The most widespread type of ceiling made in premises is false ceiling from gypsum cardboard. In the presence of the minimum construction experience, free time and set of necessary tools, the false ceiling can be made independently the hands.
Materials necessary for production of ceiling of gypsum cardboard:
- Starting metal section of 28×27 mm;
- The bearing ceiling metal section of 60×27 mm;
- Perforated metal suspension;
- Damping tape;
- Gypsum ceiling plasterboards;
- Metal anchors;
- Self-tapping screws for gypsum cardboard;
- Self-adhesive mesh bandage from fiber glass;
- Starting plaster putty;
- Finishing putty;
- Aqueous emulsion or dispersive ink.
Mounting of load-bearing framework
Mounting of load-bearing framework for gypsum cardboard is begun with definition of the lowest point in ceiling overlapping. Simplest to perform this work, having established in the center of the room optical laser level, with turn function round its pivot-center. In this case, making focusing of beam and sending it to all four corners of the room, find differences of ceiling overlapping and the lower point. If this level is unavailable, it is possible to use aluminum leveling instrument 250 cm long. In this case the lowermost point of overlapping is defined by practical consideration, due to measurement of flatness of the plane of ceiling in its different places.
After definition of the lowest point of ceiling overlapping, from the surface of overlapping down wall measure 10 cm and make grade level marker or slate pencil. Further leveling instrument 250 cm long is horizontally put to grade level. If long level, to wall surface is unavailable, on grade level it is possible to put the aluminum rule of long 200-250 cm, and to edge of the rule to put normal leveling instrument. Having put to mark and having exposed leveling instrument in equal horizontal position, on the plane of wall the approximate line is drawn. Further the rule is moved to the end of the line, exposed in equal situation and continue the line, that is on all four walls of the room the equal horizontal line is drawn.
At the following stage it is necessary to prepare the directing metal and to paste over its rear side with self-adhesive damping tape. Having prepared the directing profile, it is put strictly to the drawn line on wall so that the drawn strip was located on the lower basis of edge of profile. Further make fixing of metal section to the wall plane by means of anchor dowels. When performing this work the help of the helper as from that the directing profile is how exactly mounted will be required, the flatness of all future ceiling depends. Having finished mounting of starting profile on the plane of all four walls, pass to preparation of the bearing profiles.
Standard length of the bearing profile is 300 cm. At the same time in most cases, the profile exceeding standard dimensions is necessary. To receive profile of the necessary length, make merging of two profiles. Merging of profiles is made quite simply. Initially between the starting profiles mounted on wall the distance is measured, at the same time the measurement becomes not from the beginning of shelves of profile, and from the internal basis. Knowing the necessary length of the bearing profile, on plain surface stack two profiles nearby and note cut point. At the same time consider that when merging, one profile has to enter other profile not less than on 40 cm. Having cut off and having inserted one into another profiles, on regiments make their fastening by 8-10 self-tapping screws on metal. It turns out, on 4-5 self-tapping screws on each plane of the shelf.
Having prepared necessary length the bearing profiles, further all width of the ceiling basis, on starting profiles separate 60 cm into pieces. At the following stage between regiments of opposite starting profiles, place the spliced bearing profile on the executed marks. Further the bearing profile is shifted temporarily aside and on that trajectory where it has to be located to the ceiling basis by means of anchors fix perforated suspension. It is important that the claws of P-shaped suspension which are hanging down from the ceiling basis were strictly on one line on which the bearing profile will be located further.
The step between suspension makes 40-45 cm. Having finished the mounting of suspension bearing profile return in starting position and fix by self-tapping screws, and the hanging-down claws of suspension have on both sides of profile. Further put leveling instrument to the lower basis of the bearing profile and, raising slightly sagged profile and, exposing it on level, make fastening of the hanging-down paws of P-shaped suspension to regiments of profile. Performance of this work will require two persons, one person carries out mounting, and the second person regulates flatness of profile. Excessively long paws of suspension, after mounting it is possible to cut off scissors on metal or just to bend towards ceiling overlapping.
