Table of Contents
The basement of many country houses or cottages is in most cases used defectively mainly for two reasons. First, in the winter at hard frosts temperature in the cellar can reach 0 °C. Agree, long only warmly dressed can be in such temperature. The second problem of many basements is dampness and the increased air humidity. The dampness can be formed in the form of condensate on walls, besides because of temperature drop, moisture on walls of the cellar can appear from the outside, that is, in the period of abundant rainfall. All this leads to what in the basement with wet and cold microclimate is possible temporarily unless preparations for the winter. However at competent approach, this situation can be changed radically and to turn the cold cellar into workshop, studio or the small gym.
For a start it is necessary to remember design on which country cottages with the big basement are built. Initially the ditch escapes, further at its bottom make the plate base, and later, walls from mass concrete or FBS blocks climb perimeter of plate of the base. To make effective warming and waterproofing of steel concrete walls of the cellar, in the beginning it is necessary to choose soil on external perimeter of the building to the basis of monolithic plate of the base. At the same time, digging out cellar walls, usually the trench is made cone-shaped form in order that there was no collapse of soil. Initially around cottage walls the mini-excavator creates trench about 150 cm wide and a little more than 100 cm in depth. Further selection of soil to the basis of plate of the base is made manually. The ready dug trench under wall in the lower part has to have width not less than 50-60 cm.
External waterproofing of surface of walls of the cellar
After end of earthwork operations, from concrete walls it is necessary to remove dirt and residues of soil and to wait when the surface of concrete dries out. Further if walls have been made of FBS (foundation wall block), all seams between steel concrete blocks process cold bituminous mastic. Cold bituminous mastic does not demand preliminary heating, it is enough to uncork hermetic metal bucket, to carefully mix structure and by means of wide brush to apply double layer of mastic on seams between blocks.
In certain cases apply hot bituminous mastic, however, process of drawing it more labor-consuming. For this purpose initially it will be required to buy bituminous pitch in solid bars. Then pieces of solid bitumen to cut or split into small pieces of the size of fist. Further pieces of bituminous pitch place in big metal capacity and fill in with lubricating used oil. At the same time observe the following proportion: 1 parts of bituminous pitch and 3 parts of working off. After that under metal capacity the fire is kindled, and all contents heat up to melting of pieces of pitch. After fluidifying of pieces of pitch all structure is mixed wooden bar and at once start its drawing on the prepared interblock seams. The lack of this way is that it is impossible to prepare large portion of structure for once and in the course of putting hot bitumen to have to shift not to allow structure to cool down, for example, to warm up capacity blow torch.
At the following stage after drying of bitumen on seams, make putting rolled waterproofing material. In the cheapest and old way of waterproofing of walls of the cellar, fusing or pasting of outer surface of the concrete plane roofing material is. Before making roofing material mounting, all concrete plane bituminous primer or primer on the basis of bituminous pitch. It is recommended to cause these structures with wide brush with small pressing. At such way of drawing the structure has to be rubbed during time of concrete surface for ensuring as much as possible adhesion of the built-up roofing material. After putting primer the cloth of roofing material is developed, slightly stretches, for the purpose of correction of folds and is put to the bottom of the processed plane of walls. Further by means of blowpipe the cloth is warmed above 80 °C and evenly built up on the plane. Cloths of roofing material have always horizontally. Having built up the lowermost cloth, the second cloth is mounted on the first with overlap by not less than 15 cm in the field of joint. Having finished mounting of the first layer of roofing material on all plane of basement walls, bituminous mastic is applied on its surface with brush and fusing of the second layer of roofing material is made by similar way.
There is one more way of waterproofing of concrete walls of the cellar – it is processing of their surface liquid rubber. Unlike bituminous waterproofing, this way is characteristic the fast term of performance. In the market of construction materials liquid rubber for waterproofing is most known under names elastopaz and elastomiks. Elastopaz cheap, however, him needs to be applied on surface in two layers. Elastomiks it is possible to put with one layer I form seamless rubber waterproof film on surface. The main lack of liquid rubber is high price of material.
External warming of walls of the cellar
Parent material for heat insulation of basement walls is extruded polystyrene foam. It is possible to make mounting of sheet polyfoam 6-7 days later after drawing waterproofing. It is impossible to apply dot way to mounting of sheet polyfoam, such as, when warming facade walls as at further charge of trench soil on heat insulator will make considerable pressure, and it can elementary crack. When mounting sheet expanded polystyrene on waterproofing use the special glue mastic on the basis of bitumen containing in the composition of solvents of organic origin, for example uayt-alcohol, toluene or gasoline. Otherwise such glue can corrode polyfoam.
Mounting of sheets of expanded polystyrene is made ranks from below up. At the same time bituminous glue mix is applied on the surface of roofing material by means of the palette of comb. Having applied the pecking structure on wall and having distributed it comb, the sheet of polyfoam nestles on it densely and the temporary prop is established for a while. Before mounting the second leaf edge edges of the first leaf are processed by glue structure. In general mounting of sheets needs to be carried out with the minimum seams.
Protection of walls of the cellar from abundant seasonal rainfall
After warming of external walls of the cellar sheet expanded polystyrene, over it on all vertical plane mount the pro-thinned-out membrane. Over membrane have vertically geotextiles, at the same time in the lower part of trench the pro-thinned-out membrane and geotextiles should not come to an end at the basis of monolithic plate of the base, and have to proceed on bottom of trench and reach approximately the middle of opposite wall of trench from the house. Further 20 cm of small crushed stone are fallen asleep for bottom of the turned-out pocket at the bottom of trench. Over pillow from crushed stone make laying of drainage pipes with small bias of 2-3 cm on 1 sq.m. At arrangement of drainage pipes their bias has to be in one and it is desirable to bring all drainage pipes to the main spillway or accumulative well.
Having laid completely drainage pipes along cellar walls, they are filled up with layer of small crushed stone in 30 cm and from the opposite side from the house the remained cloth of geotextiles is bent on crushed stone and make trench charge soil. It is necessary to explain a little how this system will work.
Extruded polyfoam – this material good heat insulator does not lose heat-insulating qualities, having even appeared in humid environment.
The pro-thinned-out membrane – in the period of abundant rainfall, at the expense of profile design this membrane will take away all rain and melt water from vertical plane expanded polystyrene in the bottom to drainage pipes. The remained moisture physically will not be able to get into concrete surface thanks to bituminous and ruberoid waterproofing.
The geotextiles cloth – this membrane interferes with silting of the drainage pipes surrounded with the water carrying out filler such as small crushed stone or gravel.
For improvement of functionality of waterproofing, after trench charge soil, around country house makes concrete blind area under small bias. It is desirable to make concrete blind area more than 150 cm wide thereby to take away rain water as it is possible further from building walls.