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Warmly for the house – pledge of cosiness and comfort. There is set of different ways for heating of the dwelling, their list constantly is replenished. But, oddly enough, old and, apparently, not most effective ways are still used. So, for example, oven heating, despite the thousand-year history is still demanded.
Traditionally furnaces were put from red brick, using special clay solution. Placed them most close or just in the center of the heated room that heat extended to several rooms at once. Usually front part of the furnace is unrolled to kitchen, it is used for heating and for cooking. Back part – heat source for other rooms. Heating is made at the expense of the construction of the flame and hot smoke climbing boilers in the offtake burning in the lower part. On average, for heating of 35 sq.m spread 1 sq.m of the furnace. Thus it is possible to define approximate dimensions of construction rather easily.
Pluses and minuses of traditional system
Furnaces can be met, practically, everywhere. They are used for heating of country cottages, private buildings and small country houses. It is not casual, the system has set of advantages:
- Fast and simple installation. The furnace is mounted from the most available and quite acceptable at the price materials.
- Low cost and simplicity of service.
- Rather high efficiency which at competently designed and installed system can reach 60%. Values are quite comparable to the efficiency of heating appliance, oil-fired.
- Possibility of combination of fireplace and the furnace that allows to receive at the same time heating design and original decor.
- In the house the atmosphere of special cosiness which only oven heating can present is created.
- Opportunity to regulate burning, to keep and use heat. The valves which are carrying out air supply the arrangement allow to regulate indoor temperature.
However, as any device, the system has also shortcomings about which it is necessary to know, being going to establish oven heating in the house:
- Serious losses of useful area. The furnace takes a lot of place as the more its sizes, the heat emission is above and longer.
- Rather long warming up of the device. From the moment of ignition and till that time when the equipment will begin to give fully heat there passes a lot of time.
- Discrepancy to sanitary standards: the room in which there is furnace quickly becomes soiled.
- Uneven warming up of the house: the most high temperature – about the furnace, than farther from it, that heating is worse.
- Danger of poisoning with carbon monoxide at illiterate operation of system.
- High risk of fire.
Oven heating with water contour
Shortcomings of oven heating do use of “clean” option of such system possible, but insufficiently effective and convenient. Recently the design variation which is successfully combining advantages of hot-water and oven heating has widely extended. It represents the modified furnace to which normal hot-water heating is connected that allows to distribute very rationally and evenly heat on the house. One more “plus”: it is possible to heat several rooms at once.
The furnace connected to water contour functions by the principle of boiler on solid fuel. But at the same time, unlike it, not only warms the heat carrier, but also the smoke channels and walls which are directly involved in process of heating of the dwelling. Direct transfer of heat to radiators happens only during fire chamber, but the warmed furnace continues to radiate heat, practically, before full cooling.
The main element in furnace design for heating by means of the heat carrier – part which call the heat exchanger, the register or coil. It is installed directly in the main combustion chamber and connect to it the system of hot-water heating. The design of the register can be different, the main thing that it did not interfere with free circulation of the heat carrier and was provided to it by opportunity to heat up to the greatest possible temperature.
Heat exchangers most often under the specific furnace are manufactured. Select either metal pipes, or sheet steel 3-5 mm thick for them. Among owners of such systems steel registers which are rather simple for making enjoy special popularity. Also it is quite easy to clean them from deposit. The main lack of steel coils – the area of heating is small. It is unprofitable distinguishes them from the registers executed from metal pipes.
Features of system
Oven heating with the heat carrier is equipped approximately as well as system with traditional solid propellant boiler. Main difference: inlet opening of the register is located above, than at boiler on solid fuel. This indispensable condition of arrangement of system. The expansion tank established in upper point of the heating highway – one more indispensable condition for smooth functioning of design. However, it can be replaced with hydroheat-sink capacity that pursues the similar aim: to provide elevated pressure in system.
For simplification of natural circulation the pipeline should be laid with the greatest possible bias. Mounting of circulating pump can sometimes be necessary for improvement of efficiency of heating that will make design dependent on supply of electricity. The optimal variant can be considered combination of all above-mentioned methods as in this case the system will well work regardless of availability of the electric power.
Nuances of mounting
It is possible to install the furnace for system with water contour in two ways:
- To put new heating appliance, being guided by the sizes of the register prepared for it.
- To install the heat exchanger in the existing design.
More difficult and labor-consuming – the second option. It assumes dismantling, installation in construction of the register which is carefully picked up for the size and the subsequent mounting of the furnace. Also replacement of the parts which have served the can be required.
Specialists recommend to develop ideally the scheme of arrangement of system at the same time with the construction project, it is very closely connected with house design. Optimal variant of arrangement of the furnace – about internal walls. Also it is necessary to provide easy access, it is better from corridor, to furnace part. Special attention should be paid to safety of the equipment, revetting the combustible surfaces adjoining the furnace with brick or constructing so-called fire-resistant cutting.
The model of construction is chosen proceeding from configuration and the sizes of the heated room. Different options with serial bricklaying can be found on the Internet or special reference books. The system elements relating to hot-water heating are projected proceeding from rules of arrangement of water heating designs.