After mounting of the main located profiles bearing in parallel, between them additional cross direction profiles fix. In the beginning length of the bearing profiles is marked on pieces on 85 cm. Further cut preparation from the bearing profile 54 cm long, and from perforated suspension curve corners with corner 90 °. The received corners are fixed by self-tapping screws to the cut preparations. Further preparations place between the bearing profiles in points of earlier made marks and are fixed by self-tapping screws through corner to profile. Data additional bearing profile are very important as when fastening gypsum plasterboards the step between self-tapping screws has to make 30 cm no more, otherwise, sheets can sag or to honey cracks can be formed by them. The same sizes as, for example, step to 85 cm or length 54 cm, are also not casual, and are taken proceeding from standard dimensions of gypsum plasterboard which make 120 cm by 250 cm.
Mounting of gypsum plasterboards and hard putty
Generally apply HL gypsum cardboard or GKLV to mounting of ceiling. HL are the plaster sheets 8 or 9.5 mm thick which are pasted over with sulfur or white technical paper. Gypsum cardboard ceiling GKLV has the same thickness, however color of paper which they are pasted over light green. Advantage of GKLV is that this gypsum cardboard moisture resistant and can be used for mounting of ceiling indoors with the increased air humidity. This criterion is especially considered when mounting ceilings in the bathroom, kitchen or the bathroom. Having decided on gypsum cardboard type, start its mounting on earlier made framework. Performance of this work will require two small goat and ladder. As a rule, gypsum plasterboard is mounted by 2 persons, one person holds the leaf attached to framework, and the second person mounts leaf, screwing in self-tapping screws the screw driver or the crosspiece the screw-driver. When mounting gypsum cardboard, between the next sheets the gap has to be minimum.
At screwing in in gypsum plasterboard of self-tapping screws, their hats need to be buried in leaf cloth approximately at 2-3 mm. If necessary, cutting of gypsum plasterboard is carried out by means of normal stationery knife. For this purpose on cardboard of leaf plan the line of cutting, to the line put the aluminum rule and on rule edge 3-4 times carry out by knife blade tip. Having cut through cardboard, the sheet of gypsum cardboard is accurately raised and under it parallel to the line of cut put rules. Further slightly press leaf owing to what the leaf bursts exactly on the line. The remained paper from the opposite side can be cut off scissors or the same stationery knife.
Having finished mounting of sheets of gypsum cardboard on all area of the room, on the formed seams between sheets paste self-adhesive mesh bandage from fiber glass. Further in net capacity the small portion of plaster putty is made. It is not worth making a lot of putty for once as time of its solidification comes later 8-15, and it is possible just not to manage to produce all mix. At the first stage plaster putty putty all sites where mesh bandage and all hats of self-tapping screws buried in gypsum cardboard have been pasted. After putting hard putty it is necessary to wait not less than 12 hours and accurately abrasive network to clean off excess putty from the puttied places.
At the following stage the portion of plaster putty, a little big on volume, is made and all is puttied completely the area of gypsum cardboard. This work is usually performed by means of the big flat palette of long 40-60 cm. It is more convenient to work, holding in hand two palettes at once, the big palette to stretch mix on the leaf plane, and the small palette periodically to select and apply plaster blend on big. Important when putting mix to try to hold the big palette at an angle about 30 ° and to make uniform pressing. As a result thickness of layer of putty will turn out about 3 mm. Having puttied completely ceiling, putty is left to dry approximately for 2 days. After putty hardening all surface is carefully visually examined and by means of abrasive network cleaned off and grind uneven places.
Having finished grinding of starting plaster putty, over it apply finishing putty. The feature of finishing putty is that in ready state it can be stretched the minimum layer in only 1 mm. Some expensive grades of hard putty it is possible to stretch 0.5 mm thick in general. Finishing putty allows to receive the most plain surface of ceiling that cannot achieve from use of starting plaster hard putty.
There is one secret. As much as possible to see all roughnesses of ceiling and to define on what site of leaf what layer of putty to put, experienced masters use the simplest carrying with heat lamp. During putting hard putty, carrying ties at the height about 1 meter from ceiling surface in 1 of corners of the room and, light, sliding on uneven ceiling, in all roughnesses and holes will refract, allowing the master to see at once where and how many it is necessary to add putty.