone walls, to recreate palace interiors, facets, to transfer effect of volume nacreous luminescence or wet silk, to receive hundreds of versions of drawings, patterns and types of finishing.
Decorative plaster on acrylic and mineral is separated, does not exfoliate, hides small defects and masks cracks. It is very easy to look after it, cleans walls it is possible powders, soap, different means or normal water – plasters moisture resistant binding elements are included. Coloring brightness at the same time remains for a long time. Applied on any surface, it at once changes the room. The covering can visualize or emphasize with necessary background the design idea and shade other accessories.
The composition of quality decorative plaster can be different is heterogeneous weight. Exterior of the processed walls generally depends on the size and form of the grain entering plaster mix, but has influence on them and type of the tool which is used at coating application. Except other advantages decorative plaster can level walls of apartments or houses and to warm them. Number of the necessary properties inherent in decorative plasters: resistance to burning out, firmness, vapor impermeability, resistance to ignition and pollution, water-repellent properties.
And it is valid, types of such covering set. Let’s consider the most widespread and rather available to independent work:
- structural plaster;
- Venetian plaster;
Structural (or impressive) represents plaster weight, heterogeneous and granular to which any granules from small pebbles, pieces of mica, wood fiber, quartz are added. The main for such plaster there are synthetic latex, mineral substances (cement and limy basis) or potassium silicate. In turn and they are based on solvents or on water. Water-based mix will be suitable for interior finish more, it does not exude pungent smell.
At mineral plasters high profitability – small expense, perfectly they will be suitable also for facade heat insulation.
Distinctive feature of textured plaster – poslushnost to any tool and excellent plasticity. They should not be parted or mixed as such plasters are on sale in completely prepared look, packaged in banks or buckets. Can be applied almost on any surface: tree, concrete, gypsum cardboard, metal, cement, brick, etc.
Despite the content in mineral plasters of lime, they can be subjected to cleaning and to wash. The substances which are not allowing thaw lime are already added to structure.
Plaster as which basis artificial latex is taken also does not fear mechanical influence. Silicate, except other, does not bulk up and it is poorly soiled. But silicate mixes are applied only on the prepared surfaces – covering which contains sand. Any mineral plaster can act as such covering. Such plaster is not applied on dispersive and water emulsion primers – it just will not keep and will fall off.
Texture and color
Textured plaster only of white color is on sale. However it is easily tinted. Pigments of necessary color are added to weight, any of possible shades as a result turns out. It becomes in two ways.
The pigment of the necessary color is just bought, added to weight and mixes up. But it is necessary to watch that search with color has not turned out.
The second way is simpler and not much more expensive. In shop color gets out of the catalog and the professional tinting becomes.
Structural plasters consist of grains of different size, they are large and fine-grained. The result depends on what way of drawing is chosen, and from what size of grain — the drawing can turn out very different. So the fine plaster looks almost equal on wall, and the plaster including granules of natural stone creates the drawing with round or cross grooves.
- can be applied on any outer or internal surfaces;
- mask defects of basis: old paint, swellings and microcracks;
- have resistance to scratches, blows and other external influence;
- are waterproof: they can be subjected to cleaning and washing by any cleaning agents in which there are no solvents;
- the high plasticity helps to create reliefs of any kind;
- maintains big temperature difference: –50 +75 °C;
- has very strong covering;
- the microporous surface allows “to breathe” to walls;
- the cheapest among other decorative coats.
Technology of drawing:
- Preparation of the basis. The surface has to be the pure and dry, exempted from wall-paper, old paint, etc. Alignment of wall is not required ideally, but explicit hollows and hillocks should not be.
- Priming. Putting primer strengthens walls, getting into microcracks protects surface from emergence of mold, dampness and swelling.
- Putting plaster. It is put after final drying of primer. How to cover wall — is not of particular importance, everything depends only on imagination of the owner. The wall with effect of the surface scratched by grooves will turn out from the fine plaster containing granules of natural stone or with additives of coarse-grained grain. It is possible to put it with the normal or impressive roller. When putting coarse-grained plaster with circular motions of the palette it is possible to gain effect of old limestone. The quantity of options is practically limited to nothing.
In German the flock designates “snowflakes”, “flakes”. One more name – chips. This internal coating consists of color small parts of acrylic paint.
Includes three compound components:
- water-based acrylic base;
- flocks which are applied on wet acrylic basis;
- the sateen or flat acrylic lacquer intended for giving of surface of final look and its protection.
Finishing by flock is applied to plaster not only walls, and and almost all other surfaces: ceilings, doors, window sills, columns, eaves.
