Table of Contents
Approach of severe winter sets thinking on heating of the housing. The lucky persons living in buildings with the centralized heating can quietly shift this care to shoulders of utility companies. And here owners of housing which for various reasons is not connected to the centralized system are offered to solve all problems independently. Ways to warm the room set, however according to the statistics most often prefer hot-water heating as the practical option checked by time.
Principle of work of design
The principle of functioning of construction is rather simple. Hot-water heating – the closed system which consists of radiators, the pipeline and heating boiler. In boiler up to the set temperature the heat carrier is warmed. Traditionally it is water, but there can be also liquid mix of components on basis from kinds of glycol. The warmed liquid on the pipeline goes to located in the heated room of the battery. Devices heat up and give the received heat, warming the room in which are. The cooled-down heat carrier returns on pipes to heating boiler and the cycle is repeated.
Thus, work of system is based on circulation of the heat carrier. In practice it can be carried out in the different ways. Distinguish:
- Gravitational or natural method. Process becomes possible thanks to the difference of density of heated and cold liquid. With heating density and, respectively, the weight of water or solution decreases. Liquid begins to move up pipes. Gradually giving heat, it is condensed and returns to heating boiler. Systems with gravitational circulation are completely autonomous, that is do not depend on availability of electricity. It is considered their main advantage. However the design also has shortcomings. One of the most noticeable – need of installation of large number of pipes under certain bias. At the same time their diameter has to be high that obstacles of natural circulation were not created. Choosing such system it is necessary to consider that the majority of modern models of radiators will not be able to work in it. They are expected connection to pipelines with smaller section.
- Forced way. It is based on operation of the circulation pump advancing liquid on pipes. In system without fail connect the manometer, the device informing on pipeline pressure. The excesses of the heat carrier which are formed when heating are taken away in the special device which is called broad tank. It is in the highest point of system and is most often closed that prevents evaporation. However if as the carrier of heat normal water is chosen, it can be open. Whereas availability in design of glycols demands only hermetically closed expansion tank, otherwise poisoning with poisonous evaporations is possible. Carry small expense of small diameter pipes, moderate volume of the heat carrier to advantages of system, and it can be not only water. Besides radiators can be used the most different including with possibility of temperature control. Negative feature – dependence on the supply of electricity necessary for operation of the pump. And also the heavy expenses on arrangement connected with purchase of temperature regulators, the manometer, expansion tank, etc.
Hot-water heating: arrangement options
Hot-water heating has set of versions among which it is very easy to pick up the option, most suitable for the conditions. In particular, proceeding from way of the movement of the heat carrier, distinguish systems:
- One-pipe. In such design liquid consistently moves from the first in construction radiator to the subsequent. As the heat carrier cools down, temperature of each following battery will be a little lower. The last can be simply cold, respectively, and it will be very bad to heat it. It is almost impossible to carry out adjustments of heating of radiator as the blocked battery will stop access of the heat carrier to other devices. Repair is also inconvenient. To carry out manipulations with the broken equipment, it is necessary to merge completely liquid from all system.
- Two-pipe. Assumes availability of two eyeliners to each radiator. On one pipe the warmed heat carrier arrives to the battery, and on the second the cooled-down liquid is taken away to heating boiler. One more distinctive feature: parallel coupling of pipes, suitable to the equipment, that allows to disconnect if necessary without serious consequences damaged or temporarily not used radiators from the general system. Temperature of the last battery of design will be a little lower, but these heatlosses are absolutely insignificant and do not affect quality of heating of the room.
- Collector. At arrangement of such system the collector from which to each battery the pipe departs is established. On it the hot heat carrier moves. Besides from radiator the branch with the cooled-down liquid approaches it. Such device allows to carry out necessary replacement of different sites of system or running repair without heating shutdown. Heating temperature of radiators easily gives in to adjustment. Refer need of installation of special collector cabinet and big expense of pipes to shortcomings.
