Table of Contents
The sloping roof of the small size can collect 2500 liters of rain water during the season. Generally only 1/10 volumes of this water are used by owners rationally, other is distributed chaotically and directs to the lower, already rehumidified places. Competently organized collecting rain water will help to save not one thousand rubles, especially, if your garden kitchen garden demands watering. Defended rain water can be used also for the economic purposes. Read further how to prepare the system of collecting, cleanings and storages of rain water and begin to save the money, rationally using natural resources.
From what roof it is possible to collect water
Rain water can be used:
- for watering of kitchen garden;
- for economic domestic needs: washing of the car, house cleaning, washing, washing in bath, flushing tank in toilet, etc.
In food, without special cleaning, rain water cannot be used. It does not meet sanitary standards and can do serious harm to human body.
Degree of impurity of rain water depends on surrounding environmental setting, on design of roof and material of roof. If you live in the industrial region with air pollution large-scale, then before organizing collecting water, make its analysis and consult with specialists whether it is possible to use such water.
The safest and rather clean is the water which is flowing down from sloping roof. On flat roof formation of stagnant water and development in it harmful bacteria is possible. The more abruptly the roof inclination, the quicker flows down from it water, so, it is cleaner.
From the roofs covered with ceramic tile, water is safest. It is possible to collect water and from the roofs covered with roofing iron, PVC and bituminous materials. But from the roofs covered with the asbestos-cement plates, materials containing lead, copper, rain water it is impossible to collect.
For the system of collecting it is possible to use pipes, tanks from PVC, trays from galvanized steel.
How to calculate requirement?
Use of rain water allows to save significantly on water consumption from the central water supply system and water disposal in the general system of the sewerage.
To calculate the need for rain water, it is necessary to orient in the expenditure of water. In the presence of water counters it is much simpler to make it.
Excess water demands longer storage and costs of its collecting and cleaning therefore it is necessary to get and mount the equipment reflecting real requirement of economy. It is impossible to allow long stagnation of rain water in reservoirs, it can provoke formation of the favorable environment for development of microorganisms that can lead to damage of system and to become the reason of different infectious diseases.
The simple scheme for ensuring watering of garden kitchen garden
The simplest, but the effective scheme of collecting rain drains and watering includes the following elements:
- capacity for collecting and storage of water;
- pipeline or hoses.
The closed water waste systems are installed, generally on flat roofs and roofs with special design. For normal sloping roof it is recommended to mount opening water waste system. PVC-materials, galvanized steel, copper, aluminum materials and also from alloy zinc-titanium can be applied to production of elements of drain. The most long-lasting are the drains made of aluminum, copper or titano-zinc component parts. But they cost rather much.
The cheapest are PVC drains, but they are short-lived as they become useless because of the gaps arising when freezing of the water which has remained in system.
It is the most reasonable to use component parts from galvanized steel. They have sufficient margin of safety, do not rust.
The drain consists of the following elements:
- the water receiving trench fixed on roof;
- funnels for intake of run-off water;
- the rain water pipe connecting trench to water receiving capacity.
Mount trenches with bias in 2-3 cm on 1 item of m for providing spontaneous without residual running off of water on them in receiving funnels upon termination of rain or at insignificant rainfall. Fix trenches by means of brackets or hooks.
On each 10 meters of trench it is recommended to establish receiving funnel and rain water pipe. When exceeding this interval, the drain will not be able to cope with water current, and the modulation can provoke violation of integrity of system.
Assembly of trenches and all water waste system needs to be made with ensuring splice closure. Connections can be executed by welding, with use of rubber sealants, glue, etc.
For wet regions where significant amount of rainfall drops out, it is better to apply trenches and rain water pipes of square or rectangular cross section as their flow capacity is more, than at oval.
Diameter of rain water pipes is chosen proceeding from the roof sizes:
- at the area of slope up to 30 sq.m, use pipes with a diameter of 80 mm;
- at the area of slope from 30 to 50 sq.m, pipes with a diameter of 90 mm are necessary.
