Table of Contents
The choice of breeds of tree for construction of own house is in our corner of the world small, is defined by weather conditions, condition of the woods. In construction are used only small part from the trees growing at us. Let’s consider the most suitable coniferous and deciduous breeds.
At first we will sort coniferous breeds for the house
Houses from larch
Larch — the queen of the coniferous forest. On the useful characteristics it noticeably exceeds other coniferous breeds. Dense wood contains large amount of pitch — the natural preservative much exceeding chemical means. High gummosity defines unique properties of larch: extreme durability and resistance to moisture. And, the tree for a long time (the speech about hundreds of years) maintains full immersion in aquatic environment. Moreover, over the years in water the larch only becomes stronger, gaining properties of stained tree. The striking example to that is Venice. To palaces, cathedrals, trading and residential buildings the strong bases which basis already not one hundred years piles from the larch brought from the Italian Alps form do not allow to plunge into the sea abyss. The larch is everywhere used as props and racks during the laying of mines, construction of underground constructions. Only it is rather long-lasting, the water rack, is strong and elastic for such extreme conditions.
The high content of pitch also causes high biological resistance. Mature wood is surprised mushrooms and insects much less, than at the majority of coniferous breeds. For the same reason it is more difficult to process larch: it is viscous, knives and saws are quickly enough rebated, it is necessary to make efforts. The larch is stronger than pine approximately on third. The ladders and floors made of it are less subject to mechanical wear, not so are afraid of blows. Floorings of terraces on the street are very moisture resistant.
One more useful property — the pleasant coniferous aroma proceeding from logs and boards. It is necessary to consider that, having decided to cover wood in interior with chemical varnishes and paints (including allegedly environmentally friendly water-soluble), about natural phytoncides it is better to forget. Structures on the basis of beeswax and vegetable oils are faultless in terms of safety and ecology. But even they complicate air exchange. The most “useful” option of finishing of interior of the house built of larch — to leave tree unpainted. Serious researches regarding influence on human body of the essential oils emitted by resinous tree were not conducted yet. But many inhabitants of such houses claim that fragrance of natural pitches well influences organism, in similar environment of people is less subject to respiratory illnesses, the dream is healthier, there passes migraine.
Strangely enough, it is not so easy to set fire to larch which structure contains large amount of well burning pitch and it burns not very well. The fire resistance of larch, according to the carried-out tests, approximately is twice higher, than at pine. However, it is not reason for neglect fire-prevention requirements.
Larch — tree with heavy and dense wood. Quite difficult not only to process it, but also to transport, prepare. Submerged in water, it quite often sinks, at least is considerably submerged. It strongly complicates alloy, delivery from the Siberian taiga becomes expensive. These factors, together with absence in the European part some serious volumes of the larch woods, create in the central regions the considerable prices of the wood, timber, products and houses of this great coniferous breed.
The larch for housing construction also the fact that it is pronounced core breed is good. Kernel — the central part of trunk. Less dense outside part — sapwood, at it rather thin. The tree lives up to six centuries and up to fifty meters high grows. It is huge, from such wood it is possible to cut down the house of the considerable sizes, using the integral not spliced logs of large diameter. The main complexity consists in delivery of cargo within loading range. Not less than two centuries will stay correctly log and collected larch house. Tercentenary houses still serve in ancient Russians and Finno-Ugric settlements to great-grandsons of the owners who have constructed them.
But the larch has one unpleasant property with which, however, it is possible to struggle quite successfully. When drying strongly jars on wood, it is much more than other front breeds. Resist to deformations of torsion, paying special attention to assembly. The quantity and durability of dowels, couplers, section in apertures increase. Cope with the increased crack formation, having slowed down moisture loss process by wood. For this purpose as soon as possible (ideally right after preparation) end faces of logs “pack” film-forming structures: drying oil, oil paints or varnishes. The quite good result is yielded also by putting lime in several layers. The end face can be covered with clay temporarily. If not to make it, with high probability of log will penetrate very deep and wide cracks.
In conclusion we will tell that the larch, to all other advantages, is very beautiful. Clearly distinguishable annual growth rings on the processed surface create the esthetic drawing painted in brown-red and pink-amber-gray shades.
Cedar for construction of the house
The cedar not much more concedes on the properties to larch. It is almost also high, and the trunk of cedar has the largest diameter from all domestic coniferous trees, reaching almost two-meter diameter. Experts especially note smell of cedar wood. Unfortunately, only Siberia therefore in the European part it costs much and to very few people on pocket can brag of cedar forests. Even the larch having the best (for construction) characteristics, slightly cheaper. The cedar has beautiful structure, very pleasant aroma, is more often used not in the form of log, and as constructional and finishing material: open beams, sheathing and floorboards, etc.
Pine for construction of the house
Pine — the most widespread material in wooden housing construction. In it all necessary properties are harmoniously combined: availability (moderate cost and wide circulation), durability, quite good durability and bioproofness, good workability, pleasant exterior. The tree, as well as larch, lives over 500 years, reaching 40 meters of height. Structure of trunk the expressed core. On other properties: the gummosity, durability, bioproofness, durability, elasticity is substantially similar to larch, nevertheless considerably conceding to it in numerical characteristics. The pine is softer, easier processed. In spite of the fact that clinking not so intensively, is strongly recommended to protect end faces of logs.
The red deal is quite attractive, painted in different reddish-amber tone, from very light to absolutely dark. The mature tree possesses more dark shade. Resin channels large and pitch from surface of the products processed mechanically easily flows, leaving distinct drips.