Hot-water heating – the closed system. It can be presented in the form of one or at once two contours. Let’s consider single-circuit option. It is intended only for heating of rooms. The construction includes one-pipe distributing, single-circuit heating boiler with extract in the atmosphere and the necessary number of batteries. If it is necessary to provide also supply of the warmed-up water, at the same time establish two such designs. And one of them works for heating, the second – for water heating. It is rather practical, in warm season only the system of heating of water will be used.
Single-circuit construction – the simplest in the course of mounting and the inexpensive decision for heating of housing. As practice shows, it optimum is suitable for constructions within 100 sq.m. If necessary the design can be improved. Usually install the pump for forced circulation, equip two-pipe distributing, and mount temperature regulators on radiators. The system with two contours is intended for supply of heated water and heating. As water undertakes from heating system, there are some restrictions on its use. It is the best of all that the number of the people living in the house where double-circuit heating is established did not exceed 4 people. The water moving in pipes has to arrive from water supply system or be softened specially. Rigid, taken directly from the well, will quickly put construction out of commission.
Equipment necessary for functioning of system
Competent arrangement of hot-water heating assumes the correct selection of components of system. The operability of construction depends on their utilization properties.
This device in which the heat carrier is warmed. As practice shows, the equipment can function practically on any type of fuel. Its choice is caused by needs of the owner of the heated room. It is possible to consider the following options of boilers:
- On liquid or on solid fuel. Rather effective models. Their indisputable advantage – full autonomy. They do not depend on presence of the centralized networks in any way, but demand arrangement of special storages for fuel.
- Gas. Are considered as the most economic devices. However their installation is impossible without leading of the highway from the gas pipeline passing nearby. Besides systems are considered as potentially dangerous and demand regular survey and service by the certified specialists.
- Electric. Very expensive decision. The equipment is connected to the power supply network and spends rather large number of energy. It is much more reasonable to install the electric radiators directly transforming energy to heat. Besides, such boilers depend on supply of electricity.
At equipment selection make a start from the sizes of the heated room. It is considered that on average the boiler has to have the power of 1 kW on ten sq.m. Wall height at the same time should not exceed 3 m if it is more, then, respectively, more powerful equipment is required. Also heatlosses of the dwelling are considered. It is necessary to consider the sizes of windows, extent of warming of construction, presence of additional consumers of heat, etc.
Pipes for heating contour
Initially it were only metal designs. They are distinguished by durability, reliability and durability. However each type of pipes from metal has own shortcomings. Steel are subject to corrosion, especially in welding points. This defect is absent at steel galvanized or corrosion-proof pipes which have appeared a bit later. The most reliable metal pipes – copper. They are not subject to corrosion at all, easily transfer serious temperature drops and pressure. In need of them it is easy “to hide” in walls where parts can work decades. However their cost is rather high that transfers copper designs to discharge of exclusive options.
Practical metalplastic pipelines receive the increasing popularity today. Designs have good utilization properties. Parts are very easy in mounting, even the nonprofessional can establish them. Pipes are not exposed to corrosion and are quite strong. Internal surfaces of products very smooth, the mineral deposit is not postponed for them. The main lack of metal plastic pipes – high rate of thermal expansion. Therefore at possible temperature differences the design can be damaged.
In the different systems of hot-water heating functioning with forced circulation it is possible to establish practically any radiators, the benefit their range is very wide. The main options which should be considered can be considered:
- Pig-iron. Such equipment was traditionally installed in rooms. Its shortcomings are well-known. It is big weight that significantly complicates mounting and repair. Batteries from cast iron very long get warm and also long radiate heat that, on the one hand, it is possible to consider plus as devices well warm the room. However it is almost impossible to regulate temperature of such batteries. It is possible to carry the democratic cost, durability and good resistance to corrosion to number of advantages.
- Steel. These radiators differ in attractive design. They are rather easy and do not complicate mounting. Besides steel has the high strength allowing to resist hydroblow and heat emission that allows to regulate temperature of the heated room easily. The cost of such devices is rather low. However the equipment has shortcomings too. Among them – low resistance to corrosion that significantly reduces operation term.
