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For the purpose of giving to concrete of additional properties add various substances and solutions to it. For ensuring faster tenacity, water tightness and moisture resistance it is accepted to bring silicate of sodium or potassium which is called soluble or liquid glass. To concrete it is applied as a part of the cement mix necessary for a waterproofing of concrete surfaces. This article will tell about features of material and rules of its use.
Structure and scope of liquid glass in concrete
Phrase “liquid glass” familiarly much, but not everyone knows what this mix consists of and for what purpose use it. Water solution of silicate of potassium or sodium was discovered still by alchemists in the Middle Ages, but the first its production plant appeared only in the 19th century. Then its broad application in the construction industry began.
Produce material by a fusion of soda and sand or by means of connection of proportions of ground silicon with hot caustic sodium. At the exit receive translucent viscous substance of white or yellowish color, the called liquid glass. Silicates of sodium or potassium and also their mix can be a part of solution.
The material having different properties is widely used in construction for a waterproofing of surfaces from concrete. For this purpose carry out a concrete covering liquid glass. Directly apply silicate solution which is absorbed in a surface on cement. During the drying of substance there is an obstruction of all time of concrete, protecting it from moisture penetration. The maximum effect is reached by drawing several layers of this structure.
This material is applied as impurity to concrete solution. Concrete with addition of liquid glass possesses high degree of a waterproofing, stiffens much quicker. Therefore it should be used throughout certain time. In addition, liquid glass is used for the purpose of production of monolithic concrete blocks of different brands and various sizes.
Use of substance in different spheres is caused by advantages of silicate material from which distinguish:
- high extent of penetration and adhesion;
- formation of an integral waterproof film on the surface of the covered material;
- small consumption of substance in solution;
- reasonable price of means.
For what add liquid glass to concrete: expediency of use of material
The main quality of concrete solution with addition of liquid glass is that mix quickly grabs and provides high degree of protection against moisture. However it should be noted that durability of a monolithic construction decreases after that.
Helpful advice! Use of cement mix with addition of liquid glass will allow to repair successfully designs from concrete, the asbotsement, ceramics and even to carry out restoration of pig-iron pipes.
It is the most expedient to apply silicate and concrete solution to such needs:
- seals of cracks liquid glass in concrete, a brick wall, for isolation of seams;
- urgent repair of the concrete base which collapsed from excessive influence of moisture;
- concrete strengthenings by liquid glass in overlappings, for connection of beams and other elements.
In the listed cases in solution from cement add liquid glass to proportions no more than 1:1. Further make a little mixture and at once use it as mix of cement and silicate very quickly dries. The proper correlation of substances will allow to eliminate for a long time defects or to give additional durability to concrete structures.
Additive of liquid glass in concrete is appropriate during creation of the base on the area where soil contains the high level of acidic waters. It guarantees increase in resistance of concrete to destructive influence of moisture.
Successful filling of such base is provided by the following rules:
- sodium silicate addition in concrete solution should not exceed 3%;
- make an additional and careful waterproofing of the base by means of other materials.
Liquid glass for concrete: instruction for application and production of mix
It is possible to prepare mix of cement and liquid glass even in house conditions, observing at the same time a number of requirements. Violation of manufacturing techniques of solution can cause formation of cracks on concrete.
Liquid glass should be added to dry mix. For this purpose at first in the necessary proportions connect all dry components and carefully mix them, without using at the same time water. Then gradually pour in the liquid glass which is previously diluted with water in structure.
It is necessary to observe strictly a ratio of all ingredients at preparation of solution according to the recipe applied to works of a concrete type. For example, if it is about amount of glass in concrete, then it should not exceed 25% of the gross weight of mix. For preparation of primer with use of cement structure and silicate glue the ratio can make 1:1.
It is necessary to consider that acceleration of speed and density of hardening of solution is influenced by liquid glass for concrete. The instruction for application recommends to prepare mix in a small amount and quickly to use it.
Time of a skhvatyvaniye depends on amount of the liquid glass added to concrete. If mix contains 2% of this substance, it begins to grab in an hour if 5% – in 40 minutes. Hardening process also depends on a proportion. If more than 4% of silicate glue are added to solution, then concrete durability after full hardening will decrease approximately by 25%. However if concrete contains only 3% of liquid glass, then durability of a design will increase.
