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The list of the modern materials creating water-repellent layer is very wide. Among them the place of honor is taken by right by liquid glass. To waterproofing it is applied on different objects. Unique properties of means create protection against moisture not only on floor, the base, but also on automobile headlights and also in constructions which have direct contact with water, in particular at pools or wells. This article will tell about it.
Features, characteristics and composition of liquid glass
The means, popular in construction, life and creativity, called liquid glass represents viscous homogeneous substance. According to chemical formula it is water solution of silicate of sodium or silicate of potassium. Microcrystals which after drawing are perfectly absorbed are part of means, get into the middle of cellular material where increase in sizes. Hardening, they create excellent hydroprotection and do surface air-tight.
Because of high penetration capability material is called still soluble glass. Are its part the melted quartz sand or soda, potassium or sodium silicate. The production process of creation of means assumes burning, crushing and careful hashing of its components.
The universality of liquid glass is caused by its characteristics among which:
- water-repellent ability;
- the antiseptic influence interfering formation of bacteria, fungi and mold;
- anti-static character – after covering are not electrified by means of surface and become covered with dust less;
- hardening large-scale that promotes creation of additional durability of material;
- protection against influence of alkalis and acids;
- fire resistance.
Merits and demerits, scopes of application, features of processing by liquid glass
The universality of means assumes its wide use in different areas of production. It is most often applied in construction. Processing by liquid glass is carried out when it is necessary to carry out the following types of works:
- base waterproofing;
- creation of impervious layer on walls, ceilings and floors in underground rooms;
- waterproofing of pools and wells;
- addition in concrete for strengthening of water-repellent qualities and strength characteristics;
- dedusting of sexual concrete surfaces;
- wood waterproofing;
- creation of bactericidal finish;
- fast gluing of different materials;
- use as quick-drying substance;
- creation of fire-prevention covering;
- protection of trunks of trees after cutting;
- application as sealant in sanitary works;
- cleaning of surfaces and ware;
- dressing of walls and creation of bulk floors.
Helpful advice! The wide list of merits and also environmental friendliness and harmlessness of liquid glass assume its use not only in construction, but also in life.
One of ways of protection of foundation of the house against moisture is the waterproofing liquid glass – responses both experienced masters, and the beginning builders confirm large-scale of water tightness of film with which cover surface.
Additional benefits give also other advantages of material:
- adhesion large-scale;
- small expense of means;
- the affordable price in comparison with other sealants;
- at least five-year term of operation of waterproofing course;
- possibility of use in the conditions of the increased humidity.
Main shortcomings of waterproofing liquid glass
Transferring advantages of funds, it is necessary to mention also shortcomings which this universal remedy has:
- Limitation in combination with other materials as this structure can be applied only on concrete surfaces and products from wood. It is impossible to use liquid glass as it will promote its destruction on brick surfaces.
- Impossibility of application in pure form. The waterproofing is made with addition of other materials which lack will cause destruction of protective layer.
- Obligatory observance of proportions of liquid glass in combination with other components of solution. Waterproofing properties and strength characteristics of mix will be otherwise lost.
In addition, this structure is characterized by complexity of technology of drawing. Certain skills are necessary for carrying out waterproofing. Work does not tolerate sluggishness as mix very quickly dries. It is for the same reason better to make mixture in small amount.
Thus, material really is the universal remedy used for giving to different surfaces of water-repellent properties. Success of its application depends on strict observance of rules of performance of work and proportions of liquid glass for waterproofing.
How to use liquid glass for waterproofing: methods of application
There are different methods of application of silicate solution for giving to objects of water-repellent properties. It is necessary to get acquainted with them before using liquid glass for waterproofing to choose the most effective and suitable technology in specifically taken case.
Main methods of application of means:
- way of rough-casting;
- penetration technique;
- addition of material in concrete.
