Table of Contents
One of expensive, but very effective methods of external finishing of the house is facing by its brick. In this case it is possible to achieve excellent results as:
- considerably the term of operation of the house lasts;
- the house gets new, more attractive facade;
- the building receives additional sound insulation and heat insulation;
- the respectability of the building increases, i.e. further such house can be sold more expensively.
As facing material the brick is applied already long ago. Unlike some other types of finishing, the brick veneer is the most sound reconstruction of the house and it is carried out for very long period of time. In fact, the owner, as a result of wall decoration brick, receives the new house. Variety of designs due to application of different standard sizes of brick and special types of laying, turns, the darkened from time, wooden house to the magnificent modern building.
Carry out careful audit: to be sure of expediency of carrying out facing of the house brick, it is necessary to inspect carefully structures of the house on integrity. If necessary make major repair: replacement of logs, floor beams, strengthening of the base. The base in this case it is necessary to consider in the long term its strengthenings for the purpose of support on it again put up brick walls.
How to calculate the cost of materials
Think over option of strengthening or construction of the base, socle, count approximate consumption of material. It is necessary to process carefully walls of wooden house antifungal means. The consumption of medicine is specified on packaging, walls are recommended to be processed twice therefore the consumption rate specified in the instruction needs to be multiplied approximately by 1.5. The second layer is absorbed not so intensively as the first. Buy fittings, with its help it is possible to strengthen laying of walls.
As heater it is possible to use haydite, mineral wool, glass wool or another heat-insulating and gobo. It is impossible to use roofing material as it has very low heat conductivity as insulating material, and external walls of the house need the correct heat balance.
For bricklaying solution which consists of lime paste, cement, sand and water is used. Ratio of components: on 1 part of cement 1 part of lime paste, 4 parts of the sifted sand undertakes, water is added in process of batch to the necessary consistence. Lime somewhat can appear over time on wall surface therefore when using bright colors of brick it is better to use solution on the basis of special dry mixes.
On one square meter about 55 pieces of bricks of standard dimension will be required. To calculate the area of laying, it is necessary to measure by tape measure length and height of walls, to multiply and put all sizes minus the areas of windows, doors.
What to apply brick?
Availability of the huge choice of brick which can be applied to facing of the house allows to create individual facade. It is possible to apply facing brick of different brands to finishing of facade. It is possible to apply smooth or impressive brick, color, ceramic or received by method of moist hyper pressing.
The corpulent facing brick is steadiest against adverse hostile environment, has high strength, low moisture absorption and frost resistance. But, as walls nevertheless will be partially protected by roof, it is safely possible to choose material, proceeding from esthetic preferences. The frost resistance of material at the same time has to be F25, F35 or F50, moisture absorption not less than 6%. F25 brand will be suitable for the southern regions, F35 – for midland, and F50 can be applied in the most severe frosty conditions.
When choosing brick attentively examine it:
- the surface of brick has to have homogeneous color;
- there should not be cracks, chips and stratifications;
- the form and the sizes have to conform to the stated standard;
- edges have to be accurate.
Preparation of the base
If the house was under construction without loading of brick veneer, then it is necessary to strengthen surely the base or to build new. As optimal variant it is possible to consider grillage the base.
Grillage – the part of the pile base which is located over piles and distributing loading. Executed in the form of plates, beams, the grillage integrates heads of piles and serves as support for the put-up walls.
Such model of the base is recommended to be considered among priority as mounting of piles will not do harm to integrity of the existing base and it is rather fast way of the device of qualitative supporting structure.
The new base has to be constructed with calculation that the distance between future brickwork and the existing wall of the house will not exceed 6 centimeters. For laying of insulating material and ensuring ventilation of facade it is enough to leave gap in 3 — 6 cm. The foundation under facing on soil frost depth is laid.
Bandaging of the bases is obligatory in case of new construction, it is carried out before filling additional as follows:
- In the existing base openings with space on 100 mm from top at an angle 15 – 200 down, diameter of openings of 12 mm, depth are drilled: 100 mm in concrete bed, 200 mm in brick.
- Armature of 12 mm with calculation is driven in into openings that its ends remain outside on 150 mm.
- When filling the additional base, the armature will remain in his cavity.
If the existing base rather powerful, wide also allows placement on it brick veneer, there is no need of its strengthening or construction additional.
That thickness of the facing has to be 12 cm the gap of 3 – 6 cm is obligatory, thickness of the required base under facing has to be not less than 25 cm.
