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Repair of the bathroom of many puts before dilemma – to put tile the hands or to address specialists. But it is expensive and inexpedient to employ crew, especially if to take the fact that there are no great difficulties in facing works into account. At certain skill and knowing algorithm of sequence of operations, it is possible to issue perfectly walls and half of the room ceramics independently.
Ceramic tile became the leader during creation of interior of bathrooms. The reason of it in successful set of advantages of material:
- Moisture and vapor stability. The dense structure of ceramics and glazed surface of tile perfectly protect walls from humid air.
- Resistance to abrasion and durability. Necessary parameter for any floor or wall covering.
- High hygienic rates. The tile is easily cleaned from any pollution and at the same time does not lose the utilization properties.
- Long life cycle. After high-quality repair it is possible not to worry more than ten years that replacement of facing material will be required.
- Esthetics. The bigger choice of forms and coloring allows to issue the bathroom practically on any design project.
Measurements of the room and choice of tile
You should not hurry in shop behind tile if on hands there are no measurements of the room. Precisely to calculate material consumption, it is necessary to know the area of each wall. For this purpose it is necessary to measure walls on width and height and simple multiplication to receive required digits.
It is worth noticing that if laying of tile in the bathroom is planned about use of the decorative moments – inserts or borders – that their quantity is counted separately in pieces taking into account the locations of decor on walls. Sometimes calculation is conducted in running meters, but it is always worth checking the received result piece calculation. Other tile is bought on square meters with obligatory stock not less than 5% of total amount. Professional builders sometimes advise to increase this size to 10-15%, especially if works are conducted by owners of the apartment independently.
If it is difficult to be guided only by mathematical sizes, then it is recommended to make the plan of the bathroom, to draw the scheme of laying and to count decorative elements manually. It is also possible and define the general consumption of ceramic material.
Upon purchase of tile it is worth paying attention to number of parameters which will allow to choose really qualitative option:
- Tile size. The bigger choice of the different sizes allows to use the most different ways of laying and registration of the room.
- Extent of water absorption. On packaging of each producer there is digit alphabetic characteristics. Most long the tile with markings of Ia, Ib, IIa and IIb where digits is class of water absorption, and letters – mark about tile method of production (extrusion method – an and pressing – b) serves.
- Strength class. For floor it is necessary to choose the strongest tile of the fifth strength class, and for walls optimum option – ceramics of the first or second class.
- Color. The decorative “rainbow” offered in shops can satisfy any taste.
- Form. The it is more difficult than tile configuration, the it is heavier to put it, but the ready compositions look more interestingly.
- Relief. Tiles with heterogeneous surface are suitable more for floor covering as smooth the decision are more injury-causing in rooms with the increased humidity.
Except the tile for high-quality laying will be required:
- Tiled glue;
- Palettes, including toothed;
- Plastic crosses which width has to be equal to desirable distance between tiles;
- Construction level;
- Tile cutter.
Ways of laying of ceramic tile
The pattern on walls is more difficult, the room interior is more presentable. Allocate four main ways of laying of ceramic tile:
- Direct laying. Suits newbies in construction business and also those who prefers strict forms in interior.
- Diagonal laying. Perfectly looks on half of rooms of square shape. Used for decoration of the walls, it helps to hide the wrong proportions of surfaces. Demands special skill and serious working skills.
- “Chess” laying. Approaches at two-color decoration of the walls.
- Laying with shift. Not the most difficult option, but demands care in work as each subsequent row has to be displaced rather previous.
- Mosaic. Allowing to make out walls from tiles of the different sizes and flowers. Demands high professionalism.
Preparation of walls and floor
The most important, and sometimes and the most labor-consuming stage of laying of ceramic tile is preparation of surfaces. From that, how carefully everything will be made, both the quality of facing, and speed of performance of work, and durability of covering depends.
- Stage first: dismantling and release of the room from furniture and plumbing fixtures. It will allow to expand working space and to avoid damages of elements of furniture and the sanitary equipment. The bathtub most of which often remains on site needs to be closed blankets and polyethylene film.
- Stage second: dirty work on removal of old covering from walls. Except tile it is desirable to remove also plaster coat under it. It will allow to avoid further such problem as falling of the new laid tile.
- Stage third: alignment of walls. If to consider the normal bathroom of the standard apartment, then the main trouble of the room – uneven walls. For this reason the most part of preparatory work is intended for improvement of quality of surfaces.
For alignment of walls it is recommended to use one of the next ways:
- Mounting of cement plate;
- Mounting of drywall plate;
- Alignment by plaster;
- Use of mixes for alignment.
Cement plate the ideal basis for laying of tile, but is not always convenient to use it in apartments as it has rather big thickness. Fixed on walls, it reduces the total amount of the room. Is suitable for application in owner-occupied dwellings and bathrooms of the big area.
