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Originally and somehow specially houses with glass roof beautifully look. And if earlier such buildings were in wonder, then now dachas, estates and cottages with similar roof can be met quite often. Light-transmitting roof — the excellent decision, for example, for the restroom, office, workshop or winter garden. However, with such design any room in the house can be equipped. To have a rest or work very comfortably at daylight, in the conditions of natural lighting which, as we know, is capable to increase working capacity and to improve mood.
The metal framework to frames happens basis of transparent design usually. It is equipped with such material which has the limit flow capacity of light, and at the same time has absolutely safe weight and the sizes. Such systems successfully resist to both snow, and wind loads. Today there are processing methods allowing to build difficult space designs of any configuration.
Types of transparent roofs
It can be roofs of different type:
- glass domes;
- glass horizontal planes;
- one or double-pitch roofs;
- many-sided pyramids;
- spheres and hemispheres.
The embodiment of any architectural and design ideas is possible. In addition to originality of design, translucent designs have also economic component. Because sunlight through glass dome freely fills with itself the room, expenses on the electric power considerably decrease.
In private housing construction for natural internal illumination, for example, of winter garden, quite often use antiaircraft lamps. Their channel polycarbonate structure is considered the most economic option. This material is resistant both to mechanical loadings, and to high temperatures. But its use only in the heated rooms is recommended. Where heating is absent, it is better to apply the translucent pro-thinned-out PVC. Antiaircraft lamps can be built in practically to any place of sloping or flat roof. At the same time not only electrical energy, but also thermal is saved.
If there is desire without hindrances at any time to look at the sky, then arrangement of panoramic roof — great option. Such roof differs from glass in the bigger area of glazing. In this case glazing is carried out not on one slope, and occupies much more the big space of roof. Here “panoramic” tells the name for herself. Such glazing is normal demands construction of the bearing metal design or use of the strengthened aluminum shape.
The main requirements to which there has to correspond the translucent design:
- esthetics of exterior;
- combination to the general architecture of the building.
Subtleties of design and arrangement of translucent roofs
Projecting translucent roof, it is important to provide methods of fight against accumulation of snow on roof and frosting at once. Application of system of heating of glass is considered the most reliable and expensive option intended for solution.
There is less expensive way which assumes increase in corner of bias of roof. For self-cleaning of roof from the saved-up snow, this size has to be thirty and more degrees. It is impossible, looking at the European projects of glass roofs, to arrange such roof with the return bias to the house. In the conditions of our country the similar option is unacceptable. All weight of the snow which has accumulated in the turned-out deepening will press through the built design over time.
Any glass structure, and roof including, has property to lose transparency because of settling outside of dust. It needs to be considered at design and to build glass roof so that it was available and convenient for periodic washing.
Possessing esthetically attractive, unusual look, glass roofs, in addition to advantages, have also some shortcomings. So, in summer hot days the room under such roof can become similarity of the greenhouse since strongly heats up under sunshine with which nothing interferes. From this it follows that it is necessary to take additional measures of protection from sunlight penetration. For this purpose apply the special double-glazed windows preventing passing of sunshine to the room.
Glass over the head — source of the increased danger therefore it is important to use such material at which accidental dissecting will not be the splinters having the sharp, cutting edges.
Special attention needs to be paid to quality of waterproofing of joints of glass design with normal roof surface.
To thicket of others apply rolled material to waterproofing of roof and joints. It is the material representing fiber glass fabric with the bituminous polymer applied on both sides, and one of them (upper) in addition is covered with coarse-grained dumping. Rolled material also as normal roofing material, i.e. with an overlap and connects by means of warming up blow torch keeps within.
Before to lay rolled material on roof, it is necessary to provide strong fixing of framework of glass roof to wall of the building or to rafters of normal roof. Only after that rolled material is stacked on design with overlap in 10 cm. That there was no overheating and the subsequent cracking of double-glazed window, it is necessary to warm material gradually.
