Table of Contents
The problem of heating is always relevant, too there are a lot of places where the winter lasts not only the put three calendar months. Traditional hot-water heating gradually gives in as, despite its high performance, arrangement and service of such system is rather difficult. It is the simplest to install electrical system in the house. But whether it here is favorable and as it is correct to start arrangement we will try to understand.
What is the electric heating?
As becomes clear of the name, electric current becomes heat source in such system. At the same time ways of the organization of heating can be two:
- With direct heat emission. For heating of rooms the equipment of the most different types which directly will transform the electric power to thermal is used. Simplicity in arrangement and service, lack of costs of carrying out the pipeline with the heat carrier and installation of radiators becomes the undoubted advantage of such option.
- With the heat carrier. In this case the system with the circulating heat carrier turns on the electric boiler which is used for liquid heating. This option is considered rather costly.
The general advantages of both ways of the organization of heating can be considered electricity:
- simplicity of installation of equipment;
- high level of safety;
- neat and silent job of devices;
- durability and high efficiency of the equipment;
- easy replaceability of elements of system;
- lack of need of obtaining allowing documentation on installation of design.
However such system is volatile and in case of shutdown of supply of electricity the house remains without heat. It can be considered its main shortcoming. Besides it is accepted to refer its high cost as the cost of energy is high to number of negative sides of electric heating and constantly grows. It is possible to avoid excessive expenditure, competently organizing arrangement of system. First of all, the building should be warmed carefully that as practice shows, significantly reduces heat waste and, respectively, consumption of energy.
Cuts consumption of the electric power and installation of temperature regulators which will disconnect heating services at achievement by the air temperature of the mark set in advance. Special electronic systems which can be programmed not only on maintenance of the necessary temperature, but also for a while can reduce heat generation when in the house temporarily there are no residents, and to increase it to appearance of owners. Helps to save also the multitariff counter. The device allows to pay for the electric power consumed at night when the strengthened heating, on special, lower rate is required.
Insufficient power of the line can become the only serious obstacle to installation of system. We carry out predesigns. For a start we calculate the power which will be required on construction heating. On average on heating of 10 sq.m of well warmed room 1 kW/hour will be required. To the turned-out size we add 3-5 more kW/hour for operation of different household appliances without which any house will not do. The calculated indicator will become reference point. For example, size in 155-160 kW can become ultraboundary for some outdated power lines that needs to be considered, being going to equip heating on electricity.
Convectors: device and principle of work
One of possible options of arrangement of heating by means of electricity is installation of convectors. These devices resembling the oil heater superficially can be exposed on plain surface or fasten strongly to wall. In the flat metal body of the device Teng is located. Its tube is made of stainless steel with charge from magnesite. Its openings are hermetically soldered. For increase in surface of the device and the best distribution of the developed heat on all length of Teng plates are established or place design in special aluminum casing.
Depending on model heating temperature of Teng can reach 1000 C, however the body is warmed no more than up to 65 C and it is absolutely safe for the person. In the flat body in addition to Teng there are also one or two grids. The first device, small on the area, is located in the lower part of the device, it is turned towards floor. The second, bigger by the size, is in upper part of the device. Through the lower grid cold air arrives to the working Teng and heats up about it. The warmed air rises above and, having passed through upper grid, goes to the room. Having given the received heat, air falls to floor, comes to the convector, the cycle is repeated. If necessary it is possible to strengthen convection, having connected the fan.
Why choose convectors
Convectors – very practical devices assuming set of advantages at installation:
- Long term of operation. On average, the device can work more than 15 years. It practically does not demand maintenance, except for regular cleaning of dust.
- Extreme usability and installation. The device is attached to wall or is installed on the right place, is connected in the socket then it is completely prepared for use.
- Constant control from the person is not required. The set temperature is maintained by the convector automatically.
- The democratic cost of the device, especially its simpler modifications with mechanical control.
- High efficiency which is about 95%.
- Neat silent job of the device. Exception – convectors with the built-in mechanical ventilation which rustle at the switched-on fan.
- Fast heating of the room. Teng is warmed up to the set temperature in only 30 seconds.
Lack of heating by means of convectors the irregularity of warming up of the room is considered that is caused by their design features. Air temperature about floor will be always lower, than under ceiling. However, same it is peculiar also to other types of heating, for example, usual all water. Use of convectors has also other negative sides:
- considerable expense of the electric power;
- drying of indoor air;
- at air circulation dust is kicked up;
- dependence on supply of electricity;
- restrictions on the sizes of the heated area;
- reduction of efficiency and deterioration in utilization properties with increase in term of operation.
Floor or wall option?
Producers produce various models of convectors. They everything can be separated into two big groups.
- Wall devices, also carry separate devices to them. Their height does not exceed 65 cm. At the expense of bigger height in devices powerful tena which provide big heating temperature are established. Essential temperature difference of cold and heated-up air creates in converters the effect similar in action to oven draft which accelerates heat exchange in the room.
Width of such devices is small and is about 7 cm. Weight, depending on the power and height, fluctuates ranging from 3 up to 9 kg. Devices are equipped with castors or legs for installation on the chosen place. Are very convenient in use as can be easily moved in other room. Wall kinds of convectors are completed with special fixtures by means of which are fixed to wall.
- Floor devices, or as they are called still, baseboard. Long devices from big, about 1500-3000 mm, width. They are characterized by the smaller power of ten that is caused by their small height which is only 25 cm. However warm the room even quicker, than more powerful wall versions. It is connected with the big length of devices which offsets power losses. Devices are intended for mounting under the glazed apertures, for example “the French window”, etc.
