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Those who faced need of independent repair, know, the process of preparation of surfaces preceding finishing is how difficult, occasionally. It is difficult to dismantle floor tile, to delete paint, especially if it is applied with very thin layer on not plastered plate and if it once was very qualitative. Annoying even to think of need of such work because it is not perceived as repair, results not especially please her, ragged walls look not really esthetically, and the disorder and dirt are invariable satellites of cleaning of surfaces. But it is necessary to delete old paint nevertheless, and now we will consider the most effective and available ways as to make it.
Why to delete old paint?
In order that there was strong motivation of need of cleaning of surfaces, it is necessary to understand that the basic reason on which timely removal of old coverings is obligatory is that it provides, further, full coupling of basis with the new, applied on it material. Old paint considerably interferes with adhesion, irrespective of the applied ways of finishing. Whether half measures are capable to be alternative?
In view of difficulty of process of cleaning, some people take great pain it to bypass and just leave everything as it is, some are limited to half measures:
- apply on walls new structures like “Concrete contact”;
- apply on walls deep furrows (notches) with the chisel strengthened by the palette, the axe, or other tool.
Without a doubt, it is impossible to leave covering! It can lead to the fact that all further finishing work can be reduced to zero as at any time again mounted covering can just exfoliate from wall and fail. Perhaps, of course, that everything will manage safely, but it is very unreasonable risk.
Aggressive structures like “Concrete contact” are effective if paint was deeply absorbed in wall. If paint has already begun to exfoliate, then use of such primer is inexpedient. The roughness at top layer, of course, to appear, but it will become stronger from it not. Besides, if to wall surface armature is very close located, then use of such aggressive structures can provoke metal corrosion.
Notches are capable to increase considerably coupling of surface with new material. It is necessary to process wall very qualitatively: notches have to be rather deep and them has to be much. By hand tool to do such work physically very difficult, can be justified the choice of such method only for small rooms: bathtubs, toilet. To process the big areas by such method extremely difficult, but it is irreplaceable in badly aired places when it is impossible to apply chemistry. It is the most convenient to do notches by the axe, they can and clean off paint. After performance of notches, the surface needs to be sprinkled from spray water and then to clean off paint the axe or the strengthened scraper. Having chosen optimum angle of inclination of the tool, it is possible to clean walls rather well.
If desired to make repair qualitatively from beginning to end half measures you should not be limited as there are many other, effective methods guaranteeing excellent result.
What ways are recommended by specialists?
Specialists apply different ways, everyone has advantages and shortcomings. All methods known today can be divided into three groups:
- chemical removal;
- thermal removal;
- by means of the mechanized tools.
Cleaning of old paint from surface by means of different chemical reactants is also called chemical method. It consists in drawing reactant on surface, keeping of time determined by the instruction and cleaning of pliable layer. The structure can be put with the roller, brush or sponge, clean the softened layer with the palette, metal brush or scraper. If from once it is not possible to achieve the necessary result, the procedure needs to be repeated several times.
Advantages of this way: expenses considerably of physical force are not required; it is quickly enough possible to clean surfaces.
Shortcomings are that: there is danger of poisoning as all applied structures highly toxic, reactants cost much, except those which can be prepared independently, special utilization of the peeled paint together with chemical is required. The majority of the tools used for work become useless: the aggressive structure corrodes not only brushes and rollers, but even metal.
Security measures necessary at the choice of this method of cleaning:
- It is possible to work only in well aired room.
- Stay in children, pregnant women, people with allergic diseases and pets, both at the time of holding actions, and after them is inadmissible. The room becomes safe only when the smell completely disappears from it.
- During the work with chemicals it is necessary to apply individual protective equipment: glasses, special gloves and dense overalls.
- It is impossible to allow hits of reactants on skin and mucous.
- To inadmissibly merge the remains of reactants in the household sewerage.
What mixes can be prepared in house conditions?
From wooden floor paint can be removed, having moistened it with water and having filled up with thick layer of soda ash. Wet soda ash has to remain on floor about day. That it has not dried, the surface is covered with burlap and periodically water covering. The inflated paint is purified with scraper or the palette, it becomes pliable and very viscous therefore it is necessary to work with two palettes: one to clean off paint together with soda from floor, and to clean with another the working palette.
Not bad also such mix works: unslaked lime needs to be mixed with water, and then with soda ash or carbonate of potassium (carbonic potassium) in proportions: 1.2 kg of dry lime or slaked lime on 400 g of soda ash or carbonic potassium. Mix is applied on surface and maintained 6-12 hours before formation of soft bubbles which easily are removed the palette. It is necessary to be careful during the work with these components, to protect eyes, respiratory bodies and hands.
