Table of Contents
The log house built by rules can be operated 100 and more years. It is natural that major repair can be necessary for log house. If construction, in general, is in satisfactory condition, then partially decayed logs are not reason for the organization of new construction. As a rule, owners initiate such major repair when are going to change old windows for metalplastic double-glazed windows. Before ordering new windows, they analyze need of such actions and their expediency, begin to inspect walls to find out their durability and ability to sustain the planned replacement. At this moment also find out that not only old windows and doors are the reason of heatlosses, but also begun to rot places of log.
You should not despair and be frightened the forthcoming enormous costs of purchase or construction, the spoiled logs it is quite possible to replace with new, to replace windows, to replace or warm outer doors, to warm the base, walls and ceiling and to continue to live in the house 100 more years. Before dealing with replacement of logs and their strengthening we will be defined in concepts, applied to construction from wooden logs:
- timbered walls – the vertical designs from logs which are located on house perimeter;
- wreath – one number of the logs on all perimeter connected among themselves;
- sole wreath – 4 lower rows of felling connected among themselves on perimeter;
- cuttings – interfaces of logs in house corners;
- groove – deepening in the lower part of log on all its length of triangular or semicircular shape;
- lining – the thick board lying on the base on which the felling is laid.
How to find out need of replacement of logs
Design load of the lower part of the house is always more, than on other parts therefore the lower logs collapse quicker than others. Besides, the lower logs most are exposed to moistening, their rotting happens also because over time the waterproofing material separating logs from the base collapses. Quite often shrinkage of filling freezing of the lower wreath is the reason of rotting of logs. To decide on integrity of logs, it is necessary to inspect them carefully.
Most often, logs decay in corners of the lower part of the house. Suspicious places need to be taped the hammer or reverse side of the axe: the whole log will make deaf sound, damaged will give itself hollow sound. Thus, it is possible to reveal all decayed logs and to buy new material for their replacement. If all logs were whole, but you nevertheless have doubts concerning construction fortress, it is possible to strengthen walls by method of the device of couplers in house corners. For this purpose take the processed boards of the necessary length about 25 cm thick and beat them to logs. It is also possible to strengthen the base by method of its building by supporting columns.
Logs for replacement have to be just the same diameter, as old. Logs reckon as standard with diameter of 200, 240 or 280 mm. You can easily measure diameter of old log in house corner. New material has to be made of trees of coniferous breeds, the humidity of log should not exceed 20%. Such indicator gets log after annual endurance after tree felling.
The log has to be exempted from bark is, impregnated with fire-prevention mix and processed by anti-septic tank. In the middle of log on all its length the groove has to be executed, semi-oval have better proved grooves. In grooves the caulking iron is put, and such design of log provides the greatest contiguity of logs to each other.
Preparation for repair
In order to avoid surprises, it is necessary to provide number of measures:
- piers of the house need to be fastened, boards which need to be beaten to outside part of pier for this purpose will approach;
- logs which do not need to be changed also are fastened in corners, the expediency of fastening of these or those sites is defined visually;
- also fastening of logs on all sides of the house will not prevent.
If replacement of logs is supposed to be made with dismantling of the base, the base needs to be freed from soil all the way down of its bedding.
Replacement of logs
Depending on complexity of works when replacing logs raising of the house can be necessary.
Replacement of 1 log of the lower number of sole wreath is considered the simplest and typical case, works are performed without performance of the general raising of the house.
For a start it is required to sort the base in that place where replacement of log is supposed. Will be necessary for performance of work:
- several strong levers (thick metal pipes, and it is better than lom);
- jacks of 2-3 pieces with a loading capacity up to 5 tons;
- wooden billets of wood of different height for props;
- strong wooden wedges;
Having sorted the base and having sawn off the damaged part of log, it is necessary to take out it. To the place of the decayed fragment it is necessary to mount new log. In order to avoid rotting it is necessary to place on lining the waterproofing material in 3 layers. Over new log caulk material keeps within (tow, lnovatin, jute fiber, etc.).
Further, the new log carefully is established to the place of old, by means of wedges densely pressed to upper, immediate recovery of the base begins further. For this purpose it is necessary to fill in solution in the timbering prepared in advance and to allow it to dry completely, and after to remove timbering. Having removed wedges, it is necessary to keep the provision of log, having enclosed under it brick fragments, stones.
Replacement of two base layers of wreath on all perimeter of the house can be carried out both with raising of the house, and without it.
Works without rise can be performed as follows: sort the base from that party where the log will change; cut on both parties T-joints of two logs lower and upper. The upper log is removed, and on its place mount new log. On top along all log lay caulk layer and log together with lining lift on the necessary height and establish into place by means of the wedges hammered between the base and lining. Thus, change log on opposite wall. Further make replacement of the first logs by the method described above.
There is method of replacement of the lower wreath without destruction of the base. But at the same time it is necessary to carry out the general raising of the house.
In need of replacement of the lower number of sole wreath, the wall is raised by means of the jacks established on the different parties of wall on height exceeding the log size on 6-7 cm. If there is danger of breakdown of the decayed log jack, it is necessary to make in it two niches and to jack up the second row of wreath. It is possible to destroy a little the base if in it there is need. Jacks establish in the strongest places of log and have to lift wall synchronously.
The second logs during these actions also rise, under them it is necessary to enclose billets of wood of the necessary height and, if necessary, wedges. Jacks at the same time get under the third row of wreath.
Having executed replacement, it is necessary to caulk all logs with special care, if necessary, it is possible to use gun with polyurethane foam.
Measures for prevention of rotting of sole wreaths
Tree – the natural hygroscopic material which is nutrient medium of many microorganisms. Therefore methods of prevention of damage in use of logs of sole wreath are:
- the waterproofing – production of laying from three strips of roofing material and placement it is near between lower sole wreath and lining;
- ensuring good ventilation of the basement, it interferes with formation of condensate in underground and to different emergence of harmful factors.
According to fire safety requirements it is also recommended to do fire-prevention impregnation of logs.
You should not save, having begun serious works on replacement of wreath once. It is necessary will replace all suspicious logs that there is already a lot of years not to return to this question.
If to execute wall decoration outside of the house, then it will repeatedly increase the term of operation of the house.
To reduce loss of heat of the house, it is possible to recommend warming of external walls of the house, ceiling, floor, warming of the underground room and base.