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In modern construction production there is set of finishing and ancillary materials in look putty, primers and protective mixes, but along with them the means checked for centuries under the name liquid glass is known. Use of silicate mixes very wide that does them universal and unique. In more detail about spheres of use of this substance it is possible to learn from this article.
Liquid glass: structure and material properties
The term “liquid glass” has appeared thanks to properties of watery mix when hardening to be transformed to solid transparent substance. Its popularity is caused by the gluing and waterproof characteristics. Have invented means in the Middle Ages. Reaction of silicon acid and alkaline connections is the cornerstone of its receiving. The German chemist-mineralogist has patented invention only in 1818.
The classical composition of substance has practically not changed centuries later. It contains the silica containing elements and solution of sodium of hydroxide capable to be dissolved in water. For this reason liquid glass is called still soluble. Externally this colourless (happens to greenish or yellow shade) transparent substance of different consistence. The formula of liquid glass represents compound of alkaline silicates, respectively, has such appearance:
- Na2O(SiO2)n – sodium silicate;
- K2O(SiO2)n – potassium silicate.
To gain impression, what is it liquid glass, it is enough to remember school course of chemistry. The numerical relation of molecules SiO2 to the molecules Na2O or K2O is called the silicic module defining solubility and number of other properties of liquid glass. The indicator of n indicates number of molecules of dioxide of silicon.
Receive material by fusing of the quartz sand mixed with soda or with sulfate of sodium and coal. It occurs in special glass furnaces which work continuously. Technology process of cooking is similar to production of insoluble glass. Liquid glass is produced also by means of autoclave processing of amorphous silicon dioxide caustic alkali of high concentration.
Liquid glass: characteristics and use of material
The universality of means is caused by lot of functions which are performed by liquid glass in construction (and not only), in particular:
- pushes away moisture, eliminating negative effects of impact of water on building materials, acting thus as the hydrophobic insulator;
- destroys bacteria, mushrooms and mold, interferes with their reproduction, being excellent anti-septic tank;
- it is used for filling of time on different surfaces;
- neutralizes static electricity, carrying out antistatic role;
- serves as the thermoinsulator and provides fire resistance of material.
Important! Liquid glass is not recommended to be applied on brick as the structure of means makes the destroying impact on honeycomb of brick surface.
The wide range of application of liquid glass and its functionality are caused by number of specific characteristics:
- ease of penetration of material into microscopic cracks and time, their full fillability thanks to what it is simple to apply it on concrete and wooden surfaces;
- minimum flow of material and low cost in comparison with other waterproofing means;
- long life cycle which starts of five years;
- high moisture resistance;
- the degree of protection depending on quantity of layers of impregnation;
- the applied solution forms reliability large-scale waterproofing layer.
Potassium or sodium silicate: application and distinctions
The main feature of liquid glass is its wide scope of application. As it was already mentioned above, two minerals – sodium or potassium can be its part. The main difference between two types of material also consists in it, but nevertheless there are differences and in spheres of their application.
Liquid glass of potassium type is used most often in paint and varnish production as this substance perfectly copes with different atmospheric and chemical loadings. This component quite often is part of silicate paints.
The application instructions of sodium silicate has provided its addition in glue solutions as material is characterized by the high knitting properties. This structure provides good waterproofing protection of surfaces. The option on the basis of sodium promotes increase in strength characteristics of designs from concrete. Besides, it favors to their fire resistance and provides high antiseptic properties.
Thus, sodium silicate, and application it, respectively, has more extensive range of properties much more widely. At the same time the cost of potassium glass is higher as it resists to acids, moisture and atmospheric actions much more effectively. After its use on surface there is no whitish spot left characteristic of sodium solution.
Liquid glass: application in various spheres
In the course of production of soluble glass rather dense liquid turns out. It is produced in different dosages depending on which also physical and chemical, mechanical, operating and other ability of materials changes. Liquid glass is the chemically active agent capable to enter interaction with elements of different form – from firm to gaseous. The main properties – the increased glutinosity and viscosity. Means can be stored in reliably closed container as at intake of air there is reaction owing to what it decays long enough. Heating also leads to disintegration with release at the same time of amorphous silicon dioxide.