Use also liquid glass as reactant, in this case apply liquid glass on the painted surface and allow to dry well. The formed lash from glass exfoliates together with paint. If it has not turned out to remove all paint from once, process should be repeated before its full removal.
Use of the construction hair dryer for dismantling of old colourful covering – method rather widespread. For it, first of all, the construction hair dryer is necessary. It can be replaced with foil and the iron, but this homemade product works only at the equal planes. The procedure is that the wall is well warmed up the hair dryer (the iron through foil) and clean off the softened paint scraper or the palette.
This way is ideal in conditions when it is impossible to allow vibration and mechanical loading, for example, for windows, sash-doors, etc.
It is impossible to apply in places of distributing of electrocable, in the presence of decorative elements from plastic and fusible metal as high temperatures can damage them.
Advantages of thermal method: not labor-consuming way, rather effective, less dangerous, than chemical.
Shortcomings: when heating of the painted surface toxic substances and caustic smell are emitted.
- To work in well aired room in absence of children, pregnant women and pets.
- To use individual protective equipment: thermogloves, glasses, respirator.
- To observe security measures during the work with the electric tool.
The construction hair dryer is effective for work with tree, copes also with metal surfaces, but processes concrete and cement basis less productively.
The mechanized methods
Use of mechanisms when cleaning surfaces – the most effective way and not toxic. It is fraught with formation of large amount of dust, its penetration even through insignificant slots and distribution on long distance. Therefore if it is repaired without involvement of all rooms, it is necessary to organize actions for cleaning of dust and isolation of clean rooms.
The grinder with wide range will very effectively and quickly clean surface, but normal model so dusty that work should be performed with big breaks as visibility vanishes and it is necessary to wait until it settles dust. It is possible to spray water, it gives some positive effect.
The grinder equipped with metal brush – one more effective tool, but also very dusty.
It is recommended to perform works on purification of paint by means of the Bulgarian in well aired room, the tool needs to be driven on surface carefully, without burying it in plate cavity, and only removing paint.
The modern equipment like grinder is supplied with the built-in vacuum cleaner. Such machine will effectively remove paint, at the same time will not raise dust. If there is opportunity, then it is better to employ the specialist possessing such equipment.
The perforator with different nozzles is alternative to the Bulgarian.
There are several options of use of the perforator:
- The perforator (hammer drill) with blade is used in the Blow without Drilling mode. To choose optimum angle of inclination of blade, it is necessary to experiment, having passed on wall surface several times.
- Use of chains as nozzles for the perforator will also allow to remove paint. There are two configurations of the chains which are specially expected cleaning of surfaces. During spontaneous removal of one of links of one chain, it is also necessary to remove 1 link from another, counterbalancing chain. Works can be continued until each of chains possesses 3 links (not less). Chains do not produce a lot of dust, they tear off paint pieces. Pieces can fly away with big force and wound the unprotected parts of the body. Therefore it is necessary to put on dense protective clothing for work.
- “The crown on brick” can qualitatively clean wall and the perforator with nozzle.
It is possible to clean with the perforator oil paint from wooden, concrete and metal surfaces.
It is necessary to work in protective gloves, points and respirator. The headdress and the closed clothes will protect body from hit of dust and sharp parts of paint.
What way of cleaning to choose?
The choice of method of cleaning is influenced by type of surface which needs to be processed kind of paint, durability of its coupling and quantity of the put layers.
Before stops on any option, it is recommended to experiment on the small site. It is better to begin with the most effective, but less dangerous sparing methods. It is the most difficult to delete the oil paint applied on not plastered concrete slab from ceiling.
How to delete acrylic and aqueous emulsion inks?
If the surface is going to be covered with acrylic paint again, old it is possible and not to remove. If it is necessary to remove it, then it is possible to make it the rigid metal brush or coarse-grained rough abrasive paper recorded on wooden bar or grater. Good acrylic paint, as a rule, well floats and if it is impossible to purify it with brush or abrasive paper, then it is possible to use one of the methods for cleaning of oil paint described above.
Aqueous emulsion ink and lime from ceiling and walls are removed palettes. It is near at hand better to have 2-3 palettes of the different size and the palette scraper for especially difficult zones. Such work not too heavy, but tiresome as moves ahead very slowly. To secure itself against hit of dust and injury of hands, it is necessary to work in headdress, respirator, points, gloves and protective clothing.
When any of methods has not helped, and paint remains on site, it is necessary just to give up. It means that paint was absorbed in surface and has partially adopted properties of the basis, it means that it will not interfere with coupling of new material with the basis.
- To apply chemical reactants and thermal method in badly aired rooms, the person can quickly get used to smell and get the most severe poisoning!
- For the purpose of heat treatment of surface to use naked flame, paint can easily ignite on all surface of covering that will lead to the fire.
- To use powerful electric devices at faulty electrical wiring and unreliable extenders.