The method of rough-casting helps to create the most effective protection of surface, in particular, it is applied at base waterproofing as preliminary layer which is put under rolled isolation. For this purpose (in pure form) cover with this means in two layers concrete surface. After full drying of liquid glass make the main stage of insulating works.
Helpful advice! Drawing the covering layer on concrete surface not only provides additional waterproofing, but also protects it from emergence and development of harmful organisms, fungi and mold.
The getting technique is irreplaceable when it is heavy to reach the surface which is subject to processing. In that case do not apply pure liquid glass, and mix it with water in proportion 1:1 and add one more part of dry construction mix. Solution is carefully mixed and immediately put as it very quickly dries. It is recommended to prepare small amount of mix.
It is important to clean carefully processed surface before putting solution. In that case coupling of materials will happen quicker and will be more reliable. Mix is applied by means of the palette and cover surface with wet fabric that prevents cracking of covering.
Use of liquid glass for concrete waterproofing
Addition of silicate solutions in concrete for the purpose of increase in its water-repellent properties – the most popular method of application of liquid glass in construction. Such method allows to create the monolithic base and to provide reliable waterproofing. These two factors are explained as well as possible why they add liquid glass to concrete. The procedure of preparation of mix simple. It can be done independently.
The main thing in this process – the sequence in addition of components and observance of proportions of liquid glass and cement for waterproofing. To prevent cracking and destruction of concrete, it is important to consider conditions in which ready solution will be used.
For this purpose it is necessary to follow such rules:
- Soluble glass is not added to ready cement slurry. At first prepare dry mix, then gradually dissolve it with stream of the liquid glass mixed with water carefully mixing at the same time solution.
- At addition of silicate solution in cement it is important to follow accurately the instruction recommending strict observance of proportions of liquid glass in concrete. For waterproofing this indicator is only 3% though in other cases can reach point of 25% (from lump).
- At addition of silicate and sodium mix concrete solution quickly hardens. Work simplifies refilling waters or production of the minimum portions.
- It is not recommended to prepare solution in the concrete mixer as it will begin to harden even in the course of hashing.
Liquid glass for concrete waterproofing: ratio of materials
There is number of subtleties in mixing of cement and sand solution with liquid glass for waterproofing. Proportions of concrete and silicate means generally make 10:1. In rare instances other ratio of materials can be used.
Attention! It is impossible to add water to ready mix of concrete and liquid glass at all after mixture was made.
From that how many glue is brought in structure, process and duration of its hardening depend:
- if in solution of 2% of liquid glass, then the setting process begins approximately in 45 minutes, and full hardening will happen in a day;
- addition of 5% of means in cement and sand mix will cause the accelerated hardening process which will begin in half an hour, and the final result will be noticeable in 16 hours;
- 8% of soluble glass in solution will lead to grasp through quarter of hour, and concrete in 7 hours completely will dry up;
- the setting process at proportion in 10% will occur in 5 minutes, and full hardening – only in 4 hours.
Resolving issue whether it is possible to add liquid glass to concrete, it is important to consider cement grade. In this case M300 and M400 brands are applicable. For achievement of waterproof effect the amount of glue is increased, but at the same time its maximum indicator should not exceed 25%.
For mixing of mortar it is the best of all to use the construction mixer, adhering to such principles:
- it is necessary to use clear potable water, without impurity and salts, its maximum quantity on one batch – 10 l;
- add liquid glass to water and mix;
- liquid is poured in more volume ware;
- gradually add sand-cement dry mix to water and silicate solution;
- solution is mixed before receiving homogeneous mass.