For laying of the furnace it is necessary to choose suitable material. The red brick of normal roasting is selected. It is necessary to eliminate the burned-through samples. They will be more dark, almost crimson, colors also are covered with vitreous film. Not burned up brick, on the contrary, has light pink color, at percussion makes deaf sound, and having fallen, scatters on small pieces. The normal brick which will be well pricked when processing has to make ringing “metal” sound at percussion, and when falling to remain whole or to break on large pieces. For fire chamber and the first smoke channel the refractory high-melting brick.
Stages of construction of the furnace
The laying of the oven begins with base construction. It cardinally differs from the base under walls and usually separates from it the gap 50 mm wide which is filled up with sand. Works are carried out as follows:
The ditch under the base prepares. In hole the beaten brick, filling brick and quarrystone is put by layers. Width of each layer is from 0.15 to 0.2 m. Material is rammed and layer-by-layer spills cement solution.
Two rows of brick on cement slurry keep within. Atop – waterproofing course from roofing material, roofing felt or paper roof covering. Mounting of several rows of brick on clay mortar. The ready base has to rise over floor height by several centimeters.
The durability and durability of construction depend on masonry clay-sand mortar which preparation process – very labor-consuming and responsible business. On its preparation leaves, usually, several days. Process is carried out in several steps:
- Clay preparation. Best of all cambrian blue clay is suitable for laying, however it is possible to use also local grades. Three days before the beginning of works wet clay is retted water in the ratio 1:1, dry – 1:2. Solution it is necessary to stir slowly periodically and, as required, to add to it water. As a result the homogeneous mass having consistence of liquid sour cream has to turn out. Practice shows that what fatter was clay, that for longer term she is killed.
- Sand preparation. Ideal option for laying is crystal pit sand, however it is possible to use and sea or river which grains have the size from 0.2 and to 1.5 mm. Sand before using in solution, it is necessary to clean or as masters speak “to otmuchit”. For this purpose it is submerged in water and insisted so several days, periodically merging muddy liquid and pouring clean. Actions are repeated until the merged liquid on becomes transparent. During levigation sand is left by oozy inclusions, dirt and dust. After its procedure it is necessary to dry and sift carefully.
- Solution mixing. On briskly do bed of cement and sand then carefully shovel it before receiving homogeneous mass. The turned-out mix is poured out in the prepared capacity and filled in with clay solution, carefully at the same time mixing. The turned-out material has to remind dense sour cream on consistence. If it is required to increase solution density, at this stage add table salt at the rate of 1 kg on water bucket to it.
- Solution quality test. The ready structure has to have high plasticity: under the influence of the weight it should not spread, has to be spread well, but not be scattered on part. For quality test of structure it is scooped trowel and display on bricks. If it sticks to trowel, therefore, it has turned out too greasy and it is necessary to add water and sand to it. If badly lays down, it is necessary to increase amount of clay. Thus it is possible to define the necessary composition of solution precisely.
After solution is prepared, it is possible to begin works on furnace laying. The serial layout of construction which is recommended to be carried out strictly has to become guide to action. In progress of work both the whole bricks, and their fragments will be necessary. For their receiving material is scabbled to the necessary sizes.
For this purpose the whole brick undertakes and it is marked on all planes. Then on marking lines grooves about 2 mm in depth are cut through. Still holding element on weight, sharply hit on edge and split it. The plane of chip is ground by other brick or emery stone.
Basic rules of oven laying
Experienced masters advise always to follow the following rules:
- Before laying the brick is submerged in water before the termination of emergence of air bubbles. It is necessary as brick body porous. Such structure of material leads to active “exhaustion” of moisture from masonry mortar which loses plasticity and is in use overincandesced. As a result of this phenomenon laying durability is lost, density of seams decreases, in the furnace there are openings and slots.
- Corners and ranks of laying surely tie. That is on these sites alternation of edge and side parts which is made by the horizontal shift of bricks from each subsequent row rather previous is obligatory.
- Solution is applied with trowel on all row at once, distributed by layer in 5 mm and leveled. Solution then it is located on the right place is also applied on edge part of brick before laying, nestles on the next element and “precipitates”, that is is pressed by hand and killed with trowel.
- For laying of the main combustion chamber it is the best of all to distribute clay solution not trowel, and hand. It is so possible to feel and remove clay lumps, small pebbles, etc. of inclusion that will increase quality of laying.
- Having laid four or five rows of brick, it is necessary to cut solution which is squeezed out from seams. The inside face of the ready furnace is rubbed clean wet rag or special brush. Thus internal stratifications of solution which can be showered and cork flue clean up or reduce its area. For this reason bake from within it is impossible to plaster.
- In the course of laying it is necessary to control constantly horizontal position and vertical position of the built design, using for this purpose plumb and level.
- The most important sectors at lack of experience are recommended to be executed dry, to check correctness of construction and only then to lay bricks on solution.
Oven heating with water contour – the practical and rather effective solution allowing to warm the dwelling with rather small expenses. Before to start its mounting, attentively read instructions, execute the competent project and then the house will always please with heat and cosiness.