Table of Contents
Starting construction of floor in the house, it is necessary to remember the main thing: process does not cause complexity if to respect the sequence and the rules of each stage of laying.
The step-by-step instruction will help to consider features of each stage of work at the device of floors on dry resistant soil (availability of continuous footing is meant).
Main stages of construction of floor:
- preparation of soil and marking;
- laying of sandy pillow;
- heat insulation;
- tie device.
The quantity of “layers” speaks about the considerable duration of construction process, but the full-fledged multilayer structure demonstrates quality and long time of service.
Preparation of soil and marking
Construction of floor is begun when the works on construction of the base, walls, roofs as the working surface has to be protected from atmospheric action are completed. Originally take out construction waste, then remove the turf as the top soil promotes moisture accumulation. Soil is stamped by means of special tamper with upper handle or the heavy subject which has come to hand. Consolidation is necessary for the maximum shrinkage and prevention of the subsequent deformation of covering.
At stage of planning it is necessary to choose construction material (floor covering, heater) as the correct calculation of thickness of layers will simplify laying process.
One of standard options of floor covering (layers from below up):
- gravel, coarse sand (30-40 cm and more);
- sand (5-6 cm);
- the basis from concrete (about 10 cm);
- heater (8-10 cm);
- tie (5-6 cm).
On wall note the level at which there will be door, and from it down – all layers, beginning from the line of finishing covering. One centimeter is left for stock: at exact performance of work it will not spoil picture, but at small increase in one of layers will hide defect.
Laying of sandy pillow
Gravel (or bank sand of large fraction) is filled up on previously cleaned and stamped surface. Thickness of this layer depends on two factors: thickness of the removed soil and height of the base. But anyway it has to be not less than 30 cm. In the course of charge gravel is also carefully stamped.
The main condition of good result – ideally smooth surface. To check it, use cord: at the level of layer of fine sand drive in nails to which tie the tense cord into opposite walls. The charge is made, being guided on it: it designates border between binding gravel and layer of fine sand. The flatness of gravel charge is checked by means of two-meter rail. It is slowly moved on surface, defining roughnesses. Hillocks level, hollows fill up with sand.
From above on gravel fill layer of sand of crushed fines – 5 cm enough. The marking is removed, sand is condensed and leveled.
Important! Before ramming sand should be moistened a little. As a result of consolidation it receives shrinkage about 1 cm from 5 cm, that is 20%, therefore, it is filled 1 cm above expected level.
At the end of works on charge carry out inspection of surface evenness by means of optical level. The maximum allowed deviation – 10 mm.
Choosing waterproofing material, it is necessary to consider features of the soil. If there is risk of raising of underground waters, it is necessary to use special waterproofing membrane or rolled material on the basis of bitumen. The location of the house on dry soil allows to apply normal polyethylene film (it is desirable to take thick).
Pieces of waterproofing stack with an overlap on sand, gluing joints with construction adhesive tape. It is important to keep integrity of material that moisture did not get into top layers. Edges of film turn on walls and watch that it densely adjoined both to walls, and to sand, especially in corners – the favourite place of mold growth.
Important! It is better to be reinsured and use two waterproofing courses – it is inexpensive, but considerably increases reliability level.
Filling of concrete bed
Buying ready concrete in shop, it is not necessary to save on its quality: the brand should be chosen not lower than M-300.
At independent preparation of mix observe the following proportions:
- cement – 1 part;
- crushed stone – 4 parts;
- sand – 2 parts;
- water – 1 part.
Proportions of constituent parts relative as it must be kept in mind air temperature, grade of materials, degree of humidity of sand.
- Preparation of rails. Filling will require rails with sizes: length – 2 m, thickness – 5 cm, height – 8-10 cm. They are stacked in parallel on waterproofing, distance between rails – 1 m. Coincidence of height is checked level.
- Underpouring. Work is begun with corner, remote from entrance, having separated the placement on several sectors. Fill in concrete mix on the site 1 m long. Thickness of layer has to be a little higher than rails. The free rail is placed on guides and, moving diversely, level mix. The tamping machine or vibrorail will help to make concrete more dense.
In this way fill the first sector, then pass to the following, and so up to the end. Then the directing rails delete, and the received emptiness also fill in with concrete mix.
Important! The period between mixing of mortar and filling should be made minimum, than it is more, that the quality of concrete is worse.
The recommended period of “maturing” of concrete – 3-4 weeks. During this term the surface of the basis is humidified or covered with wet fabric.
As heat-insulating covering most often use polyfoam, mineral wool and extruded polystyrene foam. Polyfoam is easily destroyed by rodents therefore it is better not to apply it.
Features of laying of materials
- Mineral wool. The minimum density – 120 kg/m ³. Laying of mineral wool will require two layers of waterproofing material. The best choice – membrane steam and water insulation, interfering moisture penetration and formation of condensate. Put waterproofing layer on concrete bed, then roll with an overlap cotton wool rolls. From above cover with the second insulation layer. Edges of films need to be turned on walls.
- Extruded polystyrene foam. Plates of heater stack on the equal basis in the way “crest groove” excluding slots and additional gluing. The floor equipped on soil demands thick layer of heater – not less than 10 cm. If material thin, is better to use two layers. From above put waterproofing.
For laying of tie it is necessary to prepare the following materials:
- cement – 1 part;
- sand – 4 parts (under laminate, tile – 5 parts);
- water – 0.7 parts.
Important! It is possible to add plasticizers to structure, but it is impossible to dilute solution with large amount of water.
Before laying of solution it is necessary to establish beacons. For this purpose 1 kg of alabaster and several profiles will be required (galvanized). Being guided on marking on wall, establish the first beacon – 20 cm from wall, in turn with interval of 1.2 – 1.4 m – it is better to distribute the others evenly on all room.
Future tie has to block beacons approximately on 1 cm. For fixing of profiles use alabaster that is connected by its fast drying – within 10 min. For the same reason solution is made in the small portions, by about 100 g.
Concreting is begun with far corner of the room. Using trowel, fill space under beacons, then between profiles. Solution will be evenly distributed on all room, shaking out small portions. The laid structure is leveled wooden rail or the aluminum rule, filling with solution the small emptiness formed on surface. If there is a lot of roughnesses, it is better to add a little solution and once again to level it. Process of laying is finished.
In a day the surface of floor should be covered with polyethylene film, from time to time humidifying. Final readiness of tie comes in 3-4 weeks.
Sometimes strengthening of tie for the account reinforcing is required. In that case before installation of beacons put grid on floor. Distinguish several types of products, but apply welded grid which size of cells of 15х15 cm more often, and diameter of rod – 0.5 cm. Laying of tie on grid happens more difficult, but the covering becomes stronger.
Finishing stage of the device of floor on soil – laying of floor covering: laminate, linoleum, ceramic tile, carpet. Each type of covering has the features of mounting.