Table of Contents
Infrared heat-insulated floors have appeared relatively recently, however have managed to push aside the traditional heating water and cable designs on the second plan. Essentially the different way of heating of the room by means of infrared radiation does this system of the most effective and practical of all existing.
As it works
Infrared or as it is called still, the film heating floor represents the radiators laminated in dense polystyrine film from carbonic paste. On copper conductings tension activating their work moves. The infrared waves generated by radiators accumulate the floor covering located over film which begins to give heat to the room.
Distinctive property of such heating is the uniformity and the most optimum distribution of temperatures in the room. Floor, than higher from it will be the most heated-up site during the work of infrared heating, that temperature is lower. Such conditions, according to physicians, are most optimum for human body. Connection of system is carried out through temperature regulator which allows to maintain the most comfortable temperature in the heated room.
Why choose this system
Unlike traditional heat-insulated floors on the basis of heater cable and pipes with the circulating heat carrier, film have set of advantages:
- Possibility of mounting under any finishing floor covering. Infrared systems can be installed on the inclined under different corners, vertical and horizontal surfaces.
- Width of film is minimum, about 0.4 mm therefore mounting of the heating film floor will not lift height of floor covering. It is especially convenient if it is going to install system not in all building but only in some of its rooms.
- Small energy consumption which is connected with high heat conductivity of carbon fabrics. Costs of the electric power are much lower, than when heating the dwelling by means of other systems working at electricity.
- Simplicity of mounting which does not demand obligatory construction of tie or putting tiled glue. Also installation of the heating boiler for the heat carrier will not be required. Therefore the film heating floor can be laid without problems independently.
- Durability and high reliability. Heating coils are connected in parallel therefore even in case of damage of the site of the heating strip, the remained radiators continue the work.
- Absolute safety for the person. The film is made from environmentally friendly materials, and the level of the electromagnetic radiation proceeding from the working device is almost equal to background.
- Possibility of easy dismantling of system, at the same time it keeps the working capacity. In the subsequent film floor can be laid in other place again, it will not affect its utilization properties in any way.
We define necessary amount of materials
Let’s begin with thermofilm. First of all we determine the room space in which the system will be laid. The producer recommends to close film not all surface but only 75-80% of floor if the design will be used as the only source of heating, and about 40% for additional heating. It is necessary to consider that the infrared film keeps within so that on room perimeter it receded from walls on 10-40 cm. The distance between strips can be up to 10 cm. Besides it is not recommended to stack material under massive furniture, major appliances, etc.
Best of all on leaf for squared paper with observance of real proportions to execute the approximate scheme of laying of film, so will make more simply calculations. It is necessary to remember that film floor can be cut. The special tags showing places of possible section are applied on the surfaces of material. The distance between them makes about 25 cm. Thus it is possible to count quantity of sections, necessary for laying, and, respectively, material length.
It is also necessary to count loadings on power, to define whether they correspond to opportunities of the power supply network and, proceeding from the obtained data, to pick up section power and mounting wires. As the power consumed by system is known, it is easy to determine current intensity, having separated this value into line voltage. Proceeding from the turned-out size, we choose the necessary section of wires.
For example, if one section of heat-insulated floor at maximum load consumes 10 W for hour, and such sections in square meter – 20, then power consumption on 1 sq.m will be 200 W. Further we multiply the turned-out value by the area of the room and we receive the power consumed by system. We divide size into 220B and we determine current intensity, we select the necessary section of wires.
We choose substrate
There is opinion that under heat-insulated floor it is possible to save on substrate. In practice it absolutely not so. Carbonic radiators emit infrared waves both up, and down. That is warm not only floor covering, but also overlappings on which they are laid. Thus, significant heatlosses are inevitable. However if to lay the foiled substrate which will reflect thermal radiation under film it will be directed only up. What will prevent heat waste and will increase overall performance of the film heating floor.
The substrate under film can be different. Such options are usually used:
- The metallized plastic film. Keeps within directly under thermofilm, the reflecting party up.
- The magnesite plate or fibreboard laid on aluminum foil which has covered the main floor. It is strictly forbidden to mount infrared film over aluminum foil, it will inevitably lead to short circuit and breakdown of all system.
