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Geotextiles have stopped being something unusual long ago. Now it is widely used both in construction, and in arrangement of different systems including sewer. Let’s consider main types and characteristics of this material as it is correct to choose and use geotextiles for drainage (geofabric). What it is worth paying attention to before buying geofabric for drainage and that does not play essential role.
What types of geotextiles happen
Geotextiles happen different types and, depending on requirements of operation, are used in different conditions.
Therefore as the main criterion of classification of geofabric serves material of its production:
- polypropylene or polyair allow to make best quality geofabric;
- from monothread and staple raw materials the product having the sufficient durability and the quality suitable for use in the majority of construction jobs turns out;
- the geotextiles made by thermofastening cannot brag of the special durability as it is the thinnest of all offered options. However it possesses one of the best indicators if it is about water tightness;
- use for production of geotextiles of mixed threads is not recommended though such options are also available on sale. All the matter is that cotton or woolen threads which get into structure very easily give in to rotting. And it is absolutely undesirable process if it is about construction or arrangement of drainage.
It is necessary to be defined before choosing and buying geotextiles where and in what works it will be used. Depending on it the type of material of which it is made is selected. What geotextiles better for drainage it is possible to understand, having got acquainted with its main technical characteristics.
Geotextiles for drainage (geofabric): technical characteristics and range of application
Geofabric for drainage or other systems represents material which differs in high rates:
These qualities allow to use it for strengthening of soil, division of the territory, filtering of waste waters, protection of slopes of the site, arrangement of drainage and so forth.
Geofabric has received special popularity in Europe where construction of motor-roads does not do without its use. The synthetic origin of material allows it to keep long time the characteristics, and high strength – to maintain serious loadings. Some producers make geotextiles which density is up to 250 kg on gap.
When it comes about private or industrial construction, here geofabric also takes the place. It is widely applied to arrangement of city sewerage systems, in construction of houses, railroads, automobile routes, in gardening and to drainage. For what density geotextiles are necessary for use in this or that sphere? For example, for arrangement of drainage systems use geofabric with density from 200 g/m³ above, for carrying out landscape works about 100 g/m³, and in construction of runways for airplanes – 800 g/m³ are enough.
The operation principle of this material is very simple: it is layer which is used to separate two other layers among themselves, providing at the same time additional density. For example, it helps to reduce significantly risks of emergence of failures on the road and also prevents degradation of the site underground waters.
How to choose density geotextiles for drainage
In the systems of drainage geofabric plays very important role – prevents shrinkage of soil layer in drainage system and also prevents process of diffusion of crushed stone in water. Geotextiles carry out role of the filter which keeps drainage pipe and materials from flooding.
Thinking of what geotextiles to choose for drainage, it is the best of all to give preference to the material made of monothread. It is easy to define such material among other – it is given by snow-white color. At the same time it is better if fabric is produced by method of thermofastening.
If as drainage crushed stone is used, small stones are capable to punch material, creating in it damages. It is worth paying attention when choosing geofabric of necessary density to it. The indicator for creation of drainage kernel will be not less than 200 g/m³.
If wrapping of drainage system is planned, then geotextiles with the minimum density and thickness for this purpose will approach. At the same time its water-repellent and other technical characteristics have to be at the highest level.
What geotextiles to use for drainage
On sale there is huge choice of geotextiles and if you have no due experience in this sphere, you almost for certain will get confused. To make right choice it is necessary to study attentively all requirements imposed to drainage geotextiles. The product price also depends on these indicators.
Use of the cloth made on the basis of mixed materials is not allowed as over time cotton fibers can be washed away that considerably reduces ability of geotextiles to filter liquid. Thus, shortly the system will demand repair that will cause additional expenses. Monothread – the only option, suitable for this case.
It is worth paying attention and to filtering coefficient which the producer specifies for this type of material. Optimum indicator it is considered to be 125-140 m/days. The bigger indicator is required only in case of arrangement of fabric in soil with high water influx.
To geotextiles density for drainage there are some requirements, connected and with allowable load. So, for longitudinal loading the indicator has to be 1.9-3 kN/m, and for cross – 1.5-2.4 kN/m. At the same time the general durability on breakdown has to be not less than 400-500 N.
Other parameters, such as roll width, can be any, and are chosen depending on the section of drainage course. Roll cost in many respects depends on the producer and also on material density. You should not save on it, low-quality geotextiles can be damaged and demand replacement in effect.
Drainage geofabric for arrangement of the base of the house
From that, the foundation for the house will be how qualitatively laid, its durability in many respects depends. For this reason it is worth paying special attention to arrangement of drainage system groundwater washing away the house. Before works it is necessary to understand precisely at what depth waters and also with what type of soil you deal lie. It will help you to orient when selecting materials: pipes, geotextiles and crushed stone.
First of all you will need to dig trench on all perimeter of the base. It has to be dug out with small bias towards water moving direction. At the same time width of deepening is calculated proceeding from diameter of pipes and also necessary near pipe distance. For example, if you put pipe with a diameter of 11 cm, then has reserved places which is taken away for crushed stone, will make about 10 cm.
Pay attention! In the presence of blind area, trench it is necessary to have along it.
Then on bottom of trench it is necessary to fill up sand. Thickness of layer should not exceed 5 cm. From above geotextiles which are at once filled up with crushed stone keep within. Atop pipes give all the best and crushed stone is again filled up.