Main advantage of the equipment: the most uniform warming up of indoor air that is connected with its location which allows to warm base layers of air, and with the upward currents, smaller on intensity, which are evenly warming up the room. It is rather difficult to bulky device to find the suitable place. Optimal variant – installation in niche in floor which is closed from above by decorative grid. Such option is possible at construction of the new building. If it is impossible, the device is tried to be moved up most often to wall that it did not prevent to move about the room.
We calculate the necessary number of convectors
Power and the number of devices are calculated proceeding from volumes of the room in which they will be established. For approximate calculations it is possible to choose average values of necessary power for 1 cubic meter of the heated room:
- 20 W – at the good heat insulation meeting the standards of energy saving developed for the Scandinavian countries;
- 30 W – with the double-glazed windows at windows warmed by walls and overlappings;
- 40 Watt-second insufficient heat insulation;
- 50 Watt-second low insulation.
Then the size of volume of the room is multiplied by the chosen value. It should be taken into account that indicators are given for buildings with average room height if they are higher, than 2.5-3 m, then on each 10 cm of height about 10% of power are recommended to add. It is necessary to consider assignment of convectors. If they are supposed to be used as supplementary heating, size needs to be reduced. The received approximate necessary power is divided into the power rating of the chosen devices. As a result we receive their quantity.
If there is a wish for exact calculations, use such technology:
- We determine the volume of the warmed room, multiplying width at length and height.
- We calculate temperature difference outside of and in the building. For this purpose from the size of desirable indoor temperature we take away average value street in cold season.
- We choose dispersion coefficient. For rooms without heat insulation it will make 2.5, with the minimum isolation – 2, with average – 1.5 and from good – 1.
- We determine the minimum total power of devices. For this purpose we multiply all received values.
- We calculate the number of convectors. We transfer the power received at the previous stage from kcal an hour to kW. For this purpose we take into account that 1 kcal/hour = 0.001163 kW. We divide the turned-out value into the power rating of the chosen model.
Calculations need to be carried out most precisely. The efficiency and the general period of operation of all system depends on their correctness. By estimates of specialists, competently picked up electric equipment can safely work even in wooden house.
We choose devices
A lot of things depend on correctly made choice of the device. Selecting the equipment, surely pay attention on:
- Teng. The qualitative element on which the term of operation of the device depends will serve 15 and even more years. Preference should be given to iron-cased tena which easily maintains the high temperatures developed by the incandescence thread located in it. The indirect sign of the high-quality device can be considered guarantee term of 2 years and even more. Only the producer, confident in the products, can give it. Even the most qualitative Teng it is necessary to protect from overheating, check availability of automatic protection of the device.
- Thermostat type. It can be mechanical or electronic. Elements of the first type are manually adjusted by means of the push-button or disk mechanical panel. Differ in smaller accuracy in work and cannot react to temperature change of the environment extremely quickly. But their cost is 25-30% lower, than at electronic analogs. Programmable devices offer to the consumer more flexible working conditions. They can function within the hourly temperature condition set by him that allows to save significantly the electric power and to receive the most comfortable temperature in the room. Convectors of any type can be in addition equipped with the useful Anti-freezing mode allowing to maintain indoors temperature about 5-7 that gives the chance without overexpenditure of means to save the building from freezing.
- Degree of moisture security of the body. The convector – the electric device and hit of moisture in it it is extremely undesirable. The producer releases devices in the body of different degree of protection against moisture. IP not less than 21 assumes the minimum protection against hit of water drops. For the bathroom or bathroom it is better to buy devices with IP more than 24, splashproof. It is authorized to install devices with higher IP even about bathtub or the pool, but the distance between them at the same time should not be less than 60 cm.
- Way of fastening. This characteristic is relevant for wall convectors. The optimal variant of the device can be considered universal, equipped both with eyes for fixing on wall, and removable wheels or legs. Such design can be used if necessary as wall or as floor that is very convenient and practical.
- Producer of the device. It is the best of all to choose products of the famous producers and to buy them in specialized shops. Here it is possible to obtain guarantee for the device and to be more confident in acquisition of quality goods. The counterfeit can rather be met in the markets. Have well proved the German convectors of the Unitherm and Siemens brands, Norwegian “Nobo” and “Adax”, Finnish “Ensto”, French “Atlantic”, “Campa” and others.
Councils for installation
Convectors – normal electric heating appliances. It is necessary to establish them as well as heaters, considering some features:
- All heating devices have to be located at one level if to look across.
- The distance from floor and to the lower part of the device should not be less than 60 mm. It is necessary for possibility of cleaning under it. If the convector is located under window, the distance between the device and elbow board has to make not less than 50 mm that it could be removed freely.
- The center of heating element at installation has to match the center of window. The deviation is allowed within 20 mm.
- Width of the convector installed under window has to be not less window opening that the warmed air rising up formed the peculiar “thermal veil” interfering cold flow.
- The distance between wall and the device has to make at least 5 mm.
- It is forbidden to close any objects upper grid of the convector, otherwise it overheats, automatic protection works and the device is switched-off.
- The distance to the socket needs to be chosen not less than 10 cm. It is necessary to consider that it cannot be located over the device, only sideways or from below.
- The supply lead keeps within so that it did not adjoin to the device body.
Heating of housing by means of electricity can be referred to very convenient ways of heating. Convectors work silently, purely and effectively, in only a few minutes, lifting temperature in the building to comfortable. Competently designed and equipped system working with the help of convectors will not ruin the owner. Especially if before its installation to carry out careful warming of construction and not to save on purchase of effective and high-quality devices. But its use guarantees heat and cosiness in the house.