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Monolithic construction of houses, widespread in industrial construction, has smoothly removed to the inhabited sector, and already among wooden, brick and frame cottages there are strong, strong houses created on special process. One of the main advantages of such buildings – their durability and reliability, but it is worth to remember also about the esthetic party: walls can be revetted practically with any materials and to build the dwelling which is completely answering to individual requests.
Two technologies of construction of monolithic houses
Both ways of construction have the general parties, their main difference consists in shuttering technology. The first method means application of fixed design, the second – its dismantling after full hardening of concrete solution. Let’s consider in more detail than feature of both ways of construction of monolithic buildings.
Construction method with use of fixed design
Many apply this method — it is most economic. The timbering established at initial stage of construction is not removed. Being at the same time heat-insulation layer, it does the house so warm that it is possible not to use heating until temperature outside walls falls below 0th °C.
Let’s designate the main stages of construction of the house:
- Construction of the base, waterproofing works.
- Installation of timbering. She is brought together from special polystyrene foam forms which fix by means of profile. That in the course of filling concrete did not filter through slots, the thorn groove system is provided. As a result of such fastening of part densely adjoin to each other, and on site connections do not arise concrete flows. Forms for timbering do to order, considering the individual sizes. There are certain standards according to which the wall thickness of the polystyrene foam block can be from 55 cm to 75 mm, and the distance between them intended for underpouring, 150 mm.
- Underpouring. I place solution in form and condense by means of special purpose tool. The immersion vibrator, at the same time optimum concrete layer – 50 cm is most effective. Warm mixes do not recommend to apply as expanded polystyrene has low vapor permeability owing to what formation of condensate is possible, and further – fungus and mold.
- Finishing of walls. The stage of warming is passed as function of heat insulation is performed by polystyrene foam preparations. Walls usually cover with decorative plaster, revet with tile or siding.
The main lack of the cottage built in this way – impossibility “to breathe” therefore it is necessary to think over carefully at planning stage ventilation system.
Construction of the monolithic house with removable timbering
As removable designs use different material:
- forms from plastic;
- wooden boards;
- plywood blanks;
- iron sheets.
Each cottage has the nuances therefore the timbering is made in individual order. The distance between elements of forms is calculated, proceeding from weather conditions: than to the north the region, the concrete wall has to be that more powerfully. For fixing of sheets or boards use the pins “dressed” in corrugation. Corrugated pipes are necessary to exclude contact of fixture and concrete.
From concrete traditionally apply reinforcing to additional strengthening of walls: establish prefabricated reinforcement cage or special grids from steel and plastic. It is necessary to consider that metal elements of armature will cool concrete, that is additional heat insulation will be required.
Filling and consolidation of concrete are carried out similarly previous technology. Depth of the filled-in solution should not exceed 0.5 m. Immersion vibrator it is necessary “to walk” along all layer, having paid special attention to corners. As soon as the base layer grabs, the timbering needs to be removed and rearranged on level above – and so up to the end.
Term of full maturing of concrete of 5-6 weeks. Only after its full hardening recommend to start heat insulation and wall decoration. As heater use extruded polystyrene foam, warm plaster, mineral wool – all these materials are well combined with the ventilated facades.
Materials for monolithic construction
When filling instead of normal concrete quite often apply less heat-conducting mixes:
- wood concrete;
- gas concrete and others.
They keep heat better, but reduce durability of concrete walls.
Way with removable timbering more labor-consuming, but it allows walls to breathe.
What timbering it is better to choose?
The species diversity of construction forms allows to build buildings of the most unusual configuration. The following categories of timbering are most demanded:
- for the base;
- for overlappings;
- with the changed radius.
The type of timbering affects the principles of its installation. For example, mounting of forms on horizontal props and knee braces is necessary for construction of the base. Walls form by means of brackets, racks, the fixing locks. The timbering on telescopic retaining racks is necessary for flooring of overlappings.
When processing elements of timbering it is necessary to consider technical characteristics and qualities of material of which it is made. For example, to save plywood from stratifying and damage of the top laminated layer, it is necessary to make cut the tool with small teeth. For easier dismantling of form element moisten with special solution.
Independent construction of monolithic cottage
Most often construction of the monolithic house is charged to the construction organization. It is the result of economy of means: any company contractor is armed with both bricklayer’s scaffold, and the pump, and parts of removable timbering, and the construction equipment (for example, hoisting crane). To rent motor transport, to buy tools and forms for the sake of construction of one house it is inexpedient. Of course, fans of unfinished construction can choose independent construction which will cost much enough.
To independently make the project – also business difficult and troublesome. Even if at hand there is suitable option, it is necessary to understand well construction technology correctly to calculate parameters of walls (fillings, heat insulations), shore load and overlappings, amount of material.
Separately it is necessary to think over the base device. Most often the monolithic cottage is built on pile continuous footing, with reliable waterproofing and the subsequent finishing.
Monolithic construction: pluses and minuses
Probably, there is such is no type of construction of housing which would not have some shortcomings. Nevertheless, the monolithic principle of construction of houses has the mass of advantages:
- In the forefront – integrity of design, therefore, the increased construction durability in comparison with the houses collected from separate parts (for example, logs or bricks). If there are soil shifts owing to earthquake, the monolithic house will be steadier than brick and wooden fellows.
- High speed of construction. It is possible to fill in concrete much quicker, than to execute brickwork.
- There are no special requirements to soil and also to temperature and air humidity during construction.
- Heat preservation large-scale thanks to seamless technology.
- Rather low cost of materials.
- When using of the facilitated solution with sawdust, haydite, perlite, etc. need for the powerful base vanishes.
- Variety of finishing and heat insulation of walls.
There are also enough shortcomings, and all of them concern, generally tools and materials for construction. For example, construction of monolithic construction will not do without pump – the special device for filling with solution of shuttering forms. Its rent – more economic option, than acquisition.
Some difficulties arise at the device of overlappings: the construction of plate will require construction of bricklayer’s scaffold and special props.
The option with fixed design demands the improved ventilation of housing, otherwise in the house not to avoid the increased humidity. Additional plaster is also necessary – expanded polystyrene when burning emits dangerous substances.
Despite minuses, many undertake construction of inexpensive monolithic housing because of its stability, durability and stability.