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The manufacturing techniques of block parquet change, the quality of material becomes better, and, despite high cost, it everything also does not lose popularity. The heat-insulated wooden floor with the unique drawing looks nobly and elegantly in comparison with linoleum or tile. Having studied technology features of mounting of parquet, it is possible to lay floor covering independently: the system thorn groove simplifies laying.
Technology of laying
You should not hurry with laying of piece, usually it happens after the finishing actions when walls and ceiling are already ready, communications are laid and pressurized. To prevent possible deformation of floor covering, it is necessary to adhere to certain indicators:
- humidity of floor – 5% and below;
- humidity of walls – 6% and below;
- air humidity – 40-50% (as a last resort — 35-60%);
- air temperature indoors – 17-23ºС.
If the humidity exceeds these indicators, the parquet will inflate, then will dry, and as a result between levels slots will appear. It is difficult to correct problem therefore it is better to respect initially the rules of laying.
Important! The surface on which mount parquet has to be faultlessly equal. Admissible error extent – 1 mm by 1 m ².
The full list of the carried-out works:
- recovery of concrete surfacing (if necessary);
- basis waterproofing;
- the device of tie 5 cm thick (for wooden floor – mounting log);
- primer under glue;
- facing of floor plywood (gluing to concrete or fixing to logs);
- drawing several varnish coats.
If to exclude one of the listed stages, the parquetry is considered defective. Further there will be problems, expensive repair will be required.
Concrete bed: waterproofing and tie
Modern materials allow to carry out waterproofing works quickly. The superdiffusion membrane is ideal for concrete bed. The cloth is rolled on the area of all room, with an overlap, that the double layer was not less than 20 cm. Places of joints glue with special tape. Instead of membrane it is possible to use simple polyethylene film, but its thickness has to be not less than 200 microns.
Important! Edges of waterproofing material need to be got on walls, on height of 15 cm and to fix for a while by adhesive tape.
The following stage – filling of the leveling tie, future basis for gluing of veneer sheets. The tie is carried out by traditional way, considering the following conditions:
- thickness – 5 cm;
- control of horizontal position;
- lack of flows, holes and roughnesses;
- full drying of structure before plywood laying.
Time of drying of tie can last from 1 to 2 months, but it is important stage which you should not neglect. If plywood mounting, and then and parquet to make on wet tie, the tree will extend from it residues of moisture and will inflate. As result – the spoiled deformed parquet.
The ready tie is covered with primer which performs two functions: increases coupling and serves as waterproofing.
Mounting of plywood on concrete
Any plywood will not approach, use only moisture resistant brands from 12 mm thick. Pieces, big on the area, cut on squares, convenient for mounting, with sizes of 50 cm x 50 cm or slightly more – 75 cm x 75 cm.
What mounting of plywood under parquet is necessary for?
- The surface of floor becomes ideally equal.
- Durability of floor covering increases.
- There is protection of parquet against shrinkage.
- Serves as heat-insulation and sound-proof layer.
- Holds parquet elements more strong, than concrete tie, inclined to destruction over time.
It is important! If veneer sheets are thinner than 12 mm, laying of two layers in the way “in break off” will be required. One layer of thin plywood will not cope with the assignment.
Apply layer of glue on tie and accurately, one by one, mount pieces of plywood. Each square is densely pressed to floor and fixed by means of self-tapping screws or dowel nails. For insurance between pieces of plywood leave gaps 1-1.5 mm wide – in case material will extend from humidity and “will go” to the parties. Similar function is performed by movement joint between plywood and wall which width of 2-3 mm. To exclude covering shift, place small wedges in seam.
Mounting of plywood on logs
The second option of laying of plywood – its fastening on logs as arrived earlier. Plus this way – saving of time because ideal alignment of floor is not required, is enough to carry out works on waterproofing.
As logs serve pieces of bar which sizes of 50 x 50 mm (50 x 80 mm). They are evenly displayed on floor with interval by 40 cm. For fastening to floor use metal corners and dowel. If during mounting log height differences meet, they need to be eliminated, cutting excess material or enclosing small pieces of tree.
To ready logs nail veneer sheets. Glue will not approach, the best option – fastening on self-tapping screws with step of 15-17 cm. Fix not only edges of squares of plywood, but also their middle part. You should not forget about deformation gaps.
The final stage – check on durability. Failures, cracks, scratches, swellings have to be completely excluded.
Important! At identification of shortcomings they need to be corrected right there, having sorted the certain sector of covering.
Laying of block parquet
Process of laying differs in scrupulousness and does not suffer haste. Any oversight can make floor covering unusable.
