Monolithic overlapping from hollow blocks

Monolithic overlapping from hollow blocks

At construction of country house, after end of laying of load bearing walls, there is dilemma, what type of overlapping to choose. Today, overlappings of country housing make the following types:

  • Combined overlapping;
  • Monolithic overlapping;
  • Combined and monolithic overlapping.

Combined overlapping is made of monolithic reinforced concrete slabs with direct participation of the special equipment, for example, of pointer hoisting crane, heavy cargo transport and qualified specialists, the crane operator, the slinger, the assembler. We will not consider production of this type of overlapping as the hands to make it is unreal. Let’s consider other ways of production of interfloor overlappings for country house or cottage which in the presence of construction experience can be made independently.

Manufacturing techniques of monolithic overlapping

Production of monolithic overlapping will require the following materials:

  • Armature a3 with a diameter of 14 mm;
  • Prefabricated reinforcement cages with the party of collar of 200х200 mm;
  • The burned wire of 1.5-2 mm in the diameter;
  • Concrete of M300 or M350 brand;
  • Panel board timbering, racks, tripods.

Mounting of monolithic overlapping is begun with installation of panel board timbering. For timbering it is possible to use the self-made brought-down wooden boards or to lease timbering. To tell that more favourably unambiguously it is impossible, everything depends on the volume of work and the area of overlapping. For example, for filling of monolithic overlapping of garage it is cheaper to use self-made wooden boards or sheets of thick plywood. However, making overlapping of country house, large number of sawn timber, eaves board and bar which after work performance, it will be difficult to use in further construction will be required. Generally, at the large volume of work several weeks more favorable to rent the timbering consisting of metal boards.

Before establishing form panels define ceiling level points by the water level or optical level. Having made these marks in the main walls, 15 more cm recede from them down walls and on internal perimeter of walls temporarily mount anchors wooden bar of 150х50 mm. Further for convenience we will consider installation of timbering in one specific room. Having the temporary bar mounted on perimeter of 4 walls of the room define the direction of supporting girders. Best of all supporting girders to have longwise rooms. In this case when using as beams of wooden bar of 150х50 mm, it practically should not be cut, and in the further ambassador of production overlapping, this bar can be used for mounting of framework of roof. It is necessary to tell that as supporting girders it is possible to use also metal channel or double tee.

At placement of supporting girders the most extreme have parallel to load bearing walls with space no more than 30 cm. Further the distance between marginal beams is distributed on pieces no more than 100 cm and on each mark in parallel intermediate supporting girders each other have. After distribution and laying of beams which will hold form panels it is necessary to make sure by means of optical level or long leveling instrument that all beams are located in one horizontal plane. Having corrected if necessary waling timbers, start installation of racks support. As racks, of course, it is desirable to use the special telescopic racks equipped on the upper end with fork on which the horizontal supporting girder, and on the lower end tripod or wide claw will lean. Such telescopic racks usually are included in the package of the rented timbering.

However if the self-made timbering is used, as rack it is possible to use the established vertically wooden bar of 100х100 mm, metal pipe with a diameter of 80-100 mm or double tee. In independence of the used racks, their installation it is necessary to pay special attention. Racks have to be located ideally vertically exactly, not less than 3 racks on 1 sq.m. and to have firm motionless support. Having finished installation of racks and fixing of supporting girders, on them make cross laying of boards. Also at this stage on external perimeter of all load bearing walls establish vertical timbering which will determine thickness of monolithic overlapping. Most often apply the boards which are brought down from 2-3 eaves boards 20-30 mm thick to this timbering. Vertical boards to wall by means of dowels and wooden bars are fixed. Only after full completion of installation of timbering pass to reinforcing of monolithic overlapping.

Monolithic overlapping from hollow blocks

Overlapping reinforcing

Reinforcing overlapping is begun with laying on perimeter of load bearing walls of horizontal frameworks. Connections of frameworks on corners always make having started rods of one framework in another. If necessary to connect together two horizontal frameworks, remove 2-3 collars from the end of one framework and let in the released armature the whole framework then the bearing rods of both frameworks connect among themselves by the burned wire. Having laid frameworks on perimeter of walls, pass to production of reinforcing grid. The reinforcing grid represents the bars of armature with a diameter not less than 12 mm connected perpendicularly. Optimum to apply armature to residential building not less than 14 mm in the diameter. At the same time usually the square of the cell formed between bars is equal to 150х150 mm.

