Table of Contents
The arrangement of windows, their form, the size, material of which frames are made play crucial role in esthetic perception of the building. At the neutral, compositionally directed, accented vertical or horizontal division of apertures there are absolutely different effects. It is possible to tell that if to consider eyes window to the soul, then windows will become reflection of internal maintenance of the house. If exterior of facade after the person has got in the room, is forgotten soon and will not be of particular importance, then pane will be constant before eyes though outside of the room though from within.
The window in interior becomes the peculiar baguette framing world picture. And if the frame is picked up badly, also the overall view spoils. And of course, it is impossible to forget that windows can dictate style of all interior. So, the era of dominance of modernist style became top of interpretation of windows as works of art. Organic lines of pane were combined with the drawing of facades of structures of that time, creating the general feeling of harmony.
Windows of our time are much less elaborate, but at the same time are much more practical, and modern technologies open possibility of the choice between traditional solid woodblocks and other materials.
Unfortunately, the pursuit of comfort has turned back universal replacement of old frames. At the same time it is practically not told about protection of integrity of facades in the same multifamily houses when each of inhabitants establishes the frames corresponding to its personal taste. As a result of “face” enough presentable houses, for example, of the Stalin period, turn into the “scrappy shirt” consisting of different in color and form of covers. Therefore before replacing old frame, it is worth thinking both of their comfort, and of that, how appropriate they will look also from within the room, and outside. For this purpose it is necessary to understand in what these or those production techniques differ.
Classification of windows
Functions of windows are similar to functions of doors in that, as those, and others are intended for barrier from the external environment of internal rooms. However windows, besides, regulate such influences and promote creation of internal comfort.
The majority of modern houses need airing as not everyone they is equipped with the systems of the centralized ventilation. Performance of this task lays down on windows. Through them sunshine which not just bring light get to the room, but also affect our health, destroying pathogenic microorganisms.
However all good has also reverse side. And windows create heatloss problem during the cold periods. As a rule, through windows significant amount of heat is lost. Heat waste and costs of heating of rooms connected with it, depend on set of factors: material and binding of covers, the choice of design of glazing, extras like curtains or blinds. Unary glazing leads to very big heatlosses. When glazing double between covers the layer which interferes with leaving of heat on the street is created. For heat-shielding the double-glazed windows made of several sheets of glass which connect welding of folds or the condensing profiles are used. The space between sheets is filled with inert gases or dry air — it excludes emergence of condensate. Optimum distances between glasses are specified in the special table.
Also to us, except heat and light, through windows sounds get. Double-glazed windows carry out noise-absorbing task. Sound-proof properties depend on distance between glasses, their thickness, availability of the soundproofing gases in double-glazed window space. Force of noise flow decreases also because of consolidation of joints of boxes, shutters, boxes in position of joints with walls, elbow boards and shutters.
To understand what window will suit you, it is necessary to consider pluses and minuses of all possible types.
First of all, carry to advantages of wooden windows their good sound and heat-protective properties. One of essential advantages of the windows made of wood – possibility of independent repair. Besides such qualities as also belong to advantages:
- high strength of wood which with small weight provides high coefficient of quality;
- ecological purity;
- quality, very important for our climate — high frost resistance;
- ease in processing;
- attractiveness of external natural look.
Shortcomings of wooden window:
- wood can be exposed to defeat by microorganisms or to rotting;
- combustibility of tree;
- hygroscopicity (technical characteristics depend on the level of humidity of wood);
- need of periodic leaving.
Generally wooden frames of new generation are carried out from oak, beech, nut, pine or mahogany. The best wood for production of window frames is mahogany. This wood is well processed, over time does not shrink, allows to make exact adjustment of parts.
Any wood of which windows industrially are made is processed by the impregnations protecting it from influence of ultraviolet rays, moisture and bugs wood borers. The highest price at frames from valuable breeds, but it is quite possible to establish and I will take a nap, externally processed as nut, beech or oak.
The Russian market of wooden windows offers both domestic, and foreign models. The windows made abroad Russia, much more expensively as on technology can be put only in completely ready look.