If the area of slope is 125 and more than a sq.m, is recommended to apply pipes with a diameter of 100 mm of rectangular or square cross section. Elements of fastening need to be chosen from the materials which are not exposed to corrosion and steady against temperature differences and low temperatures. Rain water pipes fix to building walls by means of collars and rubber gaskets. To wall collars fasten on probes from materials, corrosion resistant.
The distance between wall of the building and rain water pipe has to be not less than 5, but no more than 7 centimeters. If to arrange pipe too close, the wall of the building will constantly become wet if it is too far, can not sustain fastenings. In the presence of differences of thickness on building wall, it is recommended to use transitional elements (knee).
More attractively the systems executed in one style look, elements of drain have to be made of the same material. All system has to be combined with color and interior registration of facade and roof of the house.
Modern garden tanks for water are capable not only to satisfy the need for storage and distribution of water, but also to play role in dressing of street space. The reliable, densely closed and having the convenient crane tanks from hygienic polypropylene can be stylized under Ancient Greek clay vessels, columns, flowerpots, etc. Completely tanks of 2000 liters and more will be able to solve the need for watering. The small tank will be required for construction of summer shower. To exclude excessive overheating of water and to save the place on the site, the main tank can be driven in the earth partially. At the considerable extent of drain it is recommended to establish several rain water pipes, and, respectively, and several tanks for collecting water.
For installation of capacity it is enough to dig out hole of the corresponding size for burying of tank, but it is the best of all to prepare for it good rigid base. For this purpose the dug-out hole needs to be concreted. At the bottom of hole it is necessary to provide drainage that excessive moisture could go to the earth.
The tank for water has to have:
- opening for rain water pipe;
- opening for insert of pipe of draining of excesses;
- foliage filter separator;
All pipes joining tank have to be pressurized. The pipe controlling height of water in tank has to have the filter on entrance, it will protect it from contamination, it is always easier to clean the filter, than to sort the whole system.
The approximate scheme of collecting rain water for economic needs
Any system of collecting and use of rain water for economic domestic needs, irrespective of volume, can be executed with use of components:
- tanks (tanks, reservoirs, barrels);
- control systems of level, overflow siphon;
- cleaning nodes;
The key moment at arrangement of system of additional water supply of the house is installation of reservoirs. For full ensuring economic and household needs of residents of the house, it is necessary for each person to provide installation of capacity not less than 800 liters. Installation of the reservoir is planned, as a rule, at stage of construction of the house as big capacity it is necessary to have underground. For this purpose it is necessary to dig ditch, the underground arrangement of the reservoir is most reasonable as at the same time the place is saved on the site, water will not overheat in the sun.
The system of filtering has to provide several stages of cleaning:
- the dirty filter is installed on entrance to the reservoir;
- one more or two filters establish in capacity and at the exit from it.
For maintenance of operability of rain water supply system it is necessary to integrate it with the basic. During the droughty periods feed of system from the main water supply system, excepting reverse current of water automatically has to be made. Such system needs electronic sensors and regulators.
At rates for water, pays off the systems of collecting and distribution of rain water for economic domestic needs within several years and can seem that economically it is inexpedient. But if competently to calculate system effectiveness and to consider annual increase in prices, then such investment of capital will be favorable.
Approximately to count when the “rain” water supply system can manage, it is necessary to consider cost:
- earthwork operations;
- installation works.
In the European countries the cost of resources, including waters, very high, therefore there very much topical issue about the device of alternative systems of water supply. Among owners of cottages and owner-occupied dwellings there is device of system of collecting and distribution of rain water for economic domestic needs is initiated where interruptions in water supply take place. As a rule, owners of owner-occupied dwellings approach the water supply system device in a complex, using also autonomous water supply by potable water from the well and economic and household “rain” water supply.
Branch or collecting rain waters has to be surely provided at construction of owner-occupied dwelling, it promotes preservation of building constructions, excludes washing out of the soil and accumulation of excessive moisture in the area of the house.