The drywall plate thinner, but also allows to try to obtain ideally plain surface of walls. It is necessary to remember that gypsum cardboard has to be moisture resistant, that is have GKLV abbreviation, otherwise it will quickly become useless in humid climate of the bathroom.
Alignment by plaster has the features. Before works it is recommended to apply the “indicators” determining height of vertical slices on walls. And further to plaster, being guided by the made marks. After stucco work it is recommended to take break for 10-14 days that the coat layer has properly dried out.
The leveling mixes are suitable for almost direct walls. They are applied when it is necessary to remove only small roughnesses of surface.
Stage fourth: primer. Primer increases adhesion, that is provides the best coupling of materials. Besides, it connects dust and strengthens the basis. It is recommended to ground walls twice with break for drying – about 12 hours.
After completion of all preparatory work it is possible to pass to implementation of the main objective – laying of ceramic tile.
How to lay ceramic tile on walls
Before dissolving glue and to take the palette in hand, that is before directly laying of tile, it is necessary to decide on “geography”. It means, it is necessary to find out from where and according to what scheme works will be carried out.
The first that should be found out – where will be the first tiled row. There are two options of the beginning:
- From floor;
- From bathtub edge.
In the first case it is worth understanding that the tile begins to be stacked with the second row, leaving the first row for smoothing of roughnesses of floor covering. The rail beaten to wall forms basis for laying. Its location is defined in a rated way, being guided that the upper edge of the bathroom has matched the beginning of the tiled number. Naturally, the rail is mounted strictly horizontally, being guided by indications of construction level to avoid even the minimum distortions.
If mounting is conducted from bathtub, then the rail is beaten at the level of edge of the sanitary equipment. Mounting is conducted from below up and constantly checked for lack of deviations across and verticals.
The second moment which needs to be considered is ratio of width of wall and the sizes of tile. It is good if these sizes are multiple, that is in width of wall it is possible to lay tile without undercutting. However such cases are very rare and usually the tile should be cut. In this case it is possible to consider two methods of laying:
- From “place of honor”;
- From the center.
The first option means that mounting of tile is conducted from corner opposite to door opening. Then the cut tile appears in side, badly visible corner. But this way will not approach if the remained gap less than 5 cm, that is less than a half of the whole tile is strong. Then it is better to use the second method.
Mounting of tile “from the middle” is conducted from the center of wall. Ideally the cut-off sites have to be approximately equal, then facing will look more accurately.
Recommendations about laying of tile
Directly process of mounting is simple. But despite it, demands patience, accuracy and even scrupulousness in work. It is worth paying attention at the same time to the next moments:
- It is better to stack tile small areas. It will allow to define more precisely lack of distortions and curvature and also will not allow to dry up to glue.
- It is recommended to draw with pencil vertical and horizontal rows. It will help to avoid deviations during the work.
- It is better to apply glue structure on wall, using for this purpose the toothed palette.
- After each tile it is necessary to check flatness of laying and to correct facing material the quiet shaking movements so far it will not reach the necessary position.
- If the horizontal or vertical have got off in the course of work, then it is possible to make adjustment, altering width of seams.
- Use of plastic crosses will allow to keep identical distance between ranks.
- If in the course of laying glue has appeared between ranks, he needs to be moved away soft sponge at once.
- In difficult places – it is normal near pipes and plumbing fixtures – the tile should be cut or broken. For this purpose it is possible to use flat-nose pliers, nippers or tile cutter.
How to put tile on floor
Algorithm of works here similar to mounting of tile on walls. At first floor needs to be leveled – for this purpose usually do new tie. Then properly to ground.
It is the best of all to conduct mounting from the middle of the room. It will allow to achieve the most esthetic result. If such option does not approach, then it is recommended to begin works from door. Then the accuratest site with the whole tile will be on entrance to the room of the bathroom.
Glue when mounting is also applied on floor. At the same time it is worth using the toothed palette, having picked up it for the following principle: teeth of subjects it is more, than the roughness of surface is stronger.
Finish of seams or completion of repair
The finish of seams becomes almost final stage. Using different shades grout, it is possible to add originality to design of registration. It is possible to begin works not earlier than in a day after mounting.
First of all it is necessary to exempt boundaries tiled space from residues of glue, and then by means of the rubber palette to put the prepared finish. The rubber palette in the course of work should be held at an angle and to watch closely that seams it is homogeneous were filled with solution.
The finish dries quickly therefore in hour it is possible to start cleaning of ceramic tile. For this purpose it is enough to wash wall with warm water by means of sponge, watching that the finish has not been washed up from seams. If after all works on tile there was white raid, then he can be moved away soft fabric.
Works on independent laying of tile seem difficult only at first sight. But at competent approach everything is feasible, and having made small efforts, it is possible to make excellent repair in the bathroom with own hands and with small expenses.