High level of underground water quite frequent phenomenon, as on the low parcels and marshy places, and in recent years on quite earlier dry lands. Whether it is connected with climate changes, or with decline of agricultural activity in many areas of the country — for the ordinary villager or the summer resident not essence important. We are interested not in global origin of problem more, but the solution of this problem on specifically our site.
The marshiness or riding water from frequent rainfall disturbs, to both normal agricultural activity, and trouble-free operation of the local sewerage and water supply. The waterlogged cellars and cellars, undergrounds, with the fungi which are actively developing in them and mold, the falling fences and the ill house cattle – what are only not brought to us by excessive “cradle of life”. How to fight against it? Drainage of the site.
It to make all easier if the site nevertheless is not in the very bottom any lowland, and within “step” availability there are any reservoirs, ravines, etc. In this case we will manage only drainage ditches. For what on perimeter of all site the drainage ditch digs. Ditch depth — meter twenty and width — about 400 mm. It is important to maintain depth and to define the general inclination and drain of water in ditch, from the lowest place it is necessary to arrange branch (ditch towards the next ravine, etc.)
Having provided branch, we trace that on all perimeter of water freely flew down and did not stand. Then bottom of ditch we cover sand — layer thickness about 50 mm. Then large crushed stone, or beaten stone, brick, other large construction waste — thickness of this layer is 100 – 15 mm.
Then we need drainage pipe, or its self-made analog.
How to do analog?
We buy plastic section waste pipe with a section of 110 mm (if it is qualitative also on very for many years + the same pipe, but with a section of 50 mm). In pipes from the different parties we drill openings drill ten in the 110th pipe and drill the six in the 50th. We drill openings in break off at an interval of ten from all directions – fifteen centimeters.
If it is used only 110 — thawing pipe, we collect sections and we stack in trench, the T-coupler closing perimeter and we lay in by-pass trench. If means allow and is used + 50 – thawing pipe, then inside 110 – by that it is got 50 – thuja, we close and further according to the plan.
Besides external pipe, it is possible to envelop special nonwoven fabric (is on sale in specialized shops) — it serves as the additional membrane protecting from contamination and silting of pipes and openings in them and considerably (decades) life cycle increases and also simplifies service of system.
Then again charge large stone, crushed stone and other 100 – 150 mm. The following layer — again crushed stone, but already smaller, layer thickness same — 100 – 150 mm.
At charge of drainage pipe large stone and garbage, we do not throw it on pipe not to split it: it and so quite caustic, and with perforation and even less so.
After diffusion crushed stone we fill trench up to the top with sand. In case of use of the local sewerage, it makes sense “to connect” to the drainage system given above also the trench draining septic tank.
Happens also that drainage on perimeter is not enough for fast removal of excess water from the site. Most often with it owners of sites face clay composition of the ground. In this case it is possible to add ring system with two-three of the trenches passing across all site and adjoining the general ring.
Also for water drainage directly from the base of your house it is possible to duplicate drainage ring around the house. The trench for such drainage digs up to the depth of sole of the base of the house and at distance from the house about a meter. The technology repeats above described, but it is reasonable to fill the top of trench with the small, washed-out granite gravel. Thus, the concrete blind area (about a meter wide) going around your house will be well combined with nice gravel path, and the water which is flowing down on blind area from roof through gravel will freely go to drainage.
The cost of similar drainage of the site in 20 hundred parts (the twin-tube on perimeter of the house and site + + crushed stone, granite crumb – gravel, sand — will decently cost 40 meters to ravine. But, as we see to eat opportunity to refuse some points or, for example, to bring from the river – pit sand independently, to replace crushed stone with any construction waste (the old broken furnace from bath, etc.)
Considerably use instead of pipes and crushed stone of branches of trees will reduce the price of drainage. For this purpose use branches of oak, alder, larch preferably. Branches by means of wire coordinate in “switch” with a section about 400 mm at what coordinate not to separate sheaves, namely to the continuous spit. Then this “switch” is stacked in trench and filled up with sand. This type of drainage considerably saves means, but will demand additional physical efforts.
If there is no opportunity to carry out drainage ditch to ravine, in the absence of it or for other reasons, it is necessary to create reservoir. It is the simplest to dig out pond.
So, we dig pond
In order that your pond became pond, but was not fetid pool on the site, making the life miserable, mood and rest, it is necessary to follow some rules.
First of all, we choose the place. It, of course, has to be the lowest on the site. We dig ditch for pond, its sizes can be any within your imagination and the site (with observance of the established rules and accounting of borders of adjoining properties, in different cases these rules can vary).
We strengthen pond walls, the easiest and cheap way – wattle fence. Along the coast stakes under small inclination towards the coast are driven in into bottom. Stakes are driven in at an interval of fifteen – twenty centimeters.
Then from willow rod there is horizontal braid of these stakes. Such way of coastal protection is rather cheap and long-lasting over time coastal vegetation will only strengthen design. But perhaps periodically renewal which will also not take away a lot of time and money will be required.
After the pond device the system of drainage ditches will have to become isolated in it. In more detail the device of ponds and reservoirs on own site will be considered in other article. But here it is worth specifying that the device of any “standing” reservoir demands forced filtering in order to avoid “flowering” and other negative effects.
There is also one more much important nuance. In case of adjunction to the general drainage system powered in pond, drainage from tank septic tank the site of trench with additional filtering is necessary. For this purpose at supply of drainage trench to pond, the last meters (two – three) trenches are filled up only with average crushed stone and sand, without use of drainage pipes. For increase in flow capacity the trench in this place becomes more widely in three, four times. Besides trench depth in case of use of drain in pond, becomes not more deeply than ninety centimeters.
When to create or use pond there are no opportunity and ravine (the small river, stream) on proximity is not present, it is possible to use the system of drain shafts. For this purpose on all perimeter not deep wells, no more than two and a half meters in depth dig. Their task to condense and redistribute moisture. On the site in fifteen hundred parts about eight such wells (possibly more) placed on perimeter and connected among themselves by drainage ditch, as a rule, are required. This way not always is efficient, and has many minuses, but sometimes it is not necessary to choose. Besides, wells can be used also in the systems listed at the beginning of article. In this case wells it is required no more than four on the site in fifteen – twenty hundred parts and their role consist both in drainage, and in tracking of condition of drainage system, its service (pipe cleaning) and control of level of underground water. Wells in this case usually on site corners are placed.
Service of system consists in its cleaning in emergency case or in need of preventive to “purge”. The purge of pipes is done by pressure water of fire hose during the droughty period when the system is not involved.
Anyway drainage of the site — quite achievable thing, and we hope that our councils will be useful to you.