It is necessary to work carefully all possible nodes of adjunction to roofing covering. The major requirement — the full tightness of design — will provide reliable and long-term operation. Aluminum systems perfectly are suitable for creation of glass roofs and other translucent designs since double-glazed windows consist of external tempered glass and internal of triplex. On projecting phase there is opportunity to carry out wiring if it is required, in profiles, for the subsequent connection of heating of double-glazed windows.
Profiles for translucent roofs
Certainly, materials for similar designs on the heat-insulating and strength characteristics have to differ from those materials that are applied at arrangement of normal roof. It is important that the frame profiles and double-glazed windows intended for mounting per se, provided hydra and heat insulation adequately. It is impossible to apply classical technologies of insulating works in this case.
Taking into account that more reliability of design depends on qualitative characteristics of the used profile, the choice of the last also should pay special attention.
For production of framework of glass roof there are such materials as:
- Steel section — high-strength, is capable to maintain significant area of glazing. Minuses: quite big weight of framework, exposure of corrosion. Regular prevention — processing of steel structures corrosion preventing agents is necessary.
- The aluminum shape — the easy, constructed of it framework has high strength and small weight that gives rather small load of load-carrying structure. Lack of high heat conductivity of aluminum that increases heatlosses.
- The profile aluminum-wooden integrates advantages of two materials for creation of frameworks of translucent roofs where decorative and heat-insulating qualities of tree and ease and durability of aluminum are used. Minus of this profile is inadmissibility of application in rooms with the increased humidity level. So, this type of profile is obviously not suitable for greenhouse where conditions of humid tropical climate are modelled. In such environment, even processed by special means, wood will begin to decay eventually.
It is impossible to use for construction of framework the metalplastic profile applied to front windows at all. It will not be able to provide due structural strength.
Double-glazed windows and their substitutes
For the purpose of glazing of roofs single-chamber double-glazed windows are more often applied. Of course, for more effective heat insulation it would be quite good to use two-chamber, but in general the design of quite big weight turns out that is undesirable for glass roof.
Let’s list the materials allowing to provide as warmly, and safety of people, i.e. what can be applied at the device of translucent roof:
- special double-glazed windows;
- transparent slate (PVC);
- organic glass.
These materials when dissecting practically do not give splinters. For the purpose of safety it is possible to apply the following simple reception — on glass cloth to paste plastic film. In critical situation the broken glass will be held by film. The efficiency of similar way is higher if double-glazed windows are made of tempered glass and triplex. The film will hold set of the small splinters which are formed when dissecting tempered glass, thanks to the gluing properties.
The safest material for roofing glazing is triplex which does not give splinters at all. They also remain on plastic film, but do not scatter around. Absolutely unacceptable option — the normal plain glass having big weight and besides quite brittle.
For glazing glass of different degree of transparency can be used. Depending on the project apply color, absolutely transparent or, popular now, frosted glass with the multilayer drawing.
The use at construction of double-glazed windows where outside glass has the bigger size, than internal will become the interesting decision. Their mounting is carried out on special profile. For fastening use frost-resistant glue-sealant, at the same time clamping outside levels are absent. Finally we have the equal glass plane without outside elements which looks quite extraordinary.
If main objective is providing additional valance lighting, and there is no need for absolute transparency of roof, then often double-glazed windows replace with polycarbonate panels. It is high-strength, frost-resistant material. Note: the panel 16 mm thick is easily capable to bear blow by sledge hammer. There is small, but essential nuance — such property as thermal expansion is inherent in polycarbonate. Therefore mount sheets, leaving free interval between frame and edge of polycarbonate about 5 mm.
Construction of glass roof — occupation quite difficult, labor-consuming, demanding exact calculations and competent mounting which performance it is better to assign to shoulders of professionals. The built in due form, translucent roof will allow to enjoy feeling of open space and at the same time to have tent reliable and safe.