Expediency of carrying out waterproofing liquid glass on different objects
Use of liquid glass with cement for waterproofing is popular in different cases that is caused first of all by reliability of waterproof protection, the affordable price of materials and some other the factors allowing to apply means in different spheres:
- the concrete covering and in the middle of the room does by liquid glass on the street it almost impregnable to influence of moisture and assumes its use under water;
- pool waterproofing liquid glass – the process less troublesome in comparison with application for this purpose of other materials allowing to receive excellent result at small expenses;
- the cellar waterproofing with use of silicate of sodium will protect the underground room from penetration of underground and melt waters and also will save it from mold growth and fungi;
- the base waterproofing liquid glass will protect all construction from hit of moisture in the middle of the room that is especially relevant in places where underground waters are located close to earth surface;
- drawing water-repellent layer from liquid glass on walls of rooms – less popular way of hydroprotection relevant generally for underground rooms;
- the liquid glass used for well waterproofing helps to create the reliable protection protecting from losses of water from the reservoir, and the efficiency increases on condition of drawing double layer;
- the floor waterproofing liquid glass is most effective as it provides penetration into the smallest time and cracks of any surface that is caused by chemical features of material.
Helpful advice! Except providing reliable waterproofing of floor, liquid glass works as antiseptic and can be used as glue for mounting of any rolled or block sexual covering.
Waterproofing liquid glass the hands: general recommendations
Any surface (or object) before putting silicate and sodium solution or carrying out cement waterproofing with liquid glass is carefully cleaned from dust and dirt, standard set of actions follows further:
- Covering surface mix with use of brush, the roller or the palette (if to solution cement is added to liquid glass).
- Drawing (in case of need) repeated layer through half-hour interval.
- Preparation of solution for protective layer if the waterproofing provides concrete use. Components quickly mix and put, without allowing mix hardening.
- Reuse or storage of cement and sand solution with addition of liquid glue is inadmissible as qualities of material are quickly lost.
Prior to use of silicate solution it is necessary to investigate it on availability of impurity and additives. The structure has to be homogeneous, without foreign inclusions or lumps. It is purely possible to store means rather long in densely closed container. Temperature of use of liquid glass fluctuates in the range from 5 to 40 °C. Storage is admissible even at frost in -30 °C as the frost resistance is one of many merits of material.
The provided recommendations have the general character, we will consider specific cases of use of liquid glass for waterproofing below. For example, for use of means on the base its surface is cleaned with abrasive paper, solution is applied with the roller in 2, and if desired and in 3 layers at an interval of 30 minutes.
Use of liquid glass for waterproofing of pools
The pool is considered quite difficult construction object which has to cope with considerable loadings to maintain, in particular, big thickness of water, without allowing its effluence from bowl. Without holding waterproofing actions water will make opposite impact and will lead to surface deterioration.
The pool waterproofing liquid glass is carried out both in bowl, and outside of it. Double protection will help to avoid number of negative effects: in design will prevent destruction and leakage, and from outer side will save object from undesirable influence of underground waters. If to neglect waterproofing actions, then under the influence of underground waters which will get into concrete time there will be destruction of armature that will inevitably lead to deformation of all design. Liquid glass, forming film which pushes away water is capable to prevent emergence of cracks in the pool.
Liquid glass apply different technologies of putting material to pool waterproofing: brush, roller, in the way of spraying. Outside it is desirable to cover surface in 3-4 layers.
In rather two-layer drawing means. In this type of works it is important to follow such rules:
- To clean surface from any garbage.
- To make upper part of design of the most equal by means of cleaning. If it is required – to carry out repeated plaster and finish.
- To degrease surface.
- Availability of hillocks not higher than 1 mm is admissible.
Helpful advice! In places with the increased humidity, such as pool or cellar, mix take in proportions of liquid glass with concrete 1:10.
If to neglect such elementary rules, then after hardening the covering will exfoliate and crack. In that case the waterproofing should be carried out completely again with dismantling of the previous layer.
Cellar waterproofing liquid glass the hands: work stages
The covering liquid glass of cellars and attics is similar to process of waterproofing of designs of concrete. Thanks to large-scale of protection putting material both outside of construction, and in it is admissible. Process rather operational, operation term quite long, equal to the term of suitability of the room.