It is useful to know! Normal school or so-called clerical water glass cement belongs to subspecies of liquid glass. Its consistence is a little more liquid, than the material applied in construction. Often it and is called – glue liquid glass.
Water glass cement often process surfaces before painting or pasting of wall-paper, using it as antiseptics. Substance has antibacterial properties which interfere with development of bacteria and old colonies of microorganisms kill. Silicate solution when drawing increases their fire-resistant and moisture resistant qualities by tree, concrete or paper. Therefore it is applied not only in construction, but also in art processing of wood.
Use liquid glass in production of materials for sealing of pipes, when mounting PVC tiles and linoleum, and fabric impregnation by this substance gives it thermal stability and fire resistance. Means also is suitable for restoration of objects from porcelain and glass. These are only several directions of use of liquid glass, more in details we will consider spheres of its use below.
Broad use of liquid glass in construction
Considering high moisture resistance, adhesion, fire resistance and some other properties, liquid glass in construction is most often used.
The list of works is very wide, the main of them the following:
- Painting and waterproofing of concrete foundations. For this purpose silicate of sodium is used in proportions 1:2 with water where two parts fall on water. Solution is applied with brush in two layers, giving time for full drying of the previous layer.
- Waterproofing of underground rooms – cellars and first floors. For the purpose of impregnation in basement rooms use solution of liquid glass with water in the ratio 1:2, and put several layers.
- Sodium silicate addition in water mortars is the most widespread range of application of liquid glass in construction. Depending on the end result use different proportions, however the classical recipe – 100 l of mix on 1 l of liquid glass.
- Waterproofing of pools. The liquid glass applied on bowl surface will be polymerized, forming reliable water-repellent cover. Put two layers: the first – absorbed, the second – control. The expense is equal to 0.5 l of material on 1 m ².
- Liquid glass as main component of bactericidal finish. Addition of substance in structure of finish protects seams between tiles from mold growth and fungi. Proportion: 1 part of silicate of potassium on 3 parts of finish.
- Use of cement and liquid glass as components of quick-drying glue for connection of ceramic tile and also as the fixing substance for types of construction jobs.
- Use of glue for fixing on floor of linoleum and carpet provides reliable laying of floor covering.
Use of liquid glass in water mortars
Liquid glass is used in construction for the purpose of improvement of qualitative characteristics of concrete. Application of means is especially reasonable when continuous impact of the increased humidity on design from cement is supposed. It prolongs construction operation term, preventing its destruction.
Helpful advice! The mix prepared by the hands from sand and cement with addition in it silicate solution in pure form without water will have high adhesion and to harden quickly. Such structure on characteristics is similar to alabaster.
Therefore use of liquid glass in cement slurry is especially desirable for such types of works:
- constructions of the base at construction on the earth with close arrangement of underground waters;
- buildings and upclassing of the rooms placed underground;
- facings of the oven and stone chimney courses outside of the building;
- constructions of rooms with the increased air humidity: baths, pools, shower;
- creations of decorative artificial reservoirs.
Besides, silicate solution at addition in concrete does it impregnable from bacteria, mold and fungi. If the cement structure is used for outside works, then it is diluted with 10 percent liquid glass. Proportions of sand and cement make 1:3.
Silicate of sodium type is added to concrete solutions for the purpose of material waterproofing. It is irreplaceable at construction of basement designs, and is applied not only to covering of floors, but also to drawing on walls and ceiling. The ratio of materials in this case will be equal to 1:10.
Use of liquid glass for waterproofing of different objects
Liquid glass is used practically in all spheres. Most widely – in construction, and first of all – for giving or strengthening of waterproofing properties of different surfaces. Use of material creates hydroprotection of the bases, cellars, pools. Therefore its presence is reasonable everywhere where the contact with water is supposed.