- Aluminum. Devices most popular today. Are issued in the form of sections which quantity is chosen depending on the heated area. Builders are also involved by their ease, reliability, modern design and very democratic cost. At radiators higher, than at steel, resistance to corrosion. And here durability of material is insufficient owing to what they can be destroyed in consequence of hydroblow.
- Bimetallic. Successfully combine advantages of aluminum and steel devices. Batteries are easy, corrosion resistant, and to also elevated pressure in system, are not exacting to the heat carrier. Are issued in attractive design, are used at any types of heating. High price of devices which is explained by complexity of their design is considered essential shortcoming.
Two-pipe system: why it is chosen
From all kinds of the existing systems of hot-water heating two-pipe is most widespread. According to the statistics it is chosen by about two thirds of builders. It easily speaks, its advantages before cheaper one-pipe are quite obvious:
- The minimum pressure losses that allows to use circulating pump of smaller power which will be also more economic.
- Availability of the locking equipment on the bringing pipes gives the chance to make repairs or replacement of batteries without shutdown of system.
- The heat carrier of identical temperature comes to all batteries.
- Possibility of adjustment of temperature in the room without prejudice to heat emission of other heating appliances. The thermostat can be installed on each battery.
It is accepted to carry the double length of the pipeline to number of shortcomings of two-pipe system that demands purchase of large number of pipes. The part should not consider it only negative quality after all. Which will be required when mounting system, differ in the small diameter and standard size, respectively, are not so expensive. Costs of arrangement of two-pipe heating will be a little higher, than one-pipe. However it has much more advantages and advantages.
Options of arrangement of two-pipe heating
Depending on type of the broad tank which is used in design, all systems are divided into opened and closed. For the first case in upper point of construction the open capacity giving the chance to the heat carrier to evaporate is mounted. Such device assumes rather low internal pressure in system. The expansion tank of membrane type established in the closed constructions gives the chance of circulation under forced pressure. Evaporation of liquid in such design is physically impossible that allows to fill in as the heat carrier solutions on the basis of different glycols. Their utilization properties in many respects exceed the water which is used in opening systems.
The two-pipe heating services assumes two options of distributing:
- Upper. In this case the parting highway is laid on upper part of the building. The expansion tank is mounted in the highest point of contour. As usually such design passes across the attic, with flat roof it does not suit for constructions. It is possible to carry the high pressure of liquid in the giving struts to advantages and natural removal of undesirable air from construction.
- Lower. The pipeline with the hot heat carrier is laid in socle, underground space or the cellar. For the return highway even more low located level is chosen. It is desirable to bury boiler below radiators to stimulate circulation. For removal of air the upper aerial line included in heating contour is surely carried out from system. Use of the lower distributing allows to achieve higher efficiency of system, gives small losses of heat energy and possibility of installation of all shutoff valves in one room. Besides the system can function even in partially built house.
Both types of distributing can be used for different types of heating system. On location of the highways connecting system elements distinguish:
- Horizontal construction. Assumes connection of devices of heating to horizontally located pipeline. Struts most often establish on stair enclosure or in corridor. Air locks are pitted against the help of Mayevsky’s cranes installed on radiators. The traditional decision for one-storey buildings, big on the area, however, can be used also in multi-storey buildings.
- Vertical system. Radiators are connected to vertical struts. Traditionally was considered as the best for multi-storey constructions as gives the chance of floor-by-floor connection to strut. Differs in lack of air locks in use. Carry higher cost of construction to shortcomings.
Hot-water heating – the practical and very effective solution checked by decades of successful operation. The project of system will demand professional calculation and right choice of the heating equipment. Also competent mounting is also necessary. All this, except calculations, can be executed independently. If there are doubts in own competence, then it is better to charge work to specialists. Anyway the cosiness and warmly own house will become result of the spent efforts and means.