Grid it is more convenient to knit at once on site, that is, starting up armature bar from one framework to another. Having tied all longitudinal bars, perpendicular begin to knit. Having stopped knitting grid, between rods of armature and form panels reinforcing holders who will hold further all grid in the raised state have and will not allow armature to lie on boards. Having finished with mounting of the first reinforcing grid, over it at the level of 100 mm the second reinforcing grid matches in the similar way. It is necessary to tell that for production of overlappings of the small area, for example at construction of garage, quite often make only one reinforcing grid, and instead of the second apply the mesh reinforcement laid with an overlap and connected by wire with step of 20 cm.

Concrete laying process

At production of overlapping to garage or country one-storey building apply factory concrete of M300 brand. If construction of the second and third floor is planned further the monolithic plate is filled in with M350 concrete. In general it is recommended to use concrete of factory production for monolithic overlappings. First, the monolith has to be filled in for one approach, and at the big area independent production of concrete will require 1-2 concrete mixers and several tens of working hands. Secondly, factory concrete is more better, in addition enter plasticizers, hardeners and other auxiliary components into its structure.

If have decided to make concrete independently, it will be required to order 1 dump truck of sand, 1 dump truck of small crushed stone and 2-3 tons of cement m500.

Formula for production independently concrete: 1 parts of cement, 3 parts of sand, 3 parts of crushed stone.

Initially to the concrete mixer several minutes empty allow to rotate. Further in it fill in 50-80 liters of water and fill up cement. When cement is stirred to condition of milk, in the concrete mixer is dosed fill up pit sand. After receiving homogeneous solution mass, in the rotating concrete mixer fill up crushed stone. After careful hashing, ready concrete is unloaded in the prepared bathtub, and at once start production of the next portion of concrete. At the same time ready concrete is immediately filled in in timbering. Pouring concrete in timbering it is necessary to apply surface vibrators to consolidation of concrete weight and prevention of education in its thickness of air emptiness. After completion of filling of monolithic overlapping, it is possible to go and continue works on its surface 28 days later.

Manufacturing techniques of combined and monolithic overlapping

This type of overlapping demands considerably the smaller volume of concrete, and carrying out work will require only 2-3 persons.

Necessary materials:

  • Prefabricated reinforcement cages with the party of collar of 200х200 mm;
  • Mesh reinforcement with diameter of bar of 4-5 mm and cell of 100х100 mm;
  • The burned wire of 1.5-2 mm in the diameter;
  • Hollow blocks;
  • T-beams from fine-grained concrete;
  • M350 brand concrete;
  • Boards for timbering;
  • Racks or support.

Begin to make overlapping from alignment of level of all load bearing walls. For this purpose from two parties of load bearing wall vertical form panels are established, and the belt is filled in with concrete of small thickness. Thickness of belt can fluctuate from 10 to 20 cm as its main task to level all axes of the building. 10-15 days later after production of belt, start laying of T-shaped reinforced concrete beams. If to consider single room, then extreme T-beams have on the inner edge of belt. After laying of marginal beam 60 cm recede from it and make in parallel laying of the next beam. Further between both beams at the basis of belt stack on one hollow block and in the similar way over all room space stack in parallel each other all other T-beams. At the same time hollow blocks meanwhile all space between beams is not put, they are used only for uniform distribution of beams. After laying of all T-beams, under them, from the inside of the room, establish supporting horizontal metal beams which keep by means of the telescopic racks equipped with special fork. Having recorded reliably concrete T-beams, all space between them is put by hollow blocks. In general this work easy and it something reminds assembly of meccano. The only thing what it is necessary to pay attention to, it that each block completely came in side grooves.

After laying of all hollow blocks, on perimeter of walls stack horizontally prefabricated reinforcement cages on belt and establish vertical form panels from outer side of walls. Further on all surface consisting of blocks mesh reinforcement keeps within. At the same time grid surely knit with prefabricated reinforcement cages, and between grid and hollow blocks holders from PVC have. Here it is necessary to recede and tell that mesh reinforcement is applied to reinforcing of small flights, at production of overlapping of the big area instead of grid use reinforcing grid with diameter of bar not less than 12 mm. Having stopped reinforcing overlapping, on the vertical timbering established on perimeter of walls of the building make marks which will be underpouring level reference point. Thickness of concrete layer usually is from 50 to 100 mm. At the same time if previously before pouring concrete, to add a little water to it and to make its consistence a little more liquidly, concrete weight will practically not need vibration when filling. At production of this type of overlapping to listen internal racks and supporting girders, it is possible four calendar weeks later.

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