“Chips” can be any size and form. Most often roundish, but there are kind of broken-off, shapeless pieces to infinite set of color.
The flock is very diverse and can imitate chinchillas, velor, leather, suede, but, naturally, is much cheaper than them at cost. Long keeps excellent properties – durability, softness, game and brightness of paints. Such covering practically does not burn out, it is long-lasting, it is convenient in use and is easily cleaned. For reading of rather wet soft sponge. Use of chemical cleaning agents does not harm flock – color and brightness remain invariable. It is insignificant also the erasability of covering is small. Among other things the flock is safe for health and interferes with formation of condensate. Material is badly ignited. Very good heat insulator: 2 millimeters of flock can replace 10 millimeters of polystyrene.
Thanks to the fact that the consistence of basis very dense, flock can be applied on surfaces of any type. Besides, ideal preparation is not required, the flock hides small cracks and other roughnesses. It is the environmentally friendly, easily updated material.
- Surface preparation. To prevent absorption by the surface of moisture, good primer and putty are necessary. Walls have to be homogeneous, dry, not porous and clean. Surfaces which were operated earlier have to be carefully to be cleaned dirt, smudges and dust is purified from greasy spots. Dark places before drawing light layer are isolated.
- Drawing the gluing layer. Drying basic, the first, layer happens too quickly therefore it is desirable that indoors temperature was slightly lower than room. This layer with the roller from average length pile is put.
- Drawing flock. At once behind how the gluing layer will be put, acrylic particles have to be sprayed. It is possible to spray “chips” in two ways: the intended for this gun or special compressor. Neither fans, nor vacuum cleaners should not be used.
Light flocks are applied on the white surface which is exactly painted over without spots. Under dark flock the surface without spots which is painted over in any color can approach. It is better to begin drawing particles from top to down, gradually decreasing slow circular motions. It is the best of all to do similar work together: while one of masters puts the gluing basis, the second in the same time sprays “chips”.
For removal of excess of flock after also flocks and base dry up, on surface it is necessary to walk brush. If the covering contains the metallized flocks, then instead of brush use the rubber roller.
- Putting varnish. Only after particles and basis will finally dry (not less than 12 hours), varnish is applied. The surface by the normal roller in one layer is varnished.
The Venetian plaster is called the transparent plaster made of water emulsion, marble powder and slaked lime. When using the special equipment such covering creates effect of marble. It is applied on surface, pretreated with plaster and hard putty. The wall should not have any defects — under transparent material any smallest cracks are visible.
It is tinted “Venetian” in any color. The big similarity with marble can be received if to mix different shades of one color.
The transparency and depth of material is reached by drawing several layers of material (4-10). Plaster by small strokes the palette from stainless steel is put. After drying the wall becomes covered with beeswax. The covering from opaque wax or normal varnish can spoil all work. But there are also kinds of the Venetian plaster which already contain necessary components and do not need wax.
Advantages: water tightness, wide choice of flowers, wear resistance, lack of smells, fire safety, technological effectiveness.
The technology of putting such plaster is much more difficult, than all than others, mentioned in this article and, except thorough training of wall, consists of several operations:
- drawings background;
- drawing several topping coats;
- putting wax.
After drying of soil accurately layer behind layer and the stroke behind stroke is put with the palette covering. It is necessary to wait until each of layers dries then from it eliminate roughnesses, and then smooth out. The first layer continuous, it is evenly applied on all wall and sets the general tone. Subsequent topping coats. The flexible steel palette short dabs the wall is turned into similarity of leopard skin. Behind the first layer the subsequent are imposed till the moment when spots become almost inaudible. The layers following the first have to differ from it on tonality. After the last layer, surface, by means of circular motions is put with small abrasive paper, it is smoothed out and protective white wax is applied on it.
Finishing is made by small sites from half a meter to meter. At the same time several operations are consistently made:
- drawing dabs;
- material smoothing;
- polishing of the site.
The layer of materials changes by means of weakened at the beginning and the end of pressing. To the following site pass only after works on next are finished. During smoothing and glossing the smoothing hammer has to be crossed with adjacent sites. Optimum technology of movements is selected by practical consideration.
It is possible to touch wall in 6 hours, to use the room in a day, and final drying comes to an end in week.
To this material thin approach is necessary too. On wall paint looks rough and slightly shabby, creates effect of noble old covering. The artificial latex which is part of paint, and special technology of drawing do it to lighter in places which are exposed to the greatest friction about other surfaces.