Mounting of infrared film
Only after all materials are prepared, it is possible to start laying. It is made in several stages:
- We prepare the basis. The heating film is very exacting to condition of surface on which laying is made. The basis needs to be cleaned carefully from dirt and dust, to check its horizontal position. It is the for this purpose best of all to use level. The height difference which is admissible when mounting of the infrared heating floor is 3 mm. The basis is leveled if necessary, carefully dried and once again cleaned from dust. It is the best of all to use the industrial or household vacuum cleaner.
- We stack isolation. For the purpose of protection of the heating film against pernicious influence of moisture, the first on the basis mounts waterproofing layer. On it – heat insulation. Material keeps within exactly, without gaps. Joints of panels are surely glued with adhesive tape.
- We define the place for temperature regulator. If mounting of separate wiring for system is not required, it is the best of all to establish it about the existing electrical wiring. The temperature regulator on wall, near sockets is mounted not to prevent further arrangement of furniture or household appliances. The device can be installed permanently with the buried wiring, or is connected by means of cord in the operating socket. In this case all devices which will be connected via the same device have to be considered. Specialists recommend to connect temperature regulator via the separate automatic machine if the power of system exceeds 2 kW.
- Laying of thermofilm. According to the made scheme of mounting we cut material on strips. At the same time we consider that the maximum length of panel should not exceed 8 m, otherwise the system will not be able normally to function. The film is displayed faceup so that the acting copper contacts have appeared below. The distance between strips should not be less than 0.5 more than 10 cm. Laying with an overlap is strictly forbidden. The film which is spread out according to the scheme is fixed on basis by adhesive tape. All manipulations should be carried out extremely carefully not to step on material or not to allow falling of tools on it.
- Connection of copper contacts tires. For this purpose we smooth out the end of wire about 1 cm long and we insert into shaft of the terminal clamp. In turn, we install it by one party on the copper tire, and another – in film. Well we press clip combination pliers not to allow sparking. We fix element to the copper coupling. All places of connections and cut edge of the heating film are surely isolated by special blamed – mastic adhesive tape which goes complete with system. After all sections of the heating film are connected, surely we measure scheme resistance on the ends of wires which will be connected to the thermostat. We calculate the turned-out loading and we compare it to that which is most admissible for the chosen thermostat model. If rated size is at least 20% less, it is possible to start connection.
- Connection of panels to the thermostat. Connection is carried out in parallel. Performing this operation it is the best of all to remove whenever possible wires under plinth. Certain sites can be stacked under heat insulation. We install the sensor for temperature monitoring of floor covering which has to be included in the thermostat package. The sensor is mounted under carbonic strip. When choosing the place for it the floor covering is considered if it soft, then element is established on the site with the smallest loading. We connect the thermostat.
- Testing of system. We include design, attentively we examine regarding possible sparking or strong heating of contacts. Gradually we lift temperature to working values, once again we examine system.
Laying of floor covering
The last stage of works – mounting of finishing covering. If the carpet, laminate or linoleum is chosen, they can be stacked normally directly on infrared film. If mounting of ceramic tile is supposed, carrying out additional works will be required. It should be noted that if laying of tile is planned, primary tie on which the film is mounted has to be most leveled. Mounting of the film heating floor under tie is made as follows:
- Before film on the prepared basis the substrate of the VOOR polyforms which will not be oxidized and will not collapse under tie as other foiled materials keeps within.
- Over substrate in a way described above the infrared film keeps within. The only difference of mounting – through each ten cm in it windows of 2х15 cm in size on cut edges are cut. Openings are cut to concrete, the film is removed together with substrate.
- The system is connected and its working capacity is checked.
- Over film the mounting grid from metal with width of cell of 1 cm keeps within.
- The system is filled in with tiled glue layer from 0.5 to 1 cm wide. All places where technology windows have been cut through, are carefully coated, air from under film is removed.
- The crude tie is covered with dense polyethylene film and nestles from above sheets of gypsum cardboard or plywood. The film will not pass air in tie, and it “will not be reared”.
- After solution drying the film cleans up and filling of the main tie 2-3 cm wide is carried out.
- On ready tie mount tile.
It is possible to include system only after full drying of solution not earlier than in 28 days.
Infrared film floor – effective, long-lasting and practical solution. Its indisputable advantage – possibility of independent mounting. It is necessary to take only seriously material selection, to carefully carry out all instructions for laying and then the house will please with cosiness and heat.