Helpful advice! Sodium silicate, except waterproofing function, has anti-bactericidal and anti-fungal properties. The chemical composition of material – the improper environment for development of any life.
Technological features of mix and types of impregnation of concrete liquid glass
Liquid glass in the solution mixed in M400 cement at a temperature of 20 °C begins to grab in 2-3 hours, and completely hardens in a day. Over time the monolithic basis is only stronger. The maximum effect of hardness is reached a maximum in 4 weeks. Liquid glass is applied also as impregnation of different surfaces, providing their smoothness, flatness and a waterproofing.
Concrete processing by liquid glass is carried out for such designs:
- concrete floor;
- flat roof;
- concrete walls and ceilings.
Process of impregnation includes several stages. First of all, preparation of a basis is required. For this purpose the surface is carefully cleaned from an old covering, paint, garbage, dust and dirt. Further carry out cleaning by a metal brush, cover the basis with a bituminous emulsion a layer in 2 mm. The basis is given time to dry out.
Then impregnation of a surface by solution with liquid glass is carried out. Proportions of liquid glass in concrete depend on surface type (according to the instruction of application). If a surface horizontal, then apply a layer in 2-3 mm on it and smooth mix with the pallet. Filling of a floor and overlappings is made in several layers, taking a break on a certain number of hours. It is possible to use a surface later couple of days.
During works it is necessary to adhere to a number of recommendations. In particular, solution needs to be distributed evenly. The covering should be made as fast as possible, without allowing hardening of structure. Reliable impregnation is provided by putting mix in two or even in three layers. For isolation of walls and a ceiling use a special spray which promotes uniform distribution of solution. Cover a surface in two-three layers.
How to cover with liquid glass a concrete floor
Liquid glass is applied not only to primer, by impregnations of surfaces, but also as a covering. For this purpose prepare the special solution including fine ground filler, sand, add to it active silicon dioxide, liquid glass and water. Ingredients mix the construction mixer. The received substance has to be viscous and dense.
Solutions with liquid glass for a concrete floor are applied to drawing a protective waterproofing course on floors, walls and ceilings in rooms with the increased humidity: in bathrooms, saunas, laundries, pools or baths. Also it is recommended to use these mixes in basements.
Before applying liquid glass on concrete, the processed surface is carefully cleaned and leveled. As a finishing covering liquid glass is applied in the form of strong hydrophobic solution. The covering of a surface is carried out by filling on couplers which are formed by the levels established parallel to a wall.
Helpful advice! Liquid glass has high heat conductivity. Therefore material is often used for providing additional thermal insulation. Addition of liquid glass in concrete in the necessary proportions provides high heat insulation of a surface which can sustain temperature to 1200 °C.
The quality of work depends on uniformity of distribution of material. It can be done by means of the special needle roller and the pallet. The size of a layer is 2-4 mm. Considering short time of drying of liquid glass on concrete, work needs to be carried out quickly enough. It is for this purpose better to divide the covered square at sites, and all process – into several stages. After preparation of a surface of a floor make concrete painting by liquid glass.
How many liquid glass to add to concrete: recipes of preparation of structures
Depending on the purpose of use of liquid glass proportions are formed. The main thing in this case – responsibility and accuracy. The universal recipe of impregnation provides silicate mix with water in the ratio 1:2. There are several options developed by experienced builders who are checked by time.
If silicate solution is used as primer, then mix is prepared in proportions 1:1 (with cement and addition of the necessary amount of water). That is add 1 kg of liquid glass to 1 kg of cement and gradually pour in such amount of water that the turned-out mix it was convenient to ground a surface. In case of fast hardening of solution it is possible to add a little water to it after a while.
For a waterproofing of wells liquid glass is connected to carefully sifted sand in a proportion 1:1. Cover with the turned-out mix well walls.
In underground concrete rooms reliable hydroprotection will be provided by addition of liquid glass in concrete in such ratio: 1 l of silicate glue on 10 l of cement mortar. Such structure guarantees reliable isolation of walls and floors of the cellars located underground. Fire-resistant mix prepares as cement and sand solution with addition of a small amount of liquid glass.
