Table of Contents
Probably, all who live in panel houses especially in houses of old construction, know as far as in them bad sound insulation. New sound-proof doors and hermetic plastic windows only partially help to solve this problem. Thoroughly to isolate the private life from surrounding neighbors and stair landing in the panel house it is necessary to take number of specific measures.
Any noise classify as:
- air – sounds of the working TV or tape recorder of neighbors, their talk;
- percussions – accurately heard knock of heels on stair enclosure, shuffling of legs in house-shoes, blows of children’s ball, etc.;
- structural – the movement of the elevator, noise from the washing machine, the combine, the microwave, etc.
In panel houses noise is transmitted not only directly through the adjoining walls, but also on all designs in general. For this reason we hear voices of children and other noise sounding in apartments obliquely and even through the neighbour’s apartment from other entrance. Besides, panels in itself quite thin and at construction sound insulation was not carried out. Noise penetration sources are also the slots which are not closed up or badly closed up during repair in panel joints, the general sockets or the general channels of power supply, old doors and windows.
Preparation of the apartment for actions for sound insulation
Prior to sound-proof works it is necessary to inspect carefully all walls, ceiling and floor on availability of holes and cracks. If those are available, then big slots need to be closed up quick-hardening tiled glue, small cracks can be closed up acrylic sealant.
Further it is necessary to define places of the increased noise and to give it characteristic: air, shock or structural. Structural noise, unfortunately, difficult give in to neutralization, but nevertheless there are ways reducing penetration and such noise.
Most reasonable on the sheet of paper to make the indicative plan on which to designate noise, their intensity general with neighbors of the socket.
To penetration of noise into the apartment enters complex actions for decrease: noise isolation of walls, ceiling and floor. It is also possible to execute partial sound insulation of air and shock type by method application of described below ways: for example, to isolate only sockets or one of walls, only ceiling, only floor.
We isolate walls
Efficiently sound insulation of walls reconstruction of sockets, mounting boxes and the device additional gypsum cardboard of partitions on all perimeter of the apartment is most. Gypsum cardboard will solve also problem of roughnesses of walls and in the subsequent can be papered or simply painted.
Mounting gypsum cardboard sheets is made on metal framework. When mounting profile to walls, it is necessary to lay between wall and profile the rubber or plastic insulator in order that steel section did not carry out sound from wall. After production of framework, between wall and future partition from gypsum cardboard sound-absorbing material is mounted. Material to fasten on wall by means of glue which is the best of all for buying together with insulating material in one shop. There is opinion that the sound-absorbing material is thicker, the it is more effective.
Are brought to gypsum cardboard of the socket and switches by means of special boxes. For this purpose it is in advance necessary to dismantle electrical outlets and switches and to remove cable in in advance prepared openings in gypsum cardboard. If it is necessary to execute sound insulation only of sockets, then it becomes as follows:
Sockets and mounting boxes are located in panel houses in such a way that service several apartments at once. Hollow channels perfectly transfer noise and therefore it is necessary to reconstruct them.
Before isolating sockets, it is necessary to deenergize them. Surely check availability of tension on the socket after shutdown of the breaker. Then remove the front panel of the socket by means of the screw-driver, dismantle the internal socket and take out all contents from the slot. Further make the soundproofing washer, as material for it it is the best of all to use mineral wool. It is not flammable and has good strength characteristics. The washer is the layer placed on all edge of internal opening from mineral wool laid manually on which putty is imposed. As putty it is necessary to use quick-hardening mix on the basis of alabaster. It is convenient to impose putty small rubber or stopping knife. After putty completely dries, the socket is mounted back.
Isolation of mounting boxes is made also as well as sockets. Boxes, usually, are under ceiling and are closed by plastic covers which easily open. Do not forget to deenergize the apartment before to be engaged in boxes.