According to application instructions liquid glass for construction (at preparation of pure solution) gets divorced in water in the ratio 1:4. One of covering minuses glass is impossibility of painting of surface after putting silicate solution as the smooth film on which paints and varnishes just do not keep from above is formed. If it is necessary to give to concrete waterproofing properties, then for this purpose it is necessary to observe proportion 1:8.
Liquid glass process walls garret and basements. It is required to note that universal remedy can be applied both from outer side of object, and in it. By means of structure provide protection against moisture of walls of wells. This type of works carries out in two steps. At first apply thin film from pure silicate of sodium, the subsequent layer represents concrete mix with addition of liquid glass.
Method of application of liquid glass for pool waterproofing a bit different. For this purpose the structure is caused with one, but thick layer, also step-by-step processing is possible. Such type of works in construction will prevent destruction of walls from continuous influence of water. Processing outside will protect from penetration of underground waters.
Assignment and range of application of liquid glass in other spheres of production
Construction – the main scope of liquid glass, but not only. It is shown by the examples given below.
Helpful advice! Sodium silicate solution very quickly hardens, actually instantly therefore builders with experience recommend not to add it to cement structure, and to use as impregnation on ready designs.
Use of glue liquid glass is wide and universal. The large-scale of adhesion of silicate solution allows to use it for pasting of different materials, including fibreboard, thin plates of chipboard, plywood, ceramics, cardboard.
By means of liquid glass carry out dedusting of surface of cement floors in garages and other utility rooms. Works carry out by method of impregnation of the basis mix of water and liquid glass. Solution gets into concrete on 3-4 mm deep into where it will be polymerized, forming from above smooth surface which does not collapse. Thus, on it cement dust is not formed.
Water glass cement is used for wood waterproofing. Use of liquid glass for tree is broad. Means is mixed with water and applied on surface where the moisture protective layer is formed. The covering interferes also with penetration of air and insects.
Liquid glass is used in gardening. Water solution of this substance process cuts on trees after cutting of branches. The dense air-tight bed protects wounds of plants from hit of dangerous bacteria and prevents rotting process.
Water glass cement serves for creation of impermeable finish in plumbing fixtures. As sealant liquid glass is applied in position of joints of pipes of plumbing and sanitary. For this purpose use means in pure form.
Use of liquid glass in life, creativity and decor
Liquid glass helps to solve large number of economic problems that has made it popular in life. With its help delete scum, clean ware, remove spots from clothes, stick together glass and ceramics, use for protection of metal against corrosion. For example, for wear resistance and protection from fire exposure suits and curtain in theater and also curtains in public institutions cover with liquid glass. Responses of hostesses characterize it as universal remedy in fight against scum and ashes. For example, the oldest frying pan can return original state. For this purpose use the simple recipe.
Liquid glass is dissolved in the boiling water in the ratio 1:25 and 2 hours boil in solution frying pan. Part of deposit will leave, and remained it will be easy to clean by means of knife and metal sponge. Addition of soda ash and laundry soap will strengthen effect of solution. In such a way it is possible to clean easily any ware from metal, porcelain and glass. Duration of boiling down can be reduced to 10 minutes.
Use of liquid glass in decor allows to create graceful stained-glass windows and mirror panels with mosaic. Except listed above, solutions of silicate use for the organization of bulk floors in art design.
Helpful advice! By means of water glass cement restore products from faience and glass. At the same time it cannot be used for pasting of the ware intended for food.
Liquid glass in creativity is actively applied. It is possible to stick together the most various materials with its help easily: paper, cardboard, leather, fabric, rubber. Therefore this substance is often simply irreplaceable in needlework. Liquid glass – excellent means for strengthening of gloss and creation of protection of surface of cars. However in this case use special structure which differs from formula of normal water glass cement.