Conditionally all wooden windows existing in the Russian market can be separated into three groups differing in the price and quality:
- The ready windows made abroad. Are brought generally from Sweden, Finland, Italy of Germany and other countries. The main difference – high quality and same, rather high, the price;
- The import equipments and advanced technologies manufactured in Russia at the Russian enterprises, but using. Have high quality. At use of cheaper technologies of painting or processing of wood, the price falls to average;
- Made at the enterprises using in equipment manufacturing obsolete. Quality, as well as price, low.
Wooden windows often are chosen not so much because of some certain functional advantages how many because of perception esthetics, because of the exterior playing important role and in appearance of the building, and in interior. Therefore when choosing wooden windows purity of processing of surfaces, beauty, color nuances of breeds of wood, grace of profiles have bigger value. Only thanks to high technologies the high quality of processing of surfaces can be reached, and profiles will receive irregular shape. Besides use of modern technologies becomes product quality guarantee in general. Good wooden windows at the correct operation serve not less than 50 years. These circumstances allow to think that wood can quite replace plastic or other material, but only provided that the window was made on the modern equipment with implementation of all requirements of technology. That is such windows cannot be cheap.
Metal blocks from aluminum and steel
Even more often aluminum is used in construction, make facades, doors and windows of it. Main advantages of this material: high resistance to external adverse effects and opportunity long time to do without repair.
Aluminum – the environmentally friendly material received from mineral bauxite. It does not allocate dangerous and hazardous substances, does not contain heavy metals, in any climatic zone keeps working capacity, maintains temperature drop of -80 °C — +100 °C, better than other materials does not lose the properties. Processing of aluminum surfaces gives resistance to corrosion which heat, rains or snow can cause.
As a rule, aluminum shapes are manufactured of three-component alloy which includes the aluminum providing elegant exterior and ease, magnesium which strengthens design alloy durability, and silicon which increases foundry properties.
Any metal — the good heat conductor, for improvement of characteristics of design of profiles are filled with the foaming structures. However even after that aluminum shapes on heat-protective properties are inferior to plastic and wooden windows.
They demand the minimum leaving, but during mounting it is necessary to protect aluminum parts from water which can cause emergence of spots.
Advantages of aluminum windows:
- resistance to deformation, corrosion;
- resistance to harmful effects of the environment;
- long life cycle (the rated term is not less than 80 years);
- lack of reaction to ultra-violet radiation, influence of different gases, oils, acids;
- possibility of production of windows with very big sizes, with any way of opening and any form;
- simplicity in leaving;
- maintaining ecologically favorable properties all of operation term.
Lack of aluminum windows it is possible to call what at indirect or direct contact of aluminum and other metals (for example, at water ingress) causes electrolytic reactions leading to aluminum electrocorrosion which can become design cause of destruction. The combination to copper is especially dangerous, it is necessary to exclude sharing of these metals. On heat-protective properties concede to windows from other materials.
Aluminum shapes well are suitable for areas in which there are no long frosts and also for parts of the room where heat conductivity does not play significant role (balconies, loggias).
Windows from polymeric materials
In production of plastic windows polyvinyl chloride – the material relating to thermoplastics is used. Pure PVC represents powder and contains 43% of petrochemical product of ethylene and 57% of the connected chlorine received from table salt. During production of profiles powdery PVC mixes up with modifiers, stabilizers, coloring pigments and other auxiliary additives. The added components are intended for strengthening of positive properties: light resistance, bondability, quality and color shade of surface, resistance to influences of the atmosphere.
The stabilizer, lead generally acts. In window PVC it contains in connected, biologically passive, state. Some companies have replaced lead with compounds of zinc and calcium, as on even more harmless recently. Also such term as the modified PVC meets. It designates PVC in which production the modifiers giving to window parts big durability are used. PVC – the material which is hardly igniting and self-extinguished, stopping burning without fire source. It is steady against lime influence, acid, alkalis and against atmospheric actions.
Any plastic window has to be supplied with the Russian hygienic certificate confirming its harmlessness for health.
In cross-section at plastic window difficult profile – it increases rigidity of shutters and covers. Usually profiles are completed by the foaming materials giving to window heat-shielding indicators similar to indicators of windows of wood. Do not need coloring. But some types of plastic under the influence of ultraviolet and other phenomena can become spotty over time or lose initial color.