For what the socle is necessary?
The socle is layer between the base and facing, it can be element of the main laying and be carried out brick. On socle the main loading lays down: mechanical from walls, wet from hit of rainfall therefore for it it is possible to use only strong brick with the steadiest characteristics. For production of socle it is possible to use second-hand brick, it is important only that it was high quality.
The acting socle – rather widespread basis of design for country houses. The acting socle can be conceived for reasons of esthetics or for the purpose of additional protection of the basement. Such basis of design demands draining construction, i.e. the socle has to have bias from wall and is moisture-proof.
The sinking-down socle most often is used at arrangement of facing of the house by brick. Such type is most practical as it does not demand the device of additional draining: rainfall, flowing down from house walls, do not get on it. Besides, protected there is waterproofing course: rainfall does not influence it at all that, in turn, protects facing from destruction.
Performance of brickwork
The laying is carried out on waterproofing course which is stacked on socle. As a rule, it is the roofing material strip laid in 3 layers. The waterproofing protects base layers of laying from excessive moistening. Optimum to calculate distance from the existing wall and to exclude, whenever possible, applications of nonintegral bricks, it is necessary to be tried on prior to performance of laying: without solution to spread out the first row of laying.
At observance of distance of laying from wall in 6 cm, it is possible to do carrying out of laying. But they should not be located from wall further, than on 10 cm. When exceeding gap of 6 cm, the brickwork needs to be connected with the existing wall. Long nails of 100 mm with hats are for this purpose used. When length nailing it will be insufficient because of roughness of logs, it is recommended to increase nails by means of steel wire with a diameter of 2 mm. I.e. to hammered nails the wire which keeps within solution between bricks becomes attached. The wire double is carried to the middle of brick directly, then gets divorced: one end to the right, another to the left. Bandaging of carrying out conduct in each row with step 50 cm. The nail needs to try to be hammered above the middle of log at an angle 450.
The laying is conducted from below, it is not necessary to hurry to put up walls. It is necessary to control carefully vertical and horizontal by means of plumbs and water levels. In order to avoid solution washing away by rain, the executed laying, during breaks for rest, needs to be covered with polyethylene, tarpaulin, dense burlap or other waterproofing material. Manually it is not so simple to split brick if large number of pieces not of standard dimensions is required, it is better to use for this purpose the machine.
The recommended seam thickness at construction of brick facing – no more than 13 mm. For control of thickness seams use rail. Each 5 rows it is necessary to control thickness of seams. Calculate what has to turn out height taking into account seams. If calculations have not met with the real-life size, surely improve situation when laying the following 5 brick-on-edge courses, increasing or, on the contrary, reducing amount of solution.
Facing is made, stacking 1 layer of brick on edge or flatwise. It is necessary to make bandaging of seams in each row. For this purpose use strips about 2 cm wide from roofing iron. It is possible to cut iron by means of saw or scissors on metal. Length of strips is defined from calculation that it was possible to beat them to wooden logs and to bring to laying cavity, fixing by solution. Norm of the device of bandaging: 1 strip on each 13 rows of laying on height with step no more than 1 meter across.
Pro-spirits are necessary for implementation of ventilation of wooden walls of the house, for their device it is necessary to provide openings in laying at the rate of 75 cm2 on 20 sq.m from the area of facade. The wooden walls protected by brickwork from rainfall and wind loads, provided with the correct ventilation are capable to serve eternally. In order to avoid penetration in covering of rodents, birds, pro-spirits need to be protected the metal gauze.
It is recommended not to bring brickwork to house eaves on 1 row, it will provide good ventilation of facade.
One cannot cope with such volume work as facing of the house as brick. If you want to save and not to employ significantly special crew, then have to think over all process of reconstruction carefully. Study professional advice, if necessary, communicate at construction forums and there ask matters of substance, you all the same should take someone in assistants. At the same time you will need to direct process. Get notebook and write down the plans and calculations.
Think where you will store construction materials whether it is enough at you stock, the equipment and tools? Ladders, step-ladders, big tanks, drill, saw, the machine will be necessary for you for cutting of brick, set of metalwork tools, overalls (several couples of convenient mittens on season are obligatory).
Try to buy brick of one lot at once, also, whenever possible and all other materials. Get everything in one place wholesale, at the expense of it it is possible to save significantly. Many companies practice to sell goods by installments without participation of bank. If you have no opportunity to buy everything on cash calculation, seize the payment payment by installments opportunity.