The property of liquid glass to get into the minute pores and cracks guarantees reliable protection against moisture. Despite water-repellent ability, the stiffened layer does not lose vapor permeability. For cellar waterproofing liquid glass indoors use cement slurry. For preparation of 10 l of mix it is enough to take 1 l of silicate structure.
For cellar waterproofing from within by liquid glass mix is prepared according to other recipe. For this purpose take cement, sand and soluble glass in the ratio 1,5:1,5:4. At the same time the amount of water should not exceed 25% of the total weight of solution.
Works on cellar waterproofing as liquid glass carry out in such sequence:
- Surface preparation which includes cleaning of dirt, dust and garbage.
- Processing of workplace the sanding device for exposure of time of concrete.
- Rubbing of surface water solution of chlorohydrogen in proportion 1:10.
- For bigger confidence it is possible to process anti-septic tank though liquid glass has antibacterial properties.
- Shaving of poles, cracks and joints on 25 mm in depth and on 20 mm in width.
- Creation of hermetic layer on utilities.
- Wetting of concrete surface by irrigation.
- Preparation of waterproofing solution according to the recommendations of the producer.
- Operational putting mix palette or brush.
Waterproofing liquid glass of socle and base: the coating and getting technologies
Builders use two main technologies of waterproofing liquid glass of the base and socle. The coating way of hydroprotection of the base is necessary when the use of asphalt grouts, for example, in case of use of rolled materials from polymers which are incompatible with oil products is undesirable. Water protective function of silicate of sodium is shown in its penetration into material time. At the same time the protective layer makes only several millimeters in thickness.
Helpful advice! At step-by-step performance of work it is possible to receive reliable isolation which will protect design not only from moisture, but also from fire.
Process includes such stages:
- cleaning and degreasing of surface;
- easy grinding by brush for the purpose of opening of capillaries on the surface of concrete;
- application of means. For concrete covering liquid glass is applied by means of wide brush;
- after drying of the first layer carry out the second;
- after full hardening of solution make rolled waterproofing.
The getting technology is applied generally to waterproofing of joints and seams in socle of block type. Solution represents mix of the cement divorced water with addition of liquid glass which there have to be no more than 5% of total amount. Mix is prepared in the small portions, before it carry out the preparatory work including pointing, joints and other damages and also their cleaning. Cracks gouging, giving them the П-shaped form.
Solution is prepared thus: dissolve liquid glass with water in the ratio 1:10 or 1:15. The received mix is filled in in dry cement for obtaining dense and plastic weight. Repeated hashing of solution is inadmissible as grain formation process will be broken that will lead to loss of adhesive properties.
Use of liquid glass for waterproofing of wells
For the purpose of deduction of water in well provide its waterproofing. Otherwise contents will be simple to filter through walls into the soil owing to what the reservoir will lose the purpose. The main thing – to provide reliable isolation between rings of well and to impregnate concrete walls.
Prior to works it is necessary to be convinced of reliable fixing of well, otherwise the waterproofing will not save from leakage. In order to avoid such undesirable effects carry out additional fastening with use of strong metal brackets. After work on strengthening do covering of seams between rings. For this purpose use rope from linen, jute or hemp, cover it with liquid glass and fit intercircular seams.
After that make the general waterproofing of wells liquid glass in two stages. The first assumes covering of walls clean means, the second – putting the concrete solution consisting of cement and sand mix and silicate of sodium in equal parts. It is desirable to carry out works on creation of insulation course at construction stages, applying means on dry surface until the reservoir is filled with water. If partial filling nevertheless has happened, then it is recommended to cover the walls which are not captured by water as much as possible.
Features of waterproofing liquid glass of rooms with the increased humidity
The technique of drawing moisture protective layer with sodium silicate use as one of the most budgetary options is widely applied in different rooms with the increased humidity. Such way is quite often used for primer of internal pools, saunas, shower and bathrooms.
Helpful advice! The maximum content of liquid glass in cement slurry has to be 25%, exceeding of this indicator will lead to fast destruction of concrete.