Features of application: how to apply liquid glass
Before drawing means the surface needs to be cleaned from pollution which can reduce the absorbing ability carefully. The surfaces processed by silicate solution have to dry not less day. According to application instructions liquid glass is applied in several layers, at the same time allow enough time for drying of each layer. The surface is processed means by analogy with dense paint – by means of brush or the roller. If it is necessary to create protecting cover, then material is applied with spatula for plaster.
It is necessary to perform all works consistently, according to the instruction. Liquid glass can be applied independently, having saved on payment for services of masters. At first the surface is required to be cleaned from spots, garbage, dirt, old covering carefully. Further put with the roller the first layer of means. After it dries, the surface is covered with the second layer.
If use of concrete solution with sodium silicate addition is supposed, then he is trained just before use as mix quickly hardens. It is necessary to manage to apply it in 20 minutes. Accurate observance of proportions is important. The slightest mistake can lead to the fact that the surface will crack and collapse.
During operating time it is necessary to put on overalls and to use individual protection equipment. Upon completion of process it is required to wash up carefully hands and tools until residues of material have dried up.
Compliance to the standard. How much is liquid glass?
Sodium silicate is produced according to standards. In the document it is stated that it is the viscous substance of gray or yellow color without impurity having such characteristics:
- density of material has to be from 1.42 to 1.43 g/cm ³;
- the maintenance of concentrate of oxide of sodium makes from 7.9 to 8.8%;
- availability of oxide of calcium should not exceed 0.2%;
- part of silicon dioxide makes from 21 to 24%;
- the value of the silicate module is equal to 3%;
- content of sulfuric anhydride should not be higher than 0.15%;
- availability of oxide of iron and aluminum – to 0.25% is admissible.
One of advantages of material – its affordable price. It is much cheaper than other resin adhesives and impregnations. Influences cost several factors, in particular density, indicator of the module and amount of the acquired liquid glass. Solution is packed up in special tanks which are densely closed not to allow drying of means. It is possible to buy material in any household shop. If small amount is necessary, then it is recommended to buy liquid glass in container or on flood.
Helpful advice! The liquid glass applied as glue for linoleum will allow to avoid formation of fungi and mold under covering. Such protection is not provided by other glues.
Popular producers of liquid glass, material price
In that case when the large volume of works is planned and use of liquid glass is supposed, the price matters, a lot of material is required. It is in this situation better to order it directly from the large producer or the supplier, having saved on intermediaries.
Thus, the more the volume of the acquired material, the will be lower the price. Liquid glass of high density has more considerable cost.
Production of liquid glass the hands: step-by-step instruction
It is possible to create liquid glass the hands, but it is troublesome. For this purpose dissolve the crushed silica gel and soda in water, then heat solution to formation of homogeneous mass. Other recipe assumes mixing of sand and soda in the ratio 1:4. Ingredients carefully mix, fray and heat to melting. The first option is unprofitable for the reason that it will be more expensive ready material. The second is simply unavailable as melting of sand can be made only in special conditions.
Important! Putting concrete solution with addition of liquid glass will require special skills as material very quickly hardens.
There are also other ways of independent production of moisture resistant covering, but on chemical characteristics it will not be silicate solution any more. Alternative of moisture protecting cover, for example, for processing of automobile headlights, it is possible to prepare in several minutes. For this purpose the simple paraffin candle, white spirit, ordinary grater and capacity will be necessary for hashing of ingredients.
Sequence of production such:
- The candle is rasped.
- Shaving is filled in with white spirit. Proportions of materials correspond 1:3 where one part of paraffin and three parts of liquid. You should not do too dense solution.
- Means is applied on surface.
- Solution is rubbed with use of soft fabric.
Applying such covering, it is possible not only to protect the car or other objects from moisture hit, but also to get rid of microcracks.
Thus, the material called liquid glass really is universal remedy as it is used in different spheres. Thanks to the wide list of positive properties use of liquid glass will help to solve number of problems both in life, and in construction. Its use will help to provide reliable waterproofing and heat insulation of different objects, will protect surfaces from bacteria, mold and fungi.