Stack parquet differently, using accessory materials for fixing of parquet elements. Allocate four main ways:
- Floating. The thorn groove, without use of the accessory fixing materials is based on application of system. The substrate from sound-proof cloth serves for prevention of scratch. Pluses: the parquet easily comes to form after fluctuations of parameters of humidity and temperature; it is easy to repair it, having changed separate segment. Minus – one broken lock connection is capable to become the reason of deformation of all floor covering.
- By means of parquet glue. Has sufficient durability, but it is not suitable for repair.
- By means of self-tapping screws or nails. Each element, except connection thorn groove, gets on self-tapping screws that also complicates repair works.
- Combined (with use of glue and self-tapping screws). It is applied more often than the others, does floor very strong, but not subject to partial repair at all.
It is better to begin with planning, having designated the sizes of the room and exact arrangement of parquet on paper. In such way it is possible to calculate, whole ranks will turn out or not and to distribute elements so that in the center of the room there were no cut-off ranks. A lot of things depend on the scheme of laying. Let’s consider the sequence of works, and the known parquet drawing – “fir-tree” will serve as sample to all.
- Room marking. Having defined the center, for further orientation pull cord.
- The first two levels connect according to the drawing, accurately applying glue on end faces, thorn and groove.
- Coat with the toothed palette the plywood basis, beginning from far corner.
- Densely put the connected element to plywood, being guided on the tense cord. Excess glue has to act at the edges of levels.
- Fix part by means of the self-tapping screws placed in groove. The angle of screwing makes 45 degrees, the hat drowned. If length of level of 40 cm, 2 self-tapping screws are necessary for its fastening.
Important! In the course of work the thorn of level has to be directed towards the master.
- Levels stack according to the drawing. Thickness of layer of glue of 1-1.5 mm. That the level adjoined to previous more densely, it is accurately finished special rubber hammer.
- The first row – “fir-tree” on both parties, then from it row – to the left, row – to the right, and so to the walls.
- Cavities along wall fill with scraps of levels.
- Between the last number of levels and wall it is necessary to sustain deformation gap of 2-3 mm.
Week during which glue finally dries later works can be continued. Levels can “rise into place” long enough, sometimes for half a year.
Versions of drawings
Stacking parquet levels under different corner, it is possible to make various drawings and ornaments. Here some of traditional patterns.
- “Fir-tree”. Levels are located on the relation to each other at an angle 90º. Each element has two grooves and two thorns. The main thing that ranks of collected elements were equal.
- “Deck”. The easy drawing with which even the beginner will cope. Levels are put in parallel, displacing everyone the subsequent at 1/2 or 1/3 lengths, beginning from wall.
- “Wicker”. Several levels (2, 3, 4) connect together, forming square. The following same square have perpendicular to the first. Visually it seems that elements are bound in the form of the chess drawing.
- “Rhombuses”. Drawing up this ornament will require diamond-shaped levels.
- “Sheremetyevsky star”. It is made, using combinations of diamond-shaped and rectangular elements.
There is a lot of traditional versions of the layout, but it is possible to think up also the original drawing, using already known receptions.
Finishing finishing of floor
- Grinding of parquet. Assignment of grinding of block parquet – creation of ideally smooth surface and elimination of the defects and roughnesses which have arisen during laying works. Optimal variant – use of the grinder. Some apply the normal Bulgarian with emery wheel, but in the course of its use of dust will be more.
- Traditionally grind three times. For the first two take abrasive paper with coarse grain to get rid of more noticeable errors. For the third time, final, use fine grain – it and does parquet surface smooth and equal. The small garbage and dust which have appeared in the course of work remove the vacuum cleaner.
- Putty and primer of parquet. The finish putty is necessary to close up all visible roughnesses and slots. After its drying the floor covering is ground once again, applying only fine grain, then vacuum. Primer provides the best coupling and at the same time interferes with deep penetration of varnish into wood.
- Covering of parquet it is delicious. One layer is always not enough, usually put from 3 to 9 varnish coats. Large amount of varnish does the invoice of wood deeper and expressive. It is necessary to make choice between glossy or opaque structure. Glossy varnish transfers texture, does floor brilliant, visually increases room space. Flat varnish more reserved, warm, cozy.
The technology of drawing is simple: the roller “roll” all surface of floor covering in one layer, then allow to dry out within a day (or one and a half days). Not to damage surface of the ground floor, footwear has to be exclusively clean and soft.
Important! Any procedures with putting varnish are carried out only indoors. The draft is excluded completely, that is it is impossible to crack windows, doors, to turn on fans and conditioners.
Each subsequent layer is applied similarly to the first – on all surface with the subsequent full drying. The exception makes the last layer which minimum term of drying – one week. Heavy objects, suppose, furniture, it is necessary to bring only month later after varnishing (even better – two months).
If all stages of laying of block parquet the rules and conditions are sustained, met, the floor covering will turn out strong, and not one decade will serve as beautiful.