Table of Contents
Mounting of system of removal of water – one of obligatory stages of construction of the country house. On the country site of excess water does not happen therefore it is directed not to drainage or storm constructions, and to specially prepared tanks and reservoirs. Clean rain drains are ideal for watering of beds, greenhouses, lawns and beds.
Why do establish drains?
The water waste system, along with competently isolated roof, is powerful protection of the house against dampness, at the same time the building revetted with any material means: plaster, tile, tree, siding, brick. Without the appropriate protection excess moisture gets into grooves, slots, honeycomb of materials and destroys them, at the same time creating favorable conditions for emergence of the centers of mold and fungus.
Collecting in overlappings and basements, rain water destroys the base and socle of the house that negatively affects all building in general. The house begins to sink unevenly, as a result – continuous expensive repairs.
The dampness and rotting have an adverse effect on health of residents, especially children and people with the weakened health. To people with respiratory diseases and lungs it is strictly forbidden to live in buildings with the increased humidity level.
So that the house has not collapsed ahead of time, and the human health was under protection, and there is water waste system. Its design is simple and consists of several segments:
- trenches which are directly under slopes of roof and accept rain and thawed roofing drains;
- the rain water pipes located on perimeter of buildings, most often – on corners; on them drains direct down;
- funnels for collecting water;
- feature connectors: brackets, knees, fitting, collars, stubs.
In city conditions water directly from rain water pipe gets to the system of stormwater drainage system, from there – to sewage treatment plants. At the dacha everything is in a different way. Thrifty inhabitants of rural zone, especially in droughty areas, install special holding tanks where water from roof flows down. Water from reservoirs is used for watering, by washings, summer shower, bath, getting as a result two advantages: and the house from moisture is protected, and prepare water reserve.
Considering that water waste system – guarantee of the correct operation of the building, it needs to be established at once, at stage of construction of the house, and further it is necessary to watch operability and in time to change worn out parts.
Types of the water waste equipment
There are several divisions of the water waste equipment into categories. One of them – on way of collecting water. Depending on arrangement of elements of system allocate outside and internal drains. Trenches and pipes fix by means of brackets in certain place, most often – from outer end of the building. The form of trenches is different: semicircular, rectangular, trapezoid while pipes usually have cylindrical configuration.
Material of production of drains is divided into three views:
- Plastic. Merits of this material – ease of mounting, low cost, relative durability. The strong structure of plastic perfectly transfers influence of drains, wind and rainfall, but is not frost-resistant therefore this equipment is recommended to install in climatic areas with soft winters.
- Galvanized steel. The strong and durable material not very long ago spread everywhere, but having one shortcoming. Over time parts of drains under the influence of water begin to rust and become useless. As a rule, parts of the equipment make to order at specialists, by the individual sizes of the building.
- Steel with polymeric covering. Has advantages of the previous materials, besides elements of drains from such steel can have different color execution – in tone to walls or roof of the building.
Calculation of materials
To define exact quantity of compound parts of water waste system, it is necessary to calculate the roof area and its perimeter. Trench width directly depends on amount of the collected water, therefore, from width of slope of roof, length of trenches and quantity of funnels – from number of slopes and their sizes. To learn length of pipes, it is necessary to measure distance from the roof edge to the point which is is slightly higher than ground level. Respectively, it is necessary to define also quantity of rain water pipes.
Fastening of pipes and trenches will require brackets and collars which quantity to count very easily: one set on each meter of the equipment.
For small country cottages and dachas optimal variant are pipes with diameter of 55-75 mm, trenches – 80-110 mm. If roof area from 80 m ² up to 100 m ², then increases also diameter of the equipment: pipes up to 100 mm, trenches up to 130 mm. Respectively, pipes with a diameter up to 200 mm, trenches up to 160 mm are suitable for big buildings.
Mounting of drain – the step-by-step instruction
It is reasonable to establish drain even before mounting of roof, but in certain cases it is necessary to make installation after the end of construction. The most responsible moment – fastening of brackets as it is necessary not only to calculate precisely installation sites, but also strongly to record each element.
- Mounting of water waste system begins with fastening of brackets for trenches – special holders who join rafters. Usually rafters are located evenly, at distance of 50-80 cm from each other is ideal option for fixing of holders. If the distance between rafters is more, then it is necessary to mount additional holders. It is important to observe tilt angle of trenches – about 4-5 cm by 10 m, therefore, hooks it is necessary to have at different height. It will provide free water drain and will prevent stagnation and overflow of trenches. If roof length more than 10 meters, then use two identical trenches, having arranged them in the direction from the center to corners. Thus, it is the share of each corner on funnel and rain water pipe.
- Establishing funnel, it is important to define correctly the center of its fixing that water, getting to it, did not overflow. If the funnel is not equipped with special dredging under trench, then it should be cut independently. The purpose of each connection – to exclude course of water by drain.
- For strong fastening of trench have groove which needs to be put on bracket. When the trench densely rises into place, it needs to be fixed by special fixers. Connection of two trenches happens by means of the elements supplied with sealants. For the best fixing connectors have protective locks which fix design from reverse side. Trenches have free type of connection, that is fasten not end-to-end – between them it is necessary to make gap about 4-5 mm.
- On funnel from bottom side for the best adjunction the drain knee, on it one more – for connection with rain water pipe is attached to wall. Sometimes, at considerable distance, the knee should be increased additional tube. Each connection is fixed by means of collars, and for the wooden and brick bases different elements are required. The collar for brick wall is equipped with the probe.
- In the lower part the small draining located under inclination of 45 degrees is put on pipe.
Repair and service of drains
The water waste system, as well as any other modular communication, demands service and timely repair. For example, the most elementary way of leaving is seasonal cleaning of drains, trenches and pipes. It is especially relevant during the autumn period – during leaf fall when the fallen leaves, seeds and branches, having hammered into pipes, can cause blockage.
Approximately time in half a year it is necessary to examine system regarding detection of leakages or the unfastened, worn out parts.
Replacement of separate parts is necessary in the following cases:
- Fastenings of pipes and trenches to wall were loosened, feature connectors have weakened owing to what parts of system have lost stability.
- On pipes and other metal equipment there were rust traces, plastic elements have cracked or stratified.
- In places of connections there were leakages which traces are visible on walls and the base.
- Because of bad weather patterns there was shift of trenches and their inclination has changed that interferes with normal drain of water.
The failed parts need to be replaced new, the loosened elements – to record, in places of leakages to change sealants. Perhaps, adjustment of inclination of drain will require shift of holders. Blockages are eliminated easily – strong pressure of water from hose or mechanical way (by means of long stick). Timely replacement of parts and scheduled repair – guarantee that walls and the base of the house will remain dry, and water will begin to flow in the place intended for it.