We isolate ceiling
Neutralization of ceiling noise is made also with the help gypsum cardboard of sheets and sound insulation material. As a rule, for ceilings thinner material is used in order that to reduce room height not much more. It is possible to apply foam rubber, mineral wool or fiber glass fabric. It is necessary to stack insulating material carefully. At the same time you remember that work with such materials is quite dangerous, especially at arrangement of ceilings. For protection of eyes it is necessary to use special glasses and to work in dense gloves. Besides, dust from mineral wool and other materials is very harmful, it can get on open areas of skin and into airways. Therefore it is better to work in the closed clothes and to use respirator.
We isolate floor
If floor not equal, it is necessary to produce its fruit liqueur, at the same time sound insulation material can be laid as under bulk floor, and from above it in front of the device of finishing covering. Laying of sound insulation material before fruit liqueur of floors is most effective. For this purpose all slots which are available in concrete slab need to be covered with quick-hardening mix. Then to apply sound insulation material (mineral wool) on which the layer of polyethylene or roofing material keeps within on all surface. After that will be executed fruit liqueur of floors by suitable mixes.
Also stack sound insulation material on which afterwards stack laminate, parquet, linoleum, etc. on already having equal basis. The most effective is laying of thick insulation layer between the bars mounted on concrete floor. The laid isolation is covered with polyethylene film and already stack wooden boards which are the first draft layer on it, thin sheet building constructions on which it is possible to stack any finishing covering can serve as the second layer.
We isolate joints of heating struts
Through interfloor overlappings of heating pipe have to be laid with use of special noise-absorbing sleeves, it is provided by construction standards. The sleeve represents itself the pipe on diameter exceeding laid, filled with sound-absorbing material. But often in pursuit of speed builders ignore mounting of sleeves, besides, even their presence loses the functionality over time. To provide noise isolation of struts, it is necessary to remove cement on depth about 10 cm and to envelop pipe the isolating material, without bringing it to the edge. Then again to putty opening quick-hardening structure which after drying needs to be polished.
Selection of material for sound insulation
The materials intended for sound insulation have to have the class C, D or A. Now the market abounds with offers of the finishing materials having, allegedly, sound-proof and heat-insulating properties. It is impossible to tell that the producer provides false information, but no finishing materials are capable to lower noise loading of the apartment significantly.
For what moments it is necessary to concentrate when selecting materials:
- metal framework it is necessary to fix only through vibration-isolating laying (sponge rubber, felt, polyethylene foam;
- for neutralization of structural noise at arrangement of metal framework it is necessary to apply special fastenings to rack profiles;
- the isolating layer has to have dense structure, about, about 60 kg/m3;
- for walls and ceiling it is better to use gypsum plasterboard 12.5 mm thick;
- all seams, joints of insulating materials need to be closed up carefully sealant.
Old wooden windows cannot compete with new metalplastic double-glazed windows or new wooden windows. Events for noise isolation of old windows can be held, but they are not effective. Even if to open slopes, to isolate them, to apply new fillets, then it will help a little. No wooden fillet is able to provide hermetic contiguity, besides old glasses are not able to play role of sound insulators. Therefore it is better to replace all window, also as well as doors. New outer doors are made using modern technologies and have effective sound-absorbing fillers and hermetically adjacent laying. Some models of interroom doors are also supplied with sound-proof laying, such doors even in the apartment will help to be to rooms not dependent from each other in sense of noise background.
Whether noise is harmful?
The aspiration to silence is not whim, but the urgent need of human body. The healthy atmosphere without the raised noise loading also is behind external comfort of quiet apartments. Noise pollution is serious problem of the modern cities. The citizen, residing at work, on the street it is forced to experience the raised noise strain from passing by trains, trams, cars. At many work is connected with the enterprises where the noise background and if still houses it cannot quietly relax and stay in silence is raised, then it can lead to different diseases and nervous breakdowns.
Advantage to live in the city core on the central streets turns, occasionally, into the whole problem: besides that in the apartment noise from neighbors are heard, so from the street there is constant noise flow. Therefore sound insulation of the dwelling is not whim, but the urgent need for conditions of the modern city.