The technology of waterproofing of outside pools is not characterized by distinctive properties. The main feature is use of the special solutions made for carrying out internal works. For example, soil solution for pools has special formula, drawing by its thicker layer provides long life cycle of the reservoir with water.
For floor waterproofing, pallets and other surfaces in rooms with the increased humidity liquid glass is used in pure form or as impregnations and additives. Thanks to good penetration into time of concrete and tree material provides reliable protection against destruction and corrosion.
Liquid glass for bathroom waterproofing was used quite widely earlier that is caused by low cost of material and simplicity of drawing. The main shortcoming is its weak wear resistance owing to continuous influence of moisture. Now producers have thought up set of alternatives to classical material. At the same time silicate of sodium is irreplaceable means for waterproofing of sewage pipes, filling of joints in concrete floors of bathrooms and self-made pallets in shower.
The cost of liquid glass for waterproofing: recommendations about material purchase
The affordable price of liquid glass for waterproofing is the main advantage of universal remedy. Other synthetic impregnations and insulators including the latest generation, are several times more expensive. The price of material depends on such components as density, indicator of the module and volume of the acquired goods. It is recommended to buy solution in special tanks, but not by weight. Densely closed production container does not allow premature drying of means. It is possible to buy solution in any construction supermarket or in shop of household goods.
The cost of waterproofing material definitely depends on the choice of the producer. The range is quite wide, but the difference as a part of means practically does not exist. Therefore the choice of the brand – for the buyer. The average price of liquid glass for concrete waterproofing for 10 l is about $2. Thus, multifunction material differs in low cost.
The purchase price also depends on the acquired means volumes. As well as in case with the majority of construction materials, wholesale purchase will cost much cheaper. Special liquid glass with high density which is used for waterproofing of pools has more considerable cost.
Helpful advice! Independent work will help to save on waterproofing, but some skill in putting solution which very quickly grabs for this purpose is required.
How to work with liquid glass for waterproofing: general recommendations about drawing
In different types of carrying out waterproofing works as one of important conditions surface preparation is. Reliability of covering depends on careful cleaning of workplace of dirt, dust and fat. Otherwise adhesive properties of liquid glass and the absorbing ability of basis will be reduced.
Despite speed of hardening of mix, it is recommended to take away about 24 hours on full drying of solution. At layered covering it is necessary to give time for grasp when drawing each of layers. Means in pure form or in combination with water is put as paint, using at the same time wide brush or the roller. During the work with cement slurry use the plaster palette.
The choice between type of liquid glass which can be sodium or potassium depends on range of expected works. Silicate of potassium is used for creation and filling of the base as it has more viscous structure of material. In waterproofing works the sodium option is more acceptable.
Liquid glass on the basis of sodium costs cheaper, but silicate of potassium has higher waterproofing characteristics and can serve as independent covering. Over sodium solution drawing one more layer of hydroprotection will be required. It is, as a rule, traditional finishing of the pool polypropylene, mosaic, covering of PVC or ceramic tile.
Liquid glass for waterproofing: useful tips and safety rules
Experienced builders have developed a number of useful tips which you should not neglect for more effective use of liquid glass:
- liquid glass cannot be used for waterproofing of brick surfaces as quickly hardening mix can lead to destruction of brick basis;
- it is necessary to prepare and cause structure in the small portions as liquid glass very quickly grabs;
- in mixing of mortar important conditions are observance of proportions and the sequence in mixing of components, otherwise this means will just lose all the properties;
- liquid glass on the basis of sodium has higher adhesion and perfectly connects to mineral materials, and potassium liquid glass can be applied in the environment with the increased acidity.
Thus, liquid glass is actually irreplaceable and really universal remedy for waterproofing. Using it in the correct proportions with other materials and applying the minimum dosage, it is possible to receive high-quality and long-lasting hydroprotection. Solution can be used on different surfaces and objects. Simplicity and ease in application do possible work by the hands.