Upper and side layers of crushed stone have to make not less than 10 cm. All these components are covered with geotextiles which are fastened by means of wire to interval about 30 cm. Then everything is filled up with soil and the drainage system for the base can be considered ready.
Drainage system for the garden site
Too close arrangement of underground waters is capable to have extremely negative impact on life of plants which grow in garden. However the way of fight against this phenomenon has been thought up long ago, and today it is rather easy to implement it even by the efforts.
To dewater from the site, on all its area it is necessary to dig narrow trenches in the form of “fir-tree”. In them narrow pipes with a diameter of 6.3 cm will be placed. They are cut on pieces of necessary length and by means of special T-couplers connect in places of turns.
On this phase it is necessary to pay attention to geofabric role. It is necessary to make drainage pipe in the filter geotextiles. Each tube section has to be wound with geofabric minimum three times, and the winding needs to be recorded by means of wire.
After that layers in the following order give all the best: crushed stone, geotextiles, earth.
Helpful advice! At this stage geotextiles need to be stacked with an overlap to provide more reliable protection.
Dornit: nonwoven geotextiles of broad application
One of geofabric options which is widely presented at the market today – dornit. So call the cloth made of polymeric raw materials and which is applied in the construction sphere to filtering, reinforcing and as drainage. At first sight, dornit a little what it differs from normal geotextiles, however, not so.
Dornit technical characteristics of geotextiles in many respects exceed other similar materials, first of all, because of way which is applied in the course of its production. The needled thermoprocessed geotextiles are capable to maintain loadings which considerably exceed admissible for materials of normal type.
Nonwoven needled geotextiles are made on special technology which allows to improve qualitative characteristics of material. It has given the chance to use it in many spheres.
- in construction iron and motor-roads;
- for laying of pipelines;
- as the basis for laying of paving slabs;
- for the equipment of flat platforms under parkings.
Having found the place in many spheres, dornit helps to solve the following problems successfully: increase in durability of designs, division of layers of earth and drainage, filtering and prevention of processes of washing away of soil, protection of drainage systems against pollution.
The prices of woven geotextiles for m²
Despite the excellent technical characteristics, geotextiles has quite available cost. Material of domestic production differs in lower price for m². Geofabric for drainage of import producer will be a little more expensive.
Pay attention! Irrespective of the price, it is necessary to buy geotextiles for drainage that which will correspond to all requirements, shown to geofabric for this type of works.
The geofabric price directly depends on the following indicators: density, durability, way and material of production and producer. Before buying geofabric surely get acquainted with its technical characteristics.
If you are going to charge mounting of drainage system to professionals, then it is worth getting acquainted with geotextiles laying quotations. It is easy to consider that independently to buy geotextiles for drainage and to lay it the hands will cost almost twice cheaper.
Technology of laying of geotextiles for drainage
To deal with how to use geotextiles in the course of arrangement of drainage system, we will consider what it is necessary for and what its types happen.
Making a start from the available relief, one of two options of drainage is used:
The first option represents the dug channels which are on earth surface. It is easy to mount them, however they have rather unattractive exterior. If it is about arrangement of own site, then it is possible to call such option low-suitable.
The deep system outside is not visible as it is laid underground by means of special pipes and deeply dug trenches. And also for arrangement of internal part of reservoirs, apply geotextiles to ensuring safety of pipes.
As it was already mentioned earlier, geofabric is widely applied to arrangement of drainage systems on private sites and the house adjoining territory. Depending on assignment and, respectively, density, also the geotextiles price for drainage will differ.
Laying of geotextiles in drain tanks
One more important condition which needs to be observed that geofabric has completely executed the role – correctly to lay it in drainage system.
For this purpose there are rules, following which you will be able to achieve desirable result:
- the bottom of trench needs to be cleaned from construction waste completely. Walls have to be the most equal;
- it is recommended to unpack the acquired geotextiles just before laying as material is sensitive to influence of sunshine;
- if there is need, the cloth can be cut to the necessary size before laying;
- geofabric shall keep within with an overlap;
- categorically it is impossible to use those pieces of fabric which have damages;
- laying has to be made so that the cloth was not tense too hardly. At the same time formation of waves and folds is also inadmissible;
- if it is about laying of geotextiles for drainage on big surfaces, then for this time it is necessary to fix already laid pieces to avoid their shift;
- for the purpose of maintaining integrity and also minimizing of negative impact of ultraviolet, the draining material has to be filled up in trench at once after laying;
- when all layer of the draining material is filled up and condensed, side edges of geofabric have to be wrapped inside. At the same time free edges have to have length not less than 20 cm, it will help to avoid filler pollution probability;
- when all edges are wrapped as it is necessary, it is possible to cover trench with earth.
What party to stack geotextiles
One more important question which arises in the course of work – what party to put geotextiles? Here opinions even of specialists were shared. Some of them claim that there is no essential difference, and the fact that one party rough, and other smooth – only costs of production. Responses claim that irrespective of the fact which the party to lay material, characteristics of geotextiles remain invariable.
Some producers focuses attention of consumers that it is necessary to put geofabric the smooth party down. In this case recommendations of what party to stack geotextiles in drainage – will surely contain on packaging of product.
One more of opinions on question of what party to lay geotextiles, suggests to use rough surface for the best coupling with soil.
Anyway, making the decision what party to put geotextiles on the earth, it is the best of all to listen to instructions of the producer of drainage geotextiles which you have decided to buy.