The wood preservative is received thus: mix liquid glass with water in equal proportions. At the same time on a tree the slippery protective film which is not subject to painting is formed. For this reason such solution is not recommended to be applied on concrete walls.
Different types of impregnation prepare, generally proceeding from such proportions: 400 ml of liquid glass on 1 l of water. The subsequent layer is put in 20-30 minutes – through such period how many liquid glass on concrete dries.
Liquid glass for concrete: responses of buyers and experts
It is possible to find a set of responses which characterize silicate solution generally from a positive side in the Internet though there are also negative opinions. In particular, material is not considered environmentally friendly, and its application with violation of proportions can lead to cracking of a concrete surface. It is not pleasant to certain users that silicate and concrete mix quickly grabs. For example, there are cases when the inexperienced builder mixed cement mortar with addition of liquid glass in the ratio of 25%. During the filling of a coupler mix stiffened at once, and day later was just scattered in dust. It was necessary to prepare solution anew. In this case the main mistake of the master consists in non-compliance with proportions.
Other responses, on the contrary, characterize liquid glass as excellent means for a waterproofing coupler. Masters note that after application of means the surface becomes covered with dust much less and is practically not erased and also point to fire safety of silicate and concrete solution.
Helpful advice! Builders insistently advise to work with material very quickly. Creation of a coupler will require certain experience and skill, such process does not suffer delay.
Some consider that use of such additives as liquid glass, is expedient when it is necessary to raise technical characteristics of certain materials. For example, its application in filling of the base for the country house located on soil with the increased humidity is appropriate. Thus, opinions were shared about liquid glass in concrete: for and against material consumers state the positions.
Liquid glass for concrete: rules of use and measure of protection
Silicate substance does not burn, is not explosive and has no toxic influence. Before using liquid glass for concrete, it is necessary to prepare a certain tool kit: special capacity for mix preparation, the construction mixer, brushes, brushes, rollers and mittens, and for dispersion on a wall or a ceiling – an airbrush.
Use of such universal remedy in combination with concrete assumes observance of certain security measures. Liquid glass though is not toxic, but, getting in the form of splashes on mucous membranes, can cause their irritation. Therefore at dispersion it is necessary to take care of protection of eyes and upper airways. It is necessary to work in well aired room.
It is necessary to avoid hit of solution on open skin sites therefore it is better to work in the special closed clothes, a headdress and also it is recommended to use individual means of protection. Penetration of substance into eyes can lead to burns therefore in this case it is necessary to wash out immediately eyes a large amount of water and to ask in medical institution for the help. At hit of structure on skin it is enough to wash of it with warm water with soap and to grease with children’s cream.
The capacity used for solution cultivation cannot be applied in life. Therefore it is better to take packing buckets from under filling or to use the cut plastic 5 liter flasks.
It is necessary to take care of storage conditions of ready solutions. It has to be the cool and dry place with the air temperature from 5 to 40 °C. At the same time it should be noted that liquid glass – frost-resistant material which maintains a temperature indicator to -30 °C.
Liquid glass for concrete: price and quality of products
The cost of liquid glass for concrete, in comparison with other materials, quite available.
If the decision on involvement of professionals is made, then it is necessary to consider costs of payment of their work. The total cost depends on type and amount of works.
Helpful advice! Liquid glass can become a lifesaver in the solution of a question concerning with what replace softener for concrete. Owing to use of silicate glue concrete gains water-repellent ability and can resist to hostile environment. As softener silicate of sodium is added to proportions 1:50 a.m.
The use of liquid glass for the purpose of a waterproofing and strengthening of concrete is the most effective and optimal solution both in the technological plan, and in the price relation. The main condition is an observance of the instruction of application which regulates not only an order of works, but also strict observance of proportions of materials. Sodium and silicate mix is better to enter into solution, but not to use as separate painting material.
Use of liquid glass for external processing is considered the most budgetary option, but such covering considerably concedes in the esthetic plan to more expensive analogs. If it is necessary to impregnate concrete with the minimum expenses, liquid glass – an optimal solution.