Advantages of plastic windows:
- have small weight;
- do not demand leaving;
- do not sustain combustion;
- are steady against external influences.
- the impossibility of independent repair, in most cases at damage arises need for replacement of all block;
- lack of system of utilization of the windows which have fulfilled term.
Plastic (or metalplastic) windows are made more than 40 years, but in the Russian market have appeared relatively recently. Now we have provided more than 30 companies, supplying PVC profiles. But when choosing the company which will be engaged in mounting of window system, it is necessary to remember that the final product is not just profile, and the established window. The high quality of the ready block consists of several parts:
- elements of the window, its glasses and double-glazed windows, sealants, accessories and profiles;
- high-quality assembly of the block;
- high-quality mounting.
In order that is guaranteed to receive quality samples, it is necessary to check whether the company processor of profile has certificate of GOST-R issued on glass, accessories, profiles and sealant. Such certificate confirms that the profile can be used in our climate and guarantees quality. Certification – action expensive therefore the fact that the manufacturing firm has undergone such procedure, speaks about its gravity.
The leading producers develop own series of the profiles having design features on heat insulation and sound protection. But it should be noted that technical characteristics of the different profiles made under different trademarks are very insignificant. Not the big name of this brand, and qualification of workers who will be engaged in installation of your window is much more important. Once it treats the work as undue image, and any, even the most qualitative, the profile, will not save you from noise, drafts and heat waste.
Windows from fibreglass
Use for production of profiles of polyester fibreglasses became new word in window production. It is constructional thermosetting has flown down the filled material which has heat conductivity of wood, on durability and durability it is comparable with metal, and biological firmness, resistance to atmospheric influences it is equal to polymeric materials.
The technology of use of fibreglass, as well as its name — have come from Canada.
Before the technologies allowing to make any configuration of profiles from FGK have been developed, its application restrained. But it became possible after implementation in production of process of pultrusion. The fiber glass material impregnated with thermosetting pitch is stretched through heated die hole. As a result at the exit the ready profile turns out.
Strength indices of fibreglass are comparable with indicators of aluminum windows. It leads to the fact that need of strengthening of profiles special inserts disappears. At fibreglass low coefficient of thermal conductivity therefore such designs perfectly keep warmly indoors and do not let in cold outside.
The following merit – the high accuracy of production. And as all parts are adjusted to each other, the level of resistance to airpermeation increases. In fiberglass windows it considerably exceeds norms.
Advantages of fiberglass windows:
- durability, guarantee life cycle – 25 years;
- potential impact of temperatures of -70 °C — +170 °C;
- installation of steel strengthening members for giving of rigidity to profile is not required;
- the small coefficient of longitudinal expansion equal to the same indicator for glass, the effect of uniform work of all window – “glass in glass” as a result is gained;
- it is not formed slots at temperature drops, it allows not to regulate accessories;
- fibreglass does not decay, is not scratched, does not rust, does not lose hardness over time, does not change color;
- it is provided in different color gamma, if desired color can be changed;
- does not demand leaving.
In a word, fiberglass windows can become rather quite good choice, but meanwhile they are presented at our market not too widely.
Except material of the window block on quality of window, especially on its heat conductivity, the set of factors influences:
- amount of glazing, relation of its area to the area of the whole block;
- width of shutters and frames, number of cameras;
- location and amount of sealants;
- glazing type.
Any firm offering installation of double-glazed windows will give the numbers characterizing heat conductivity and sound security. However to understand these digits happens too difficult. To help to understand what frame with what glass what number of cameras will suit you, the comparative table which will help to understand is provided, is “how more silent” or “warmer” this or that option of double-glazed window. Here the column with approximate difference in the price between different options is added.
Indicator “the double-glazed window formula” specifies in turn thickness in millimeters of glasses and intervals of cameras — between them. 4-millimeter glass is taken as basis, letter K near such digit designates K-glass. It differs from normal in the specialized coating intended for reflection of internal heat back to the room. The amount of the returned heat reaches 70%. And in the summer K-glass reflects the excess heat going from the street. The letter “A” near indicator of the camera designates that such camera is filled with argon, but not air.