Depending on conditions of growth and preparation the pine is divided into resinous and dry. The first has higher moisture resistance, durability, durability. Is suitable for production of felling better. The qualitative resinous tree approaches on properties larch, not without reason pile foundation of great cathedral is executed from it. Less strong and porous dry let on timber more often, it is more simply processed and in dry conditions under roof behaves not bad. In the loaded designs (beams, rafter systems, columns) the dry wood is not used.
Competently constructed wooden house from qualitative resinous pine is capable to serve belief and the truth to the owners and their descendants couple of hundreds of years, and even it is more.
The house from fir-tree
The fir-tree borrows has the smallest value among available coniferous breeds. There is no accurately expressed kernel, wood has low density and smaller, than the previous breeds, durability. Fir-tree soft therefore for production of floors and ladders it is better not to use it. But knots were eaten very firm therefore processing is rather difficult. Because of big difference in structure, after drying knots tend to drop out of wood array. Especially brightly it is expressed in fir-tree timber: board, bar.
It is a little pitch in fir-tree, respectively, resilience to biological defeats, the moisture resistance and durability is not so high, as at pine. Color has light and, unlike larch, pine and cedar, the long time does not darken. Though wood and leaky, bursts and warps in the course of drying strongly. Drips of pitch are minimum.
The lower timber works are exposed to maximum load, including atmospheric. Traditionally for the lower ranks chose the most resinous, qualitative tree. Quite often in one felling combined different coniferous breeds. For example, the lower two-three rows cut from pine or cedar, upper of pine. The similar decision is justified and at today’s level of technologies.
Let’s consider popular deciduous breeds for construction of the house
Oak, undoubtedly, the best material for construction of wooden house. Having very high strength and density, it has flat, homogeneous structure with the minimum quantity of knots. The sapwood is available, but quite thin. Wood contains effective natural preservatives in large number: tannins. Has unprecedentedly high bioproofness, is not afraid of moisture. In the oak placed for long time in aquatic environment organic matters are replaced with mineral salts, the stained tree gains properties of stone and extremely effective exterior.
To process oak wood not easy. And to manipulate so heavy material not easy. But the best wood carving was always made of oak. Though it is also difficult in work, and is fragile, but equal without knotless structure and high strength allows carvers to create the works of art most difficult technically.
The main lack of oak — its absence. The tree grows very slowly, ripens much longer, than, for example, pine.
In Russia ancient wooden houses entirely made of oak — rarity. Too long ago have also zealously translated this most valuable tree. In Western Europe, with its once extensive oak groves, the oak house the 15th century is not considered old.
Today to cut down oak felling — the luxury available only to the elite. Nevertheless, offers are, there are also buyers. Some producers recommend to make the first wreaths of oak wood, but the rationality of such decision is doubtful: coniferous and deciduous breeds conduct differently react to temperature and moist changes. Less secure citizens should spend valuable tree economically. Fortunately, rather available are separate products from oak: parquet, ladders, doors and windows, finishing panels. If there is opportunity to build supporters from oak, they will sustain heavy load. Unlike pine, oak beams almost do not cave in. Without saying that wood with characteristic noble texture and colors of mature buckwheat honey will give nobility and chic to any interior.
Houses from linden
The linden possesses soft wood. The structure is inexpressive, color light, cream shades. Density is low, rather well holds heat. The linden is perfectly processed, almost does not warp and does not crack when drying. However, this breed does not contain natural preservatives and is more subject to rotting. It has an adverse effect on life cycle.
Much less often for production of fellings the aspen and alder are used. Characteristics at aspen not the most outstanding. The alder looks attractively and is rather strong, but to prepare large logs is problematic.
How to choose and prepare the wood for felling?
Strangely enough, the it is worse than condition for growth, the we receive the best quality of wood. The frigid climate, lack of nutrients and moisture leads to the fact that growth of tree slows down, annual growth rings grow slowly, and density of wood increases. The dense tree not only is stronger. It contains more pitch, is surprised wreckers less, serves longer. The northern wood not only is more long-lasting, but also gives smaller shrinkage, not so cracks. For example, in the course of air-seasoning the Arkhangelsk pine loses in volume on average 6% less, than Yaroslavl.
The wood growing in one climatic zone, but on different soils, too considerably differs. The pine growing on the height with the sandy soil will have the maximum density. Wood has it saturated dark red-amber color. It heavy and resinous. Such, the most valuable wood is called solid. The best northern solid pine will have age not less than 120 years. In the wet lowland and on fertile soil the tree will grow to the similar size in two, and even three times quicker. Color of kernel will be light yellow, density low.
As for thickness of logs, the it is more, the better. It is desirable that diameter of log for the house of full-time residence was not lower than 24 cm. Standard “roundup” of 15-18 cm will be cold.
Time of preparation should be chosen not on horoscope or the lunar calendar, and on season. Cut the wood when there is no sap flow. That is from late fall to early spring. In other time of time at wood open, the humidity increases and it becomes less dense.
Upon purchase of the ready wood it is necessary to examine it regarding cracks, availability of pitch, biological defeats. Cracks in log more than 10 mm in depth demonstrate that the mode of warehousing and drying was not observed. There can be problems. The lack of pitch in coniferous breeds is unacceptable, such wood for construction of walls and load-carrying structures is unsuitable. Availability of openings — very disturbing sign. Bugs wood borers whose life cycle makes 2 or 7 years can live in wood. It is extremely difficult for their lime, in the ready